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ENTERED AT THE POSTOPFICE, MEDINA. OHIO, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 



GLEAJMi^G^ i^' BEE CULTUiiE. 



.A-ID^VEI^XISEIvIEnsrTS. 



We require that eveiy advertiser satisfy us of re- 
sponsibility and intention to do all that he agrees, 
and that his ^oods are really worth the price asked 
for them. Patent-medicine advertisements, and 
others of a like nature, can not be inserted at any 
price. 

Rates for Advertisements. 

All advertisements will be inserted at the rate of 

20 cents per line, Nonpareil space, each insertion; 

la lines of Nonpareil space make 1 inch. Discounts 

will be made as follows: 

On 10 lines and upward, 3 insertions, 5 percent; 6 
insertions, 10 per cent; 9 insertions, 15 per cent; 
13 insertions, 20 per cent; 24 insertions, 25 per cent. 

On 50 lines (li column) and upward, 1 insertion, 5 per 
cent; 3 insertions, 10 per cent; 6 insertions, 15 per 
cent; 9 insertions, 20 per cent; 12 insertions, 25 per 
cent; 24 insertions, 33^^ per cent. 

On 100 lines {whole column) and upward, 1 insertion, 
10 per cent; 3 insertions, 15 per cent; 6 insertions, 
20 per cent; 9 insertions, 25 percent; 12 insertions, 
333^^ per cent; 24 insertions, 40 per cent. 

On 200 lines (whole page), 1 insertion, 15 per cent; 3 
insertions, 20 per cent; 6 insertions, 25 per cent; 9 
insertions, 30 per cent; 12 insertions, 40 per cfent; 
24 insei-tions, 50 per cent. 

An additional discount of 10 per cent, where electro- 
types are furnished. A. I. Root. 



We will send Gleanings— 

With the American Bee-Journal, W'y (Sl.OO) .S1.75 

With the Bee-keepers' Magazine, ( 25) 1.25 

With the Canadian Bee Journal, W'y (1.00) 1.80 

With all of the above journals, 3.25 



With American Agriculturist, 

With American Apiculturist, 

With American Garden, 

With the British Bee-Journal, 

The Bee Hive, 

With Prairie Farmer, 

With Rural New-Yorker, 

With Scientific American, 

With Ohio Farmer, 

With Popular Gardening, 

With U. S. Official Postal Guide, 

With Sunday-School Times, weekly, 

\_Ahove Rates include all Postanein U. S. 



(*1.50) 


2 25 


(fl.OO) 


1.75 


($2.00) 


2.25 


(2.00) 


2.90 


( 30) 


1.20 


(1.50) 


2.35 


(2.00) 


2.90 


(3.20) 


3.50 


(1.00) 


1.90 


(1.00) 


1.T5 


(1.50) 


2.25 


(2.00) 


2.25 


and Canada.^ 



Untested Queens Ready to Mail 

ALL •WTllTTER LOITG. 

I have now on band untested queens ready to 
send out by first mail. In regard to my responsi- 
bility, I would refer you to A. I. Root, with whom I 
received instruction in bee culture. The friends 
who order these queens during the winter time are 
expected to have sufficient experience to take care 
of them when they ai*e received at the postoffice. 
In the Southern States, where the winters are so 
mild the bees can fly almost all winter long, of 
course there will be little more difficulty in receiv- 
ing them in the winter months than at any other 
time. N. ABAMS, 

Sorrento, Orange Co., Fla. 



A Complete Business Outfit. 

I have for sale two 8x12 printing-presses— one of 
them foot-power; .50 fonts of type, many of them 
full printer's fonts; regular cases, leads, furniture, 
etc., sufficient to do a large .iob-printing business. 
Cost me about $300. I otter the whole for $125, hav- 
ing other business to take my time. 

W. KARL.C: OASS, 
21-ld Roselaiitl, Ekmcx C'u., N. J. 

FliAT - BOTTOJtt COMB FOUNDATION. 

^^-^ High side-walls, 4 to 14 square feet to 
the pound. Circular and samples free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN &SONS. 

5tf d Sole Manufacturers, 

SPROUT BROOK, MONT. CO., N. Y. 




Names of responsible parties will be inserted in 
any of the following departments, at a uniform 
price of 20 cents each insertion, or $2.00 per annum, 
when given once a month, or $4.00 per year if given 
in every issue. 



$1.00 Queens. 

Names inserted in this department the first time with- 
out charge. After, 20c each insertion, or $2.00 per year. 



Those whose names appear below agree to furnish 
Italian queens for $1.00 each, under the following 
conditions : No guarantee is to be assumed of purity, 
or anything of the kind, only that the queen be rear- 
ed from a choice, pure mother, and had commenced 
to lay when they were shipped. They also agree to 
return the money at any time when customers be- 
come impatient of such delay as may be unavoidable. 

Bear in miinl, that he who sends the best queens, 
put up m().st neatly and most securely, will probably 
receive the most orders. Special rates for warrant- 
ed and tested queens, furnished on application to 
any of the parties. Names with *, use an imported 
queen-mother. If the queen arrives dead, notif j' us 
and we will send you another. Probably none will 
be sent for $1.00 before July 1st, or after Nov. If 
wanted sooner, or later, see rates in price list. 

*A. I. Root, Medina, Ohio. 

*H. H. Brown, Light Street, Columbia Co., Pa. Itf 
*Paul L. Viallon, Bayou Goula, La. 19tfd 

*S. F. Newman, Norwalk, Huron Co., O. 19tfd 

*D. G. Edmiston, Adrian, Len. Co., Mich. 19tfd 
*S. G. Wood, Birmingham, Jeff. Co., Ala. 19tfd 

*B. Kretchmer, Coburg, Mont. Co., Iowa. 19tfd 
*Jos. Byrne, Ward's Creek, East Baton Rouge 

19tfd Par La. 
J. W. Winder, Carrollton, Jeff. Par., 

New Orleans, La. 3tfd 

*E. Burke, Vincennes, Knox Co., Ind. 3-1 

C. C. Vaughn, Columbia, Tenn. 15tfd 

Bloomington, 111. 1.5tfd 

J. B. Hains, Bedford, Cuyahoga Co., O. 15tfd 



Hive Manufacturers. 



Who agree to make such hives, and at the prices 
named, as those described on our circular. 
A. I. Root, Medina, Ohio. 

P. L. Viallon, Bayou Goula, Iberville Par., La. 15tfd 
C. W. Costellow, Waterboro, York Co., Me. 1-23 
R. B. Leahy, Higginsville, Laf . Co., Mo. 15tf d 

E. Kretchmer, Coburg, Montgomery Co., la. 15tfd 
C. P. Bish, St. Joe Station, Butler Co., Pa. 19-23 



FOK SALE.— Seed from Echinops Sphteroceph- 
alus, commonly called Chapman Honey- 
Plant. Price per M oz.,'r5cts.; 1 oz., $1.50; 2 
oz., $2.50. Warranted Genuine. Manufacturer of 
Bee-Keepers' Supplies of all kinds; sole right for 
Shuck hive in Canada. Address 
24-1 E. L. GOULD & CO., Brantford, Canada. 

FREE. A Niagara vine free to all who purchase 
vines to the am't of $2.00, up to March 1st. Cata- 
logue of grapevines free. 
24-l-2-3-4d L. L. Esenhoweb & Co., Reading, Pa. 

WRITE fO^JOHN CALLAM & CO.T^ 

LUMBER DEALERS, KENTON, OHIO, 

— FOlt PRICES ON — 

BEE-HIVES, SECTIONS, 

And General Supplies for Bee-keepers 



New Factory. Low Prices. 
24-lldb 



Good Work. 



DADAMT'S FOUNDATION PACTOEY, WHOLESALE and RETAIL. 
See advertisement in another column. 3tfbd 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Contents of this Number. 



A. F. Moon, in Mcmorium. . . 27 

Agents in Geiu'i'al 18 

Andrews, T. P., Apiary H 

Bees Balling Queens 36 

Bees vs. Beavers 1» 

Bees, Old. as Nurses 26 

Bees, Driving 25 

Bee-Keepers' Union 11 

Benson, I' 84 

Blacks Ahead 28 

Box-Hive Men 27 

Bugs, To I>estrov 26 

Bumlilo Hc-i-sS«annintr .... 26 

Carp vs. suiitisli ■>(, 

Chapin.in IMmit, K.pi.rt . . . :!2 
(Jheslnut \s. Bitti r Hone.v.. 'iT) 

Cotton, Mrs 8 

Dress for the Apiary 30 

Editorials S3 

Foul Brnoil -.1. A. Green. .10, U 

Foundation (IV Not 9 

Fran<-i-.in Silling Honey 15 

Grapes, Haj.'ging 20 

Hats for .\piary 30 

Hive, Kingslev s 16 

Hone.\, Hitter 25 

Honev, .Sell'ng 27 

Honey, M.ii kiting Kxfil .. 15 



Honev-Cakr 20 

HoneV Column 6 

Uonev Market -Heddon .... 21 

Hybrids, in Favor of 8 

Lamp and Lantern Light... 25 

Legisl.ition, Bee 17, 23 

Miller's Book 33 

Myself and Neighbors 28 

Nectar Changed in Bees 33 

Notes aiicH.ineries 27 

Our ()\\ n Apiarv 30 

riienol for Fo\d Hrood 11 

I'ostaue Sl.nnps Sticking... 27 

licport fioni Wliitaker 22 

Kcporls Knrouratiing 28 

l!ooin Meeded for Brood.... :£i 
Room Needed for Pollen — 23 

Root, L. C, Report 13 

Salicylic Acid It 

Sealing Jelly-Tumblers 10 

Sections, Open or Closed 24 

Separators 7 

Sharks 15 

Smoker Fuel 26, 27 

Stings, Nev\- Office 19 

Sunshine for Horses 26 

Underwear in Apiarv 30 

Water for Bees 26 



CONVENTION NOTICES. 



The next meeting of the Sheboygan Co.. Wis., Bee-Keepers' 
Society, will be heki at Hingham. .Tan. 13, 1887. Mrs. H. Hii.i.s. 

The bee-keepers of the western part of Ontario, Canada, will 
hold a convention at Tilbur.v Center, Ja"n. 12 and 13,1887. All 
are invited to attend. N.Smith, Sec. 

The Annual Convention of the Vermont Bee-Keepers' Associ- 
ation will beheld at the Van Ness House, Burlington, Vt., on 
.January 13th and 14th, 1887. A cordial invitation is extended 
to all, lioth ladies and gentlemen. 

R. H. HoLMKS, Sec, Shoreham, Vt. 

The 1 )hio Bee-Keepers' .\ssociation y\ill hold their annual 
convention .lanuary II, 12, and 13, 1887, in the parlors of the 
Farmers' Hotel at Columlms, Ohio, where good accouimorla- 
tions can be bad at SMK) per day. You are requested to be on 
hand. C. M. Kingsburv, Sec. 

The Nebraska State Bee-Keepers' Union will hold their next 
.Vnnual Convention at the Red Ribbon Hall, Lincoln, Neb., 
commencing January 12th, 1887, at 1:30 p. M. , and continue 
three days. All persons interested in the cultuie of bees and 
.sale of liionev are requested to be pi-esent. For full particu- 
lars aridress ' H. N. P.yTTEKSO,\. Sec. , Humboldt, Neb. 



The Northeastern Ohio, Northern Pennsylvania, and West- 
ern New York Bee-Keepers" Association w ill liold its eighth an- 
nual convention in Chapman's Opera llousc, Andover, Ohio, 
on Wednesday and Thursday, January mili and '-'Oth, 1887. First- 
I'lass hotel accommodations at SI. 00 per day to those attending 
the convention. A general invitation is extended to all. 

M . K. M.\soN. Andover, O., C. H. CoOK, New Lyme, O., 

■VctingSec. Pres. 



Tire IStli Annual Convention of the New York State Bee- 
Keepers' Association (formerly the Northeastern), yiill be 
held at Agricultmal Hall, Albany, N. Y.. January 11, 12, and 13, 
1887 Gko. H. Kxickkrbockkr, Sec. 

PKOGKAMME. 

FIRST DAY.— TuKSD.w, J.yNU.yRY llTH. 

Called to order at 2 P. M.— Reading the minutes of last meet- 
ing.— Receiving members and collecting dues.— Reports of Sec- 
retary. Treasurer, and Standing Committees. 

DISCUSSION.— ANike Clover as a Honey-plant, and its Rela- 
tive V.ilue to ( itlicr Clovers as Feed for Stock: Led by C. M. 
Goodspeed, Thoi n Hill, N. Y. -DISCOURSE on the Chapman 
Honey Plant, tiy H. Chapman. Versailles, N. Y. 
evening session, 7 P. M. 

DISCUSSION Rendering Old Comb into Wax: Led by Ira 

Barber.- ESSAYS. -EXTR.iCTEl) Honey, its Relative Valiic to 

ConibH onev, bv Dadant & Son, Hamilton. 111. -The Middleman 

in the Wholesale Market, by C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, O. 

SECOND DAY.— Wednesday, Jani ary 12th. 

C illed to order at 9 x. M.— Rei^eiving Members. -Appointment 
of Committees. 

DISCUSSIONS:— 1. Cause of the Late Depression of the Hon- 
ey-Market: I.-d by L. C. Root, Mohawk, N. Y.— 2. Bee-keeping 
by Women, as an Occup.ation; Led liy Mrs. L. M. Thomas, Ta- 
con.y. Pa.— 3. Bee-Journals and the .Supply Trade: Led by John 
Aspinwall. Barrytown, N. Y. 

.VKTKRNOON session, 1 P. M. 

Receiving New Members.— Election of Orticers.— President's 
Annual Address. 

DISCUSSIONS. 1. Scientific Ventilation of Bees in Winter 
Repositories: Led bv P. H. Ellwood, Starkville, N. Y.— 2. Over- 
stocking the Honey ilarket: Led by Capt. J. E. Hetherington, 
Cherrv Valley, N. 'if .— Disirussion of questions from C^uestion- 
Box. 

evening SKSSIoN, 7 p. M. 

DlSCL'SSIONS.-l. The Outlook of Bee-Keeping in the Fu 
ture: Led by A. E. Manum, Bristol, Vt.— 2. Foreign Honey for 
North America: Led bv S. T. Pettit, of Canada.— Diiscussion of 
special questions handed in by members. 



THIRD DAY.— Thursday, Janoart 13th. 

MORNING session, 9 A. M. 

DISCUSSIONS.— 1 Conventions as a Means of Promoting the 
Financial Welfare of the Bee-keepers: Led by essay from Jan. 
Heddon, Dowagiac, Mich.-^. Separators: Led by N. N. Bet- 
singer, Marcellus, N. Y,— 3. Bee keeping as a Science: Led by 
Arthur Todd, Phiia.. Pa.- Answering questions from the Box.' 
AKTERNOON SESSION, 1 P.M. 

DISCUSSIONS.— 1. The Advantages and Disadvantages of 
Patent^Rights to Bee-keepers: Led by G. M. Doolittle, Borodino, 
N. Y.— 2. The Bee-hive for the Future: Led by R. F. Holter- 
mann, of Canada. 

Reports of Committees.— Miscellaneous Business.— Adjourn- 
ment. 

The Headquarters of the Convention will be at the (ilobe 
Hotel, Slate St., Corner Pearl. Board $2.00 per day.— Board at 
the Kimball House, No. 69 Washinton Ave., *1.00 per day. 

Persons desiring to secure board will please write to John 
.\spiuwall, Barrytown, N. Y., who has the matter in charge. 



EXCHAITGE DEPARTMENT. 



Notices will be inserted under this head at one-half our 
usual rates. All ad's intended for this department must not 
exceed 5 lines, and you must say you want your ad. in this de- 
partment, or we will not be responsible for any error. You 
can have the notice as many lines as you please; but all over 
Ave lines yvill cost .you according to our regular rates. Of 
course, this department is intended onl.y for bona-fide ex- 
changes. 



WANTED.— To exchange for cash, or good horses 
and mules, 200 colonies of bees in Simplicity 
frames; also 40 acres of land adjoining the city. 
20tfdb Anthony Off, Helena, Phillips Co., Ark. 



I HAVE about 5 lbs. of spider-plant seed. I will 
exchange the same for different kinds of flower- 
seed or plants of any sort that are useful and or- 
namental. J. W. Ross, 
23-24-I-3d Phair, Brazoria Co., Texas. 

WANTED.— A foundation-mill, or offers, for a 
flrst-class incubator— been used three seasons. 
23tfdb D. S. Hall, So. Cabot, Vt. 

WANTED.— To exchange 8 vols. "Campaigns of 
the Civil War" (new) for a good bracket saw or 
turning-lathe. J. S. Mason, Medina, O. 

TTTANTED.— To exchange nursery stock of all 
VV kinds (evergreens a specialty) for pure Italian 
bees, queens, 3 or 3 frame nuclei, fdn., apiary sup- 
plies of all kinds, seedling basswood-trees, a trio of 
White Leghorn fowls, alsike clover seed. When 
making inquiries, please give price of your goods. 
My price list free on application. R. A. Lewis, 

Cherokee, lowa^ 

THOROUGHBRED fowls. Brown Leghorns, S. S. 
Hamburgs, W. C. B. Polish. P. Rocks and Wyan- 
dottes, Bonney's, Forbes', Hawkins', Wilcox &Fultz' 
strains. We will sell for cash, or exchange for fdn. 
and beeswax. Price list free. 
18-19tfd A. H. Duff, Creighton, Ohio. 

WANTED to exchange or sell, a Given fdn. press, 
3 tanks, and '2 doz. dipping-boards. 
Itfdb J. Swallow, 2816 Mo. Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

WANTED to exchange, S. B. Leghorns and S. S. 
Hamburg cocks for comb foundation, or S'l.OO 
cash ; $3.00 per pair. Address 
l-2d L. C. Calvert, Poplar Flat, Lewis Co., Ky. 



HOW TO RAISE COMB HONEY. 

Price 5c. You need this pamphlet, and my tree 
bee and supplv circular. IStfdb 

OLIVER FOSTER, Mt. Vernon. Linn Co., Iowa. 

IMPORTED QUEENSr 

In April. . - - - 11 francs in gold. 

Ma.v and June, - - - 10 " " " 

July and August, - - g »» " " 

September and October, - . -r " " " 

No orders received for less than 8 queens. Queens 
which die in transit will be replaced only if sent 
back in a letter. Charles Biancontini & Co., 
1-lld Bolo gna, Italy. 

DADANT'S POTOBATION FACTOEY, WHOLESALE AND 
RETAIL. See advertisemeat in another column. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



Seeds for the Garden and Greenhouse for 1887. 

As a number of the friends in the South are now sending in their orders for seeds, it re- 
minds us that it is tiaie to indicate our preferences, and to let you know wliat we feel like 
advising and offering for sale the coming year. 



PRICE 5 GTS. PER PAPER; 10 PAPERS, 40 GTS.; 100 PAPERS, $3.50. 

(Seeds of new or rare vegetables and novelties, we include at the uniform price of J cents 
per package ; but, of course, ice are obliged to put a smaller number of seeds into such packages. 
This will he noticed with the White-Plume Celery and Snowball (Jaidifloiver, etc. Aou", these 
5-cent jxtpers are all sent by mail postpaid ; but wlien you order seeds by the ounce or pot^jstd, 
you must pay 2c extra for postage and packing on each and ever^ ounce, and 18c extra for post- 
age and packing on each and every pound of seeds ordered. Tou will notice from this, that llie 
FIVE-CENT PACKETS, POSTPAID JBY MAIL, never contain a full ounce of any thing. 



BEANS, 
liandrctli's First in tlie Marlcet. Ft. 30c; pk. 

$3.00. The earliest shell beans. 
Dwarl Oerinan AVax, or Butter Beans. Pt. 

10c; pk. ^1.50. The earliest snap-short variety. 
Ciolden Wax. Pt. 10c; pk. $1.50. 

A staple siiiip-shoit bean. 

Soutliern Prolific. Pt. 1.5c; pk. $3.35. 

The best snap-sliort pole bean, maturing in 70 days 

Large Lima. Pt. I5c; pk. $3.oo. 

The ahove heans will he furnished in 5-cent packages; 
but where they eire to qo by mail, postpaid, of course 
the above packages will have to be quite small. If 
wanted by mail, add loc per pint for postage. 

BEETS. 
Eclipse. Oz. lOc; lb. 75c. 

This gave us Die liest satisfartioii last season of anj- thing 
we ever raised in the waved' brets. They are a very quick 
grower, of exri-llent iiuality, and the appearance of the 
bright smooth scarlet bulbs is fully equal to any thing that 
has been pictured in the colored plates of our catalogues. 
In order to get a fancy price for them, start them in tlie 
greenhouse, and transplant when of the size of peas, or a 
little larger. They bear transplanting well, and are exceed- 
ingly hardy. 

Pliiladelpliia Turnip. Oz. 5c; lb. 50c. 

This is .1 little later and larger than the above, and is a nov 
elty because of its alternate rings of dark and light pink. 

liong Blood Red. Oz. 5c; lb. .50c. 

An old standard variety. 

CABBAGE. 

Select, Very Early Jersey Wakefield. 

Oz. 35c; lb. $3.00. 

Our cabbage seed this year is raised by Francis Brill. At 
the Experimental College Farm, at Columbus. C, they give 
his cabbage seed the preference over that raised by any other 
seedsman, and they have tested nearly all of them. They all 
say that the Early .Jersey Wakefield, of their best selected 
strain, is fully as early as any other cabbage known, and 
greatly superior in quality. We sold single heads last sea- 
son at retail at 30c each, raised from plants started in the 
greenhouse in February. 

Henderson'!* Early Siiimuer. Oz. 3.5c; lb. $3.00. 

This comes next In the .li-iscy Wakefield; and although it 
is an early cal>li;i,!4c, uiulcr very favorable conditions it pro- 
lUices large heads of most excellent quality. 

Winuiui^'stadt. Oz. 10c; lb. $1.50. 

Much like the .Jersey Waketleld, but later and larger. The 
heads are lound. and some of them are so hard as to seem al- 
most like bullets Our customers of last season greatly pre- 
ferred these and Hcnder.son's Early Summer cabbage to the 
later flat cabbages. 

Flat Dutch. Oz. lOc; lb. $1.50. 

This is a standard late cabbage, for winter. 

Stonemason. Oz. 15c; lb. $3.25. 

Another standard varictv, but, as its name implies, it pro- 
duces harder heads than the Flat Dutch. 

Perfection Druniliead Savoy. Oz. lOe; lb. $1.50. 

The Savoy rahliage is handsome in appearance, and richer 
and finer iii quality, than any of the other varieties. In 
taste it nearly a|jproaihes the caulillower. 

Iiar^e Red Drumhead. Oz. 10c; lb. $1.50. 

This is a red (cabbage for pickling. The bright red, by way 
of contrast, will maKe a load or lot of cabbages attract at- 
tention, and tlici'c is always more or less demand for red cab- 
bage for pickles. 

<'\RROTS. 

Orange Danvers, Half-Long. Oz. 5c; lb. 60c. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

Brill's Early Snowball. K^ oz. $1.00; oz. $3.00. 

Nice specimen. - (de.irlv eaiiiillnwer often bring extravagant 

prices, and it i^ays ivell t'> start tliem in the greenliouse.and 

use hand-glasses lo foruard them befort the hot weather 

pomes on, 



CELERY. 
Henderson's W^liite Plume, '.t oz. 15c; oz. 50. 

We place this at the head of the list, and especially for ear- 
ly celery. During the past season we had fine stalks on the 
market in July, and it sold readily at 10c each. We are plan- 
ning to have celery this year in the market in the month of 
.June. The seed was started in the greenhouse about the 
middle of December. On account of its self-bleaching quali- 
ties it is better fitted for early celery than any other. 

Golden Dwarf. Oz. 30c; lb. $3.50. 

One of the standard sorts for a later crop. The golden tint 
of the head stalks makes it a very handsome vegetable. 

Boston Market. Oz. 30c; lb. $3..50. 

An old standard variet3- in and around Boston, and raised 
largely throughout the land. 

Major Clark's Pink. Oz. 3.5c; lb. $3.a). 

While the Wliite Plume is the earliest and finest in appeai- 
ance, we regard the above as the richest and most toothsome 
of all the celeries. It also, under favorable circumstances, 
makes exceedingly rapid growth. Plants set in September, 
the past season, made stalks weighing 2 lbs. each, by the mid- 
dle of November. 



lunt of ils excel- 



CORN (FOR TABLE USE) 
Ford's Early Sweet. 

We put this at the head of the list on 
lent quality and exceeding earliness. 

Crosby's Extra Early. 

This isagreat yielder, with .soil suitable, although it I'omes 
a little later than Ford's. 

Extra Early Minnesota. 

One of the standard sorts. 
Late Maiiiiiiolli Sugar. 

This is excellent in quality, and gives ears of mammoth 
size, and is .i wonderful yielder. Our trade has been so large 
in this kind ol corn for eight or ten years past, that we have 
now thirty or forty bushels dried on the husks by steam heat. 

Corn we sell ats cents for a half -pint package; but 
at this price purchasers must paxj the postage, which 
is 7 cents for each half-pint. If wanted in larger 
quantities tM price willbe$l.iM per peck, or $3.!i() per 
bushel. 

CRESS, OR PEPPER fiR.4SS. 

Extra Curled. Oz. ."ic; lb. .50c. 

CUCUMBER. 
Early Frame. Oz. 5c; lb. .^Oc. 

The earliest cucumber. 

Rawson's Improved Early W^liite Spine. 

Oz.30c; lb. .53.0(1. 

This is the kinil he u^es for raising in l.i . !.:reen!i'ouse,aud 
the cucumbers bring M to i5 cents each, even whe' c he raises 
them by the thousands. Fine specimens are wonderfully 
handsome, and taking, and they sometimes grow to a great 

size without gctlin.j yellow. 

Short Prolific Pickle. Oz 10c; Ih. $1.00. 

This is is the kind generall.v used for r.iising pi -kles tor 
market. 

KOHLBABL 
W^hite Vienna. Oz. 30c; lb. $3,50. 

This is a nuic-k-growing vegetable, half way between tur- 
nip and calibage. If the plants are started in the greenhouse, 
the vegetable may be put on the market at the same time 
with the very earliest cabbages; and where people once get 
a taste of it, it is pretty sure to meet with a rajiid sale at good 
prices. 

LETTUCE. 
Landreth's Forcing. Oz. 40c; lb. $5.00. 

Excellent for hot-beds and <old-frames; exceedingly early. 
The heads are small, and may be .sent to the table in their en- 
tire fcjrm, on the root. 

Boston Market. Oz. 10c; lb. $1.50. 

The best variety for greenhouse culture, an the heads are 
small, but compact and handsome. 

Bloomsdale Early Summer. Oz. 10c; lb. $1.50. 
Second earlv; sometimcj called, bv tht Souttieni friemj«, 
" Creole." 



ias7 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Hender^on^s New York. Oz. 40c; lb. 15.00. 

f)ne of the largest and most beautiful varieties of lettuce 
known. When urown to perfection on good soil, the inside 
of tliu head is white, lilce a eahbage, and wonderfully- crisp 
and refrcshiiiir 

Deacon lieHiu-f. Oz. 4(k-; Ih. .$.').00. 

The variut.\ is liiurhlv recommi^ndcd by the Ohio Experiment- 
al Station, and s,> liardytli.il we have had irood heads of it 
^rowinfc in thr upen ),'rounil as latr as the niidillc of Novem- 
ber. It promises to be a ureat acquisition. 

HaiiKoii. Oz. 10c: Ih. *1..tO. 

An old sfandard V nicty, produciun heads that sometimes 
weigrh as much as _' lbs. 

Brown Diitcli. Oz. 10; lb. $1.50. 

A variety t'l i* iihva . s attracts attention, and always sells 
on a-coniit of tin- r^ I or bronze colors of the greater i)art of 
its I'oliatjc. It is a >cry old variety, and the siffht of it often 
finds .n p\iichasi'r, l)c'caM-i- it rirnitids tliem so vividly of the 
daysid -liddliood out mi tlic old farm. 

MELONS, MUSK. 
Bxtru ICarly ritron. Oz. liie; lb. *1..50. 

.•\hv,i\ ... protitablc bee luse of its t'.xtreiiie earliness. 

<'a«Ki«la)> or Persian ITIiisknir-lon. O/.. .')c; 

lb. tilkv 
A standard laiuc varict.v . 

Pine Apple. Oz. ."c; lb. liO. 

Kxccllcnt ill quality, and only medium in sine. 

Banana. Oz. 2(ic: lb. $:i.OO. 

I consider this Ihi' best muskmeloii it lias ever been my 
fortune to taste, iiidfiiim from spiM'iuiciis we had last season. 
They are lout.- like a rail, or like a baiiaria. if you .■hoose; but 
the color is strikiimlv like a banana, and, wliat is more won- 
derful still, it has an .'.ilor also like the b.mana. If it should 
prove true to the spci-iiiieiis we have lasted, I pronounce it a 
great acquisition. 

MELONS, WATER. 
Extra Early. Oz. .5c: lb. 60c. 

The ([iiality is very u'ood. but the size is not very large. 

Landrett's Boss. Oz. .5c; lb. 60. 

.\ melon that seems to combine more of the good qualities 
for a larKe late watermelon than any other. 

ONION. 

Extra Early Red. Oz. a)c; lb. *-'.5b. 

Medium size, red. and an <'.xcellent keeper. 

Silverskin, or White. Oz. -tOc; lb. f 4.00. 



Yellow Danvers. Oz.30c: Ih. $3..50. 

A standard yellow varicly. 

ONION SETS. 

We have tlio.se of Yellow Danvers and Silverskin. 

Prices, 10c per pint; $1.50 per peck, or $5.00 per 
hiiiihel. Large-size sets (often used for pickles), one- 
hiilf the above prices. 

PARSNIP. 

Bloomsdale. Oz. 5c; lb. 40c. 

This is the only kind we have, but we consider it equal to 

PARSLEY. 
Fine Curled or Double. Oz. .5c: lb. 7.5c. 

PEAS. 
Laudreth's Extra Early. '2 pt. 5c; pk. $1.50. 

We lonsider this equal to any tor the first peas of the sea- 
son. 

American Wonder, 'jpt. 5o; pk. $1.50. 

This is a eross between the Champion and the Little Gem. 
The vine grows from 6 to 8 inches high. It is the first to rip- 
en aniimg the green wrinkled sorts. On account of its dwarf 
habits it can be grown very easily under glass. 

Stratagem. Pt. 30c; pk. $3.00. 

Thi-; has made its way rapidly in public favor. It is not on- 
ly (d rare excellence in quality, but the pods and peas are so 
larfcr- and tine looking they cill attention at once from any 
thinr ••lsi. in the market. It has given us excellent satisfae- 
ti'iii. 

Yorkshire Hero. '2 pt. 5o; pk. $1.50. 

.V hardy v.ii iety ; eonsidered by many to be better than the 
t 'hampion. 

Champion of England. Vi pt. -50; pk. $1.00: 
bushel, $3..50. 

So well known as to need no recommend here. 

PEPPERS. 
Large Siireet Spanish, Bell Shape. Oz. 2.5c; 

11). .?3.0ii. Laro:c red variety for pickles. 
BuUnose. Oz. 2.5e; lb. $3.00. 

-V lai'gci variety than the above, but in every other respect 
the same. 

Cayenne Pepper. Oz. 25c; lb. $3.00. 
Slueh called for, for seasoning soups, pickles, •tv. 



Spanish Pepper. Oz. 25c.; lb. $3.00. 

.\ m» varity, so targe that the natives of warm oliinates 
slice them up and fry. as an article of food. 

RADISHES. 
W^hite-tipped Scarlet Turnip. Oz. .5c; lb. 60c 

A fancy variety .if the scarlet bulb with white bottom; 
very showy. 

Scarlet Tnrnip-rooted. Oz. .5c. ; lb. 60c. 

Larger and later than the preceding. 

Lady Finger. Oz. IDc; lb. $1.00. 

I >ni- of the standard long radishes. Sometimes it grows as 
large as a jiarsnip, and yet is of excellent quality. 

Becker's Chartier Radish. Oz. 15c.; lb. $1.50. 

.\ novelty, and on.- that has i;iM-ji us the greatest satisfai- 
tion; (d' rapid growth and trood size, both at the bottom and 
top, In favor.abh' soil it will grow to a large size, and still be 
excellent in quality. The Chartier radish has been to us an 
acquisition during the past year. They are remarkably cer 
tain to make a good bulb. 

SALSIFY, OR OYSTE.i PLANT. 



SPINACH. 
Bloomsdale Extra Cnrled. Oz. 5c; lb. ,50c. 

It combines as many of the y'ood qualities as any other. 

SQUASH. 

SU.MMEK VARIETIES. 

Early White Bush, or Patty Pan. Oz. 5c. ; 

lb. CUc. 

Not surpassed by th (4olden Summer ('rookneiTk. One of 
the old staples. 

Golden Summer Crookneck. Oz. .5c; lb. ,50c. 

The standard summer squash. 

WINTER VARIETIES, 

Perfect Gem. Oz. .5c; lb. 50c. 

A round squash, about B inches in dianieter. The quality 
is excellent, and it will keep till spring. 

Kubbard. Oz. 10c; lb. $1.00. 

Tocp well known to need comment. 

Boston Marrofv. Oz. .5c; lb. 7.5c. 

An old standard staple, especially in and around Boston. 

TOMATO. 
Mikado. Oz. 25c; lb. $3.50. 

This tomato is so distinct from the ordinary sorts that it 
has a different - shaped foliage that can be recognized at 
once. The tomatoes are of immense size, and the greater 
part of them smooth; besides, they are about as early as any 
thing we have. Some of the first last season sold at 8 cent* 
apiece, and it does not take many such to fill a basket. 

Acme. Oz. 30c; lb. $3.00c. 

Too well known to need comment. 

Trophy. Oz. 30c; $2..50. 

A companion to the Acme. 

Livingston's Beauty. Oz. 3.5c; lb. $3.-50. 

This is a proilm-tion of the saineLivingston who brought out 
the .\iiiic. Tropliy, Favorite, and Perfection; but he pro- 
nounces this siijierior to them all. The specmens at the 
Ohio State Fair Last season were certainly all that could be 
desired in the tomato. 

Pear-Sliaped Tomatoes. Oz. 20c: $3.00. 

These are handsome for pickles and preserves. We have 
them of two colors— red and yellow. They are immense 
bearers, and of good quiilit.v. 

TURNIP. 
Early Bloomsdale Red Top. Oz. .5c; lb. 60c. 

Oiii- of the best for the first turnip in the market. 

"White Egg. Oz. 5c; lb. 50e. 

Very showy and handsome, as well as quite early. Last 
season they sold readily for a dollar a bushel in our market 
as fast as we could get hold of them. 

Yellow Aberdeen. Oz. 5c; lb. 50c. 

We consider this the best table turnip grown. When cook- 
ed it is so yellow that it ^vill sometimes be mistaken for 
squash. 

Bloomsdale Swede. Oz. .5c; lb. 50c. 

Perhaps the best of the Rutabaga varieties. 



CUTTINGS FOR CONCORD GRAPEVINES. 

In triimuing' our g'rapevines we had a great num- 
ber of nice well-ripened woods which we cut up in- 
to cuttings with two or more strong- buds on each. 
These arc packed in damp sawdust, so as to keep 
nicely for spring planting. We can send them for 
5 c. for 10, 40 c. per 100, or $2..50 per 1000. If wanted 
by mail, add 16 cts. per 100 extra for postage. Full 
instructions for planting them will be furnished 
with each package. With proper care they will, in 
two years, furnish such grapevines as we sell for 
$6.50 per 100. A. I. ROOT, :nedina, O. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



J16NEY C6MJIN. 



CITT MARKETS. 

Philadklphia. — Honey. — White clover, fancy, 
15@.l6e; fair white-clover, 13(fl'Uc: eomraon white- 
clover, 10(g)12. Buckwheat, ifell. Becsivax, white, 
36(§;27c: yellow, 33>a!24c; dark, 30@31. 

Dec. 24, 1886, Pancoast & Grtifiths, 

242 South Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



St. Louis. — Honei/.— There is no improvement in 
the honey-market. Some inquiry from outside 
parties for round lots, but at lower prices than 
holders seem willing to accept. Comb honey, 10@13, 
as to quality and size of package. Extracted, clover, 
5®fi, fair to choice. Southern strained, SfnAM. 

Beeswax, better demand, 21@22, as runs; 22(a;25 se- 
lected. W. B. Westcott & Co., 

Dec. 24, 1886. 108 and 110 Market Street. 



Boston.— Honey.— No change in prices; demand 
fair. Blake & Ripley, 

Dec. 34, 1886. 57 Chatham St., Boston, Mass. 



Cincinnati.— Honejy.— There is a quiet tone pre- 
vailing, although demand is fair for choice comb 
and extracted honey in small packages; manufac- 
turers buy sparingihgly only. Our city has large 
supplies of all kinds of honey from both sides of 
the Rocky Mountains, and still lower prices may be 
expected just as soon as commission merchants are 
obliged to reaHze. The range of prices for extract- 
ed honey Ts 3(gjTc on arrival. Choice comb honey 
brings 13(&l,5c in a jobbing way. 

Dec. 31, 1686. Chas. F. Muth & Son, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Chicago.— Hodci/.— Dull; offerings continue to in- 
crease, and, in consequence, prices are easy; sales 
ai-e made in a small way at 10@13c for good comb; 
12@l3c for selections. Extracted, without sales to 
quote from. Beeswax, 23@2.5c. 

Dec. 23. 1686. R. A. Burnett, 

161 So. Water St., Chicago, 111. 



Detroit.— HoHcj/. —The honey in sight is being 
gradually reduced; still there is a large supply on 
hand, with no change in prices. Sales of extracted 
very slow. B^csuii/.r, 33c. M. H. Hunt. 

Dec. 24, 1886. Bell Branch, Mich. 



Philadelphia.— J/onf?/.—This is a poor market, 
.owing to the competition of glucose mixtures. 
White clover sells at 12;o 14c in glass cases. Beeswax, 
if choice, is worth 34T/25c. Sam'l S. Daniels, 

Dec. '^2, 1SS6. Philadelphia. Pa. 



Cleveland.— Ho/iety.— The market is unchanged; 
choice 1-lb. sections of white sells slowly at 13c; 
3-lbs. white, IKnlSc. Second quality, lOfTrll. Ex- 
tracted, 6c. Beeswax, 35. 

Dec. 23. 1886. A. C. Kendel, 

11.5 Ontario St., Cleveland, O. 

For Sale. — .5 kegs (of about 180 lbs. each) of 
white-clover honey at 8c; also 400 lbs. basswood 
honey in bbl., at 7c, f. o. b. cars here. Honey is No. 
1, and well ripened; packages free. 

W. D. WuiGHT, Knowersville, Alb. Co., N. Y. 



For SaTjE Che.\p.— 4500 lbs. choice white-clover 
honey in 10 and 25 gal. kegs and in 48-gal. bbls. ; also 
2500 lbs. very fine Spanish-needle honey in 25-gal. 
kegs and 48-gal. bbls. Will send samples on receipt 
of 2-cent postage-stamp for each. 

Emil J. Baxter, Nauvoo, Hancock Co., 111. 



For Sale.— I have about 1600 lbs. of nice bass- 
wood honey that I should like to sell between this 
and first of next month. Part of it is in molasses 
bbls.; 1 bbl. of 31 gallons. How much am I offered? 
Amos Blank, Woodville, Sandusky Co., Ohio. 



FOR SALE. 



(Jno Barnes combined scroll and 
circular saw. Has fourteen cir- 
cular and ten scroll saws, one cutter-head, two man- 
drels, three gauges, one sawset, one emery wheel, 
all in running order; will sell for f35.00, which is 
about half cost. Address E. C. APPLBGATE, 
l-2d Poplar Flat, Lewis Co., Ky. 




The "Boss" ONE-PIECE SECTIONS. 

Patented June 28, 1881. 
IITHILE attending the North-American Bee-Keep- 
Vt ers' Convention at Indianapolis, we learned 
there was a rumor afloat that the Patent on the 
ONE-PIECE SECTION had been set aside— circulat- 
ed by unprincipled parties, to mislead bee-keepers. 
"We would say in regard to this, that such is not the 
case. It is now before the LT. S. Supreme Court, at 
Washington, and will probably be decided before a 
great while, when we will notify all through the 
Bee Journal. Until then pay no attention to ru- 
mors. 

Before ordering write us for prices. We will fur- 
nish you sections as cheap as the cheapest. Let us 
hear from vou before you order. Address 

J. FORNCROOK &, CO., 

Jan. 1, 1887. Watertown, Wis. 

KALER'S 

Swarming -Box. 

No more CUTTING LIMBS ! No 
more AB300OTING SWAEMS ! No 
more OLUSTEEIilG of TWO SWAEMS 
TOGETHEE 1 No more HARD WOEE 
to HIVE SWAEMS ! EASILY done, 
QUICKLY done, and WELL done, 
with EALEE'S SWARMING - BOS I 
Made of GOOD MATEEIAL ! EEADY 
for USE, at $1.00 each. 

Made to SUIT ANY SISE OF 
FEAME, bv 

"W. S. KAI.ER, 
Andersonville, Indiana. 

Send postal for description. 
In ordering Box, give name of 
hive and size of frame used. 

TJE CHflPliniEYllT. 

Having expended 
thousands of dol- 
lars in bringing be- 
fore the people one 
of the most won- 
derful honey-pro- 
d u c i n g plants 
known in the Unit- 
ed States, or even 
in the world, and 
testing it honestly 
and fairly, I wish 
to say, through 
Gleanings, that 
the seed contains 
so much oil that 
nothing but fresh 
seed will grow for 
this reason ; and by 
,-1. V "^ wx the advice of many 

£m -^1 r^wW i prominent bee- 

Wu ^^y -^3 Jb^ keepers I have de- 

Tj^ "jIb^B '-mjt . cided to sell the 

' ""^ '' ■ -^^^ limited amount of 

seed I have raised 
this season, at the 
following prices. I 
will send to those 
who have already 
ordered the amount 
of seed due them 
at this low price: 
V% ounce, 50 cts.; 1 
ounce, Sl.OO; 3 
ounces, fb.'iO; 4 ounces, $3.00; 8 ounces, .f3.00; 
1 pound, J<5.00. One ounce contains from 1600 
to 1800 seeds. The seed should be sown in early 
spring, and general directions for cultivation will 
be given on each package. Write all orders plainly, 
and give your postoffice in full. 

H. CHAPMAN, 
Versailles, ('att««raui$iiH <'o., !N. V. 






Vol. XV. 



JAN. 1, 1887. 



No. 1. 



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l Copies for Si. 90; :< tor §2. 75: 5 for 84.00; | HifiViXiULLo lHyLli Liv ±0 / O • \ thanQOets. each. Sent postpaid, in the 



10 or more, 7.i cti. each. Single Number 
5 cts. .ilditions to clubs maybe made 
at club rates. Above are all to be sent 

TO ONEPOSTOFKICE. 



PUBLISHED SE5II-MONTHLY BT 



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tries of the Universal Postal Union, 18c 
I peryenr extra. To all countries- not 



SEPARATORS. 



FRIENU HUTCHINSON TELI.S US OF THE REASONS 

WHY THERE ARE SO MANY DIVERSE OPINIONS 

IN REGARD TO THEIR NECESSITY. 

rS\ ECAT'SE T am adopting Mr. Heddon's new 
wL ^^^'^' •^'- Doolittle very naturally supposes 
'f^ that I am also adopting- separators. Such is 
•*^ not the case.i 1 was so well satisfied of the 
advantages of Mr. Heddon's new nive that I 
adopted it at once, except the surplus-apartment. 
I was well satisfied with Mr. Heddon's old style of 
surplus case (and am yet), and I did not think it 
advisable to throw aside the 32.t cases that I had 
on hand, and make those of the new style until I 
had decided that the latter possessed sulBcicnt ad- 
vantages to warrant the change. It was one of 
those instances in which there are advantages on 
both sides, and the ijuestion was, which had the 
most and greatest? While I have about .^O colonies 
in the new hive, ] have used only 10 of the new 
style fif super; so Mr. Doolittle will see that, in- 
stead of leaving that "better method" and "going 
back to separators," I am only e.vperimenting with 
a style of super that allows the use of separators, 
and that about 97' of my crop is yet secured with- 
out separators. And right here 1 hope Mr, Doolittle 
will excuse me if 1 take him to task a little for his 
disposition to "pick up" a man if he advocates any 
views that he once condemned. There can be no 
progression without change, and it will be readily 
seen that new developments may lead a man to 
adopt views that he formerly rejected. 

As to which style of ease I shall eventually adopt. 
1 can not say. If I had a <|uantity nf either style I 
should not throw them away for the sake of adopt- 



ing the other style. I certainly should not adopt 
The new st.yle simpl.v because it allows the use of 
separators; but if I used it I would then use separa- 
tors; not so much for the sake of getting straight 
combs, but rather because, with wide frames, sepa- 
rators are a convenience. 

If sections are to be glassed, separators must be 
used; but the indications are that this practice will 
not long be in vogue. If Mr. Doolittle can not 
abandon separators, and yet secure cratable sec- 
tions, without entailing extra labor, then his hive, 
fixtures, or system, is such as will not profitably 
admit of discarding separators, and it would be 
folly for him to change either, simpl.v to be able to 
dispense with separators. There should be weightier 
reasons; and if he can do no better than he reports, 
he is wise to retain separators. 

I must take issue with him, however, in regard to 
the advantage gained by putting on only a small 
amount of surplus room at first, and very gradual- 
ly increasing it. I would not be understood as ad- 
vising the putting-on of an unusuaUu large amount 
of surplus room at one time. The putting-on of a 
section or two at a time, or even a wide frame or 
two of sections at a time, involves too much labor. 
In the production of honey there is no factor so ex- 
pensive as labor, with proper fixtures, and there 
never was and never will be anything gained by 
putting on or taking ofl* less than a case of sections 
at a time. The point made by Mr. Doolittle in re- 
gard to getting off' sections before they are soiled 
by the bees is a good one; and where the honey is 
finished in proximity to the brood-nest it may be 
necessary to remove it a section at a time, and then, 
of course, separators are a necessity; but with the 
tiering-up method, no combe arc scaled mcir the 



G^LEAJyiiNGS iN BEE CULTURK. 



Jan. 



broodrtiest, and the upper case can be left on until 
the sections are finished, with no danger of the 
combs becoming' trav^elstained. 

With Mr. Doolittle's hives and fixtures, separators 
are undoubtedly a necessity. In fact, I fail to see 
how he could, as he claims to have done, given the 
non-separator business a fair trial; becau.se it is 
only upon the tiering'-up plan that separatoi's can 
be abandoned with any hopes of success; and I be- 
lieve that Mr. Doolittle's hives do not admit of this 
function. 

I heartily agree with Mr. D., that we should do all 
we can to maintain decent prices for honey; and if 
any one can not secure straight combs without sep- 
arators, by all means use them. 

Rogersville, Mich. W. Z. Hutchinson. 



ANOTHER REPORT IN FAVOR OF HY- 
BRIDS. 



T COMMENCED last spring with 38 Rood swarms 
^ and 7 lig-ht ones, making 4.5 in all. 1 had to 
^l transfer 31 of those into movable-frame hives. 
■^ After this was done I built them up so when 
white clover came in bloom they were all in 
good condition, and ready for business. 

I commenced extracting about the 10th of June, I 
believe, and closed, or stopped the extractor, .iust 
after basswood-bloom. During- July and August I 
increased, by artificial swarming, to 91 swarms, with 
the exception of 7 or S that I got by natural swarm- 
ing. I got, during the season, 4774 lbs. of extracted 
honey, and 250 lbs. of comb honey in one- pound sec- 
tions. I sold the entire lot in my home market, 
with the exception of one barrel shipped to Mil- 
waukee, besides buying SJa barrels of my brother, 
M. M. Rice, in order to supply my ti-ade. I have i-e- 
ceived, on an average's cts. per lb. for the extracted 
honey, and 1.5 cts. for the comb honey. 

It will be five years next fall since I commenced 
keeping- bees, and all I have to regret is that I did 
not commence 30 years before. My stock of bees is 
well-mixed Italians, hybrids, and blacks (and they 
are black too). I have been trying to find out 
which are the best workers for all kinds of work 
(laying all argument aside). I had rather have good 
hybrids for all work than any Italian bee I ever 
saw, and I have some as yellow-banded as any one 
else. My queens are from A. I. Root. I have a 
number of them. I have one very large swarm 
of hybrids that gave me by weight, this season, 385 
lbs. of honey, besides 3 good swarms of bees. If 
any one should offer me flO.OO for that hybrid 
queen I should be obliged to say no, for there was 
no end to her laj'ing propensities. Whenever I 
want a lot of foundation drawn out quickly, I am 
sure to put it into a hive where there are hybrids or 
blacks. 

During- the last two years I have received more 
stings from my Italian bees than from the blacks. 
I will admit, that the blacks and hybrids are more 
irritable, and will run and leave the combs more 
than the Italians will, and it is harder to find their 
queens; for instance, when you want to clip their 
wings, or supersede them. But, putting up with 
all this trouble, I know the blacks and hybrids will 
make more comb honey, draw out more foundation, 



PROM 38 TO 91, AND 4774 LBS. OF EXTRACTPJD, AND 
250 LBS. OF COMB HONEY. 



do less swarming- (by my own experiments) than all 
the Italians I have got. B. E. Rice. 

Boscobel, Grant Co., Wis., Dec, 1886. 

Friend li., this question in regard to hy- 
brids vs. pure Italians came up at tlie Mich- 
igan State Convention ; and when I told 
them I had for a long time been fearing we 
were making a mistake in getting out every 
trace of black lilood, it made something of a 
sensation ; and more still when I added that 
we were ready to furnisli hybrid queens 
whenever our customers asked for them. It 
has many times given me pain to see a bee- 
keeper destroy a queen that was a magnifi- 
cent one in every respect, because her bees 
were not all three-banded. Perhaps it will 
be necessary for us to start another apiary 
to furnish a choice strain of hybrids ; and I 
begin to think that such an arrangement 
will meet the wants of a great many. The 
price of (lueens reared from our best hybrid 
honey-gathering stocks will be the same as 
untested (jueens reared from our best im- 
ported mothers. We shall be glad to have 
orders early in the season, so we may know 
what preparations to make. I have before 
mentioned that we have a few customers 
who order hybrids every season ; and if we 
happen to be short, and send untested Ital- 
ians in their stead, they sometimes object. 



MRS. COTTON. 

HER CIRCULAR FOR 1S«7. 



E are very much pleased to note the 
great improvement in the above cir- 
cular, and in Mrs. Cotton's mode of 
doing business in general. Our read- 
ers will remember that we have pub- 
lished several favorable reports from those 
using her hive and fixtures. We are very 
glad to do this ; but in justice we can not 
refuse to publish the unfavorable ones as 
well. We have, however, consented to for- 
ward them to Mrs. Cotton before publishing 
them, in order that she may have an oppor- 
tunity of making satisfactory any mistakes 
or misunderstandings. 

Mrs. Cotton still recommends feeding 
sugar syrup to bees just before the harvest 
opens, and, indeed, to such an extent that 
they store some of this syrup in the surplus- 
boxes. She says this feed, when stored in 
the combs by the bees, can not be distin- 
guished from the best wliite-clover honey 
by the most delicate taste. Now, while it is 
true that a great many might not notice a 
little sugar syrup mixed in with some clover 
honey, I think she is gixatly mistaken in put- 
ting it so strongly as this :* 

The feed I use costs only about seven cents a lb., 
and, when stored in the combs by the bees, can not 
be distinguished from white-clover honey by the 
most delicate taste. 

Again, on page 8, she says : 

Under my system of management, I, by a simple 
process, su'bdvie the anger of the bees, so that they 
can be handled without the least danger of stings. 

And further along : 

The members of ray family are seldom stung- by 
the bees (not one case in a year), notwithstanding- 
I sometimes have fifty hives or more where we pass 
within twenty feet of them many times every day, 
while the bees are fl.ying in thousands about each 
hire. 



1887 



GLEA^l^GS IN BEi^l CULTURE. 



Now, while the above may be true, I be- 
lieve almost every bee-keeper in our land, 
including those who have nothing but full- 
blood Italians, would say the statement is 
very much stronger than any thing ever 
ought to go into print in regard to bee-stings. 
On page 4 we lind the following : 

Swiirminj^ is t-oiitrolleci as completely aiui with iis 
iiinch certaintj- as the incroase of cattle, sheep, or 
swine. If swarms are desired, we arranffo in early 
spring- to have them issue any week in the swarm- 
ing- season that will best suit our convenience, and 
they will swarm at the time desig-natod. 

Now, I am not positively sure that Mrs. 
Cotton can not do this; but if she can malie 
her bees swarm or not swarm, as she choos- 
es, she has gone beyond any of the veterans 
or experts in bee culture, at least so far as I 
am informed. She still charges $4.00 for 
drawings and illustrations ; but to modify 
it she oft'ers to deduct the S4.00 paid, fro ni 
the first order for bees or hives. Her prices 
are still away beyond those of any other 
dealer in bees or supplies ; but if her cus- 
tomers are pleased and satisfied, I do not 
know that we have any right to object. 
Perhaps the reason why her customers are 
satisfied, is because they are not posted in 
regard to the usual prices of such goods ; if 
so, it behooves supply-dealers to let people 
know wliat other people charge for swarms 
of bees, both black and Italians, and other 
commodities. 

Mrs. Cotton now furnishes her Controllable 
hives in the flat, to be shipped by freight. 
This is a very great advanceover her former 
method of doing business. Mrs. C.,in a 
private letter, expresses the wish to hear 
from every customer who is in any way dis- 
satistied with any dealing they have with 
her ; and if she carries out this plan, I do 
not know ^hy slie should not have a place 
among the supply-dealers of our land. 



FOUNDATION OR NO FOUNDATION. 



Shall it be Used in the Brood-nest "When 
Securing Comb Honey ? 



ALSO SOME FT'ItTHEU KEMAUKS IN FAVOR OF 
BLACK BEES FOR COMB HONEY. 

fHE last number of Gleanings is full of good 
articles as usual, and I derive much plea- 
sure and pro tit from reading- them. 1 think 
Mr. Hutchinson is honest in his ideas and 
oyiinions reg-arding the use of foundation in 
brood-chamber, but I am sure that rules laid down 
for the same in his location will not do tor (his lo- 
cality, where we have a long slow .season for surplus 
honey. The first honey of importance is fi-om 
locust, from May loth to 30th; then poplar about 
May 25th. White clover and blue thistle blossom 
at the same time, June 1st to 10th. These two 
latter sources give us most of our surplus. Blue 
thistle gives us a s-teady flow of honey to the first 
of September, if not too dry. 

After repeated experiments the past four years, 
we have decided that only full sheets of fdn,, put 
in on wire by the Given press, will do for us. 
Swarms hived on starters in brood-frames will not 
do any thing in sections until the brood-chamber is 
full, clear to the bottom, unless the swarm be a 
double one, tn which case they are pushed to work 



In sections for -want of room. Swarms hived on 
starters about one inch wide usually give us from 10 
to 20 pounds of honey in sections, while those hived 
on full frames of fdn. give us an iiverage of 40 lbs. 
of comb honey. I do not doubt that, by using 
division-boards, and confining swarms to one-half 
of the brood-chamber, they would bo forced to com- 
mence work in sections at once, and thereby store 
more surplus honey; but then we should be obliged 
to feed sugar to them to make up the necessary 
amount of stores for winter— a practice which we 
do not believe in. Next season we will make a 
moi-c careful report on the advantages derived 
from the use of fdn. in brood-frames as regards 
amount of section honey stored. 

As regards the amount of drone comb built, we 
think an advantage fully as great is gained by the 
use of full sheets of foundation; for unless we do 
it, some swarms will fill nearly one-third the space 
in brood-frames with drone comb. 

We transfer a great many box hives every spring 
to frames; and after thi-owing out all drone comb 
and other poor comb, we do not have nearly 
enough to fill all the brood-frames, so we make up 
the deficienc.v with full frames of foundation, as we 
know bj' experience that transferred colonies in 
the spring will iininediately fill the extra frames 
given them with one-half, at least, of drone coml>, 
when furnished with starters only. 

We are glad to see Mr. France, Heddon, and oth- 
er prominent bee-keepers say a good word for the 
black, or native bees of this country. We, too, give 
them a flecided preference, and would feel sick if 
all our comb honey were made by the Italians. 
We have tried queens from Alley, Thomas, Shaw, 
and other breeders, but have never yet seen any 
thing that will make any more honey, and as nice 
honej-, as the native bees of Virginia. The native 
bees do not use one-half the propolis about the hive 
that the Italians do, and they are not so ready to 
follow the bee-keeper from one hive to another 
while operating, and pitch into what belongs to 
another. I have noticed, the past season, that 
nine-tenths of the bees entering the house and 
honey-house are the yellow ones, and we have only 
four or five stands of them out of 80 in our home 
apiai-.y. The only thing I can say in favor of them 
is, that thej' defend themselves better against rob- 
bers, and are a little nicer for timid people to 
handle. 

Our demand for honey has been good this season, 
and we have disposed of two-thirds of it at a good 
fair price, and we think that a good article, neatly 
put up, will continue to bring a fair price. 

Front Royal, Va., Dec. 23, 1886. H. W. Bass. 

Friend B., I am not sufficiently well post- 
ed in this matter of Hutchinson's way of 
working to say just where you have failed to 
follow his plan of management ; but at the 
Michigan Convention the matter was talked 
over so thoroughly that I became convinced 
that anybody will succeed as friend Hutch- 
inson dbes. by observing all the conditions. 
These conditions have all been given at dif- 
ferent times tlirough the various journals ; 
but the matter is more complex than one 
might imagine, and I would suggest that 
friend H. carefully prepare an exhaustive 
article, taking in all the points necessary to 
secure all nice honey in the surplus-arrange- 
ments. I think the whole would make a nice 



10 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



little tract or pamphlet, and I should be very 
glad indeed to offer it for sale. Now, friend 
W. Z. H., roll up your sleeves and give us 
this little book. You can do it nicely, we 
all know. Let us have it before commencing 
another season's work. 



FOUL BROOD. 



STARVATION THE CAUSE. 



T NOTICE on page 947, 1886, where one T. F. Mc- 
^ Camant says, in his report under date of Oct. 
^i 18, 1886, that, " Early in the season foul bi'ood 

•*■ made its appearance, and, so far as I have 
heard, there is no one who has not suflered 
more or less loss." Now, friend Root, allow me, 
in all justice, to enter a protest. I am living in the 
same section of country as friend McCamant, and 
have been corresponding- with some leading bee- 
keepers living both east and west of San Antonio, 
and a good deal nearer to San Antonio than I do 
(and 1 am only 60 miles), and I have never heard 
one single intelligent bee-keeper state that he had 
had one case of foul brood; Ijut I did hear one old 
box-hive man say that he bad lost some colonies 
with foul brood; and when a man would come 
along and say his hives smelied bad, this same old 
bee-quack (who has been in the business 30 years, 
to my knowledge), would at once tell him he had 
foul brood, and no mistake. Now, friend R.. what 
do you think this terrible disease was? Why, 
simply starvation. I examined a number of col- 
onies which liad died in this way, and I found that 
they had starved to death and fallen to the bottom 
of the hive, and, of course, smelied bad, like any 
other decaying mass. My friend in San Antonio 
evidently has not come fi-om the field of battle, but 
has taken his information second hand. If friend 
McCamant will kindly furnish me the name and 
address of the leading bee-keeper who has lost ^o 
many colonies, I will sift the matter to the bottom, 
if it takes a trip to San Antonio to do it. I have 
written to friend McC. about the matter; and if 
the thing is a slander I will run it down, as it may 
injure us bee-keepers if it is not corrected. All 
this started last spring when bees were starving all 
over the counti-y. so the story is not new to me; 
but I had hoped that it would not get into the pa- 
pers, so I explained to all in my locality that foul 
brood is a disease of the brood, and not of the 
mature bees. M. Broers. 

Gonzales, Tex.. Dec. 13, 1886. 

Friend 13., you are right ; but perhaps you 
need a little more charity. Is it not possible 
that friend McCamant intended to men- 
tion only his immediate neighborhood — 
say three or four miles from his home ? In 
regard to the false alarm, I am sure there is 
a good deal of it. At the Michigan Conven- 
tion one young man was telling how terribly 
frightened he was to find foul brood in his 
apiary. When we asked him how he knew 
it was real foul brood, he said he recognized 
it by the taste of the lioney and by the looks 
of the capped combs. When some of us smiled 
at this test he said he would send a piece 
of the honey to Prof. Cook, and see if Prof. 
C would not pronounce it foul brood at first 
sight. 



SEALING JELLY-TUMBLERS WITH 
MELTED WAX. 



HONOR TO WHOM HONOR IS DUE. 



f^ HERE, friend Root. I've found it. I knew I 
W" liad seen it somewhere, and I was pretty 
< sure it was in the Canadian Bee Journal. I 
am not apt to say a thing is so till I can 
prove it. Well, perhaps you want to know 
what I am getting at. It is this: On page 974 of 
Gleanings you speak of sealing honey-tumblers 
Avith wax, and say you " feel like giving an Indian 
war-whoop of exultation " when Mr. Cutting told 
how to do it, at the recent Michigan Convention at 
Ypsilanti; but he gave me the credit of the inven- 
tion. I thought I had seen the suggestion either in 
Gleanings or the C. B. J., but yourself and "our 
genial friend McPherson " denied the "soft im- 
peachment; " and that shows that nU editors don't 
remember every tiling, any more than we "com- 
mon mortals." 

Now, " Render unto Cesar the things that are 
Cesar's," as you say, by calling attention to or 
quoting from the bottom of the first and top of the 
second columns on page :J8r>, ('. B. .T. for 1886. We 
read as follows: 

SEALING .lELLV-TlNS. 

Here is a new way to seal jelly-glasses, witb tin 
tops. Have a dish with hot wax; the wax maybe 
kept at the proper temperature by allowing dishes 
containing the wax, to float in iioiling water. 
Then take the jelly-glasses, invert them, holding 
them inverted, and dip them into the wax, just 
down to the rim, about J4 of an inch; the wax coats 
the outside and top of glasses, but not the inside, 
for the reason that the air prevents it; besides, if it 
is held in the wax a short time the heat expands the 
air, causing the wax to settle down in the center 
under the glass, so a hollow may be seen in the wax 
under the glass; the lid is then warmed and pressed 
on. It not only makes it air tight at the sides, but 
the wax on the rim of the glass fits tight against 
the lid, thus sealing it nicely. Try it and see if it 
does not please you. These packages are becom- 
ing so popular we find them in great demand. 

Vou speak of warming the tumblers. It seems 
to me it is better not to warm them, for two rea- 
sons: If warm, there will not so much wax remain 
on them, and they will have to be held longer to let 
the wax cool on them, but the covers should be 
made quite warm. If you could have seen Mr. 
Cutting and myself waxing and filling, and put the 
covers on a lot of glass tin-top jelly-tumblers at 
the Michigan State Pair at Jackson, last September, 
you would have seen a very interesting as well as 
instructive tableau. Friend Cutting was melting 
wax in a basin, over one of friend Hutchinson's oil- 
stoves, and I sat on a small box in front of a honey- 
extractor, filling the tumblers with honey, and 
W. Z. H. was leisurely walking about, enjoying the 
Interesting scene, and, with Mr. Cutting, frequent- 
ly warning as well as commanding me to be care- 
ful and not get any of the honey on the edges of 
the tumblers, or on my clothes. Cautious, weren't 
they? They hated to lose any honey, you see. 

Auburndale, O., Dec. 3.5, 1886. A. B. Mason. 

Friend M., we own up and beg pardon. 
The joke comes on friend McPherson, after 
all. The point to it is, that it was on the 
first page of the C. B. J. for July 7, under 
the head of Our Own Apiary. Why didn't 
you keej) still, old friend, "and carry the 
credit V At any rate, we shall give you the 
honor of bringing the matter prominently 
before the public. 



1887 



GLEANINGS LN HEE CULTUKE. 



11 



THE BEE-KEEPERS' UNION. 

MRS. HARRISON GIVES US SOME GOOD IDEAS ON 
THE iMATTER. 



DO not know but I'm a little off on the subject 
of the ■■ Bee-keepers' T'nion." It apears to me 
a little like this: A j'ounjr man from one of the 
remote Dutch settlements in Pennsylvania went 
to college, and then stvitlied medicine. On his 
leturn to the place of his nativity, the neig-hbors 
looked up to him as a very wise and learned man, 
and were always sending for him to prescribe for 
them. In revolving- the matter over in his own 
mind he said, " Why is it that there is so much more 
sickness now, than when I was a boy '?" He threw 
up his practice and built a tanyard, and people 
would come to his mill and tell him of their ail- 
ments. All the answer this wise man would give 
was, " Do different; do different." 

Since the organization of the Bee-keepers' Union, 
lawsuits and neighborhood quarrels are more fre- 
quent. If 1 should be put upon the witness-stand, 
and sworn to tell the " truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth." my testimony might be 
more damaging to the bees than many of my fel- 
low-apiarists would like. It is true, that bees going 
to and from their hives in pursuit of honey, molest 
no one; but how is it when they have been roughly 
handled, such as is sometimes the case, when honey 
is being extracted ? 

I was at one time w<irk!ngwith my bees, oblivious 
of every thing, except what I had undertaken to ac- 
complish, and did not notice that I had angered the 
bees, as I was well protected against their stings. 
At the same time, a number of teams were em- 
ployed in grading the street in front of the apiary, 
and I afterward learned that the drivers had great 
dilHcuHy in niamiging them, as the bees stung them 
until they were almost frantic. 

This fall, after the frost had killed the tlowers, I 
was removing the surplus, and the bees were very 
cross. A widow owns a span of horses and a 
sprinkling-cart. She lives across the alley from our 
apiary. I almost trembled when I saw her team 
driven home at noon, but, fortunately, they were 
put in the stable without an accident. If these 
horses had been stung, and had run away and de- 
stroyed this woman's property, would I not have 
tieen morally responsible for her loss ? 

Bees are stock that we can not. at all times con- 
trol. If I could, I would keep them away from my 
neighbors' pumps. I aim to have fresh drinking- 
water at all times in the apiary; but it does not sat- 
isfy them. Oecasionallj' a person or child is stung 
l)y pinching them accidentallj-. Some of my neigh- 
bors keep geese, and let them run at large, in direct 
violation of a city ordinance. These geese rest in 
the shade of trees upon our sidewalk, and make it 
foul. If I should complain to the police about 
these geese, how long would it be before their own- 
ers would find out that our bees were a dangerous 
nuisance ? 

Many of our Western towns have their business 
houses facing a public sq\iare, and the square has 
wells of water and hitching-posts for the accommo- 
dation of farmers and the public generally. I know 
a bee-keeper who has an apiary facing such a 
square, and is an injury to the trade of that town, 
for people are afraid to take their teams there, and 
so go somewhere else. I suppose if the authorities 



should try to compel their removal he would call on 
the Union to defend his rights. 

The Canadian bee-keepers are at present greatly 
agitated because one of their number is openly ac- 
cused, by a neighboring blacksmith, of maintaining 
a nuisance, and are ])rofuse in their ott'ers of assist- 
ance to defend him. 1t appeal's to me that the bee- 
keeper is at fault, as he first complained of the 
blacksmith keeping a nuisance, in the shape of a 
bad-smelling pig-sty— a mere neighborhood quarrel, 
in which bee-keepers should have no interest. 

Peoria, 111. Mrs. Lucinda Harrison. 

My good friend Mrs. IT., I am very glad 
indeed to have you take up the defense on 
the other side. Your point ahout the geese 
is an excellent one. One of our neighbors 
keeps a large lot of chickens that have for 
two or three years made themselves very 
much at home, and apparently quite comfort- 
able, whenever our great luscious Sharpless 
strawberries were in bearing. We chased 
the chickens home for quite a while before 
my wife suggested making complaint. I 
told her the result would be, probably, that 
somebody would complain about our keeping 
so many bees, and I thought the l)est way 
would be to fence the chickens out. This 
we did with poultry-netting, and the poul- 
try-netting fence looks so pretty that I am 
well satistied with the investment. It also 
prevents loose cattle and sheep from getting 
into our strawberry grounds. All these 
things should be taken into consideration 
before having differences with a neighbor; 
and if the Bee-keepers' Union is going to be 
used for tlie purpose of backing up one par- 
ty in a neighborhood quarrel, it will cer- 
tainly be a very l)ad thing all round. I have 
several times seriously questioned the pro- 
priety or right— that is, the moral right— of 
keeping a considerable -sized apiary very 
close to stores, groceries, or a public square. 
Perhaps if the apiary contained only a dozen 
or twenty colonies, and it were surrounded 
with close-growing trees— evergreens, for in- 
stance—so as to start the bees straight up in 
the air. it might not be an annoyance. Re- 
member PauPs suggestion in regard to mat- 
ters of this kind— "If meat make my brother 
to offend, I will eat no flesh while tlie world 
standeth.'' 

FOUL BROOD. 



PRIENU .J. A. GREEN GIVES US HIS EXPERIENCE 
IN THE USE OF SAiaCYLIC ACID AND FHEN()I>. 

fHIS subject has been so much written on 
during the past few months in Gi-eanings 
that perhaps it is getting to be an old story 
to many of its readers. The reports of 
cures are so various that the person who 
discovers the presence of foul brood in his apiary 
is apt to be y)uz/.led to know what method of cure 
to adopt. 

The disease is so contagious in its character that 
promptness in its treatment is all-important, and it 
behooves everj- bee-keeper to not on.y acquire a 
thorough knowledge of its chai-acter and appear- 
ance, but to decide on the best method of cure, 
and be prepared to apply that cure without delay. 

I have had to deal with nearly a hundred cases of 
foul brood of the genuine virulent type. I have 



12 



GLEAJ^^INGS IK BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



observed and worked with the disease from early 
spring to winter, during times of scarcit}' and 
abundance. I have tried all the remedies that 
seemed to me to be based on reason. I believe I 
am through with it now, and the hope that my ex- 
perience may prove of value to others is wliat leads 
me to write this. 

It seems to me that many of those who have 
written on the subject in our magazines have had 
erroneous ideas as to the nature of the disease. 
These ideas may be correct, as applied to their lim- 
ited experience, but the method of cure adapted to 
one time and set of circumstances may utterly fail 
among other environments. I know that I have 
been led astray by methods that seemed plausible, 
and I am afraid that some of the theories lately 
propounded have not a very solid foundation on 
fact. 

There are some points which need to be cleared 
up to the popular mind, if the disease is to be suc- 
cessfully combated. The usual descriptions of the 
appearance of the diseased brood are, for the most 
part, correct, but I will recapitulate. 

In most cases the larva is attacked when nearly 
ready to seal up. It turns slightly yellow, or gray- 
ish spots appear on it. It then seems to soften, 
settles down in the bottom of the cell, in a shape- 
less mass, at tlrst white, yellow, or grayish in color, 
soon changing to brown. At this stage it becomes 
glutinous and ropy; then, after a varying length of 
time, owing to the weather, it dries up into a dark 
coffee-colored mass. Usually the bees make no 
attempt to clean out infected cells, and they will 
sometimes till them with honey, covering up this 
dried foul -brood matter at the bottom. 

Sometimes the larva^ do not die until sealed over. 
We have been told that such may be easily detects 
ed by a sunken capping perforated by a " pinhole." 
This is by no means invariably the case. Such 
larvse will often dry up entirely, without the cap 
becoming perforated or perceptibly sunken, al- 
though it usually becomes darker in color than 
those covering healthy larva". 

The most fatal misapprehension has been in re- 
gard to the smell of the disease. In its first stages 
there is no perceptible smell, and it is not until the 
disease has made considerable progress that any 
unusual smell would be noticed by most persons. 
In the last stages, when sometimes half or more of 
the cells in a hive are filled with rotten brood, the 
odor becomes sufficiently pronounced, but the 
nose is not to be relied on to decide whether a col- 
ony has foul brood or not. Long before it can be 
detected by the sense of smell, the colony is in a 
condition to communicate the disease to others. 

The eye alone can be depended on, and it must 
be a sharp and trained eye too, if any headway is 
to be made in curing the disease. 

MY EXPERIENCE WITH FOUL BROOD. 

When I first discovered the pi-esence of foul 
brood in my apiary I knew of only two eases. 1 
immediately introduced new queens to them, as 
I had had some experience with a form of diseased 
brood which was readily cured by the introduction 
of a new queen. This disease is not at all conta- 
gious, and I believe will generally if not always 
cure itself if let alone. 1 have no doubt that many 
of the so-called cures for foul brood have arisen 
from experience with this disease, or with brood 
which has been starved, chilled, or smothered. 

Finding that this did not cure them, 1 resolved to 



destroy them. All surplus combs and part of the 
hives were burned. The hives were then tightly 
closed, and at night a pan of burning brimstone 
was i)laced over the frames. In the morning I 
found that this had gone out without accomplish- 
ing its purpose. While waiting for nightfall to try 
it again I made a thorough examination of the 
apiary, and found eight or nine others with the 
disease. Some of these 1 had extracted honey 
from only a few days before, and there seemed no 
doubt that the disease would sprea(^as it did. 

I now determined to try to cure them. Salicylic 
acid was most recommended then, and the Ber- 
trand method of fumigation seemed to me the best 
way of applying it. All affected colonies were 
therefore arranged so they could be fumigated 
without handling combs or opening the hivea. 
This seemed to arrest the progress of the disease 
somewhat; but after faithfully carrying it out for 
nearly two months I despaired of effecting a com- 
plete cure. 

now determined to be thorough in my treat- 
ment, so ] Combined the Jones, or starvation plan, 
with Muth's plan of feeding salicylic acid; and aft- 
er starving the bees until all their honey was ex- 
hausted 1 put them in a clean hive on full sheets 
of foundation, or on empty combs, and then fed 
them salicylated syrup. This method was entirely 
successful; but winter was now at hand, and I still 
had several diseased colonies. After waiting until 
rather late in the season— all brood had been gone 
for some time— I extracted their honey and fed a 
part of them on salicylated syrup, and a part on 
syrup with 1-7 'i' of carbolic acid. All of these died 
during the winter except one, and that had foul 
brood in the spring. This spring a weak colony 
was robbed. An examination showed that it had 
foul brood, and the disease was thus scattered 
broadcast again. 

I now tried the Cheshire plan of feeding carbol- 
ated syru)). Some were cured by it, ai:d I now 
thought I had found a practical and' simple cure; 
but before all were cured, the honey-flow began 
and the bees refused to take the feed. 

I now returned to the starvation method without 
feed. I found that, when the bees were hived on 
foundation, they were cured; but when hived on 
empty combs they often developed the disease 
again. When hived on full sheets of foundation 
without starving, the disease generally returned, 
although a neighboring apiarist reported success 
by this plan with the addition of caging the queen 
for forty-eight hours. 

A few colonies in which the disease was just 
starting, and only a few diseased cells were to be 
found, were cured by scooping out the dead larvae, 
washing out the cells thoroughly with an atomizer, 
and spraying the surrounding comb with a two-per- 
cent solution of carbolic acid. 

Several colonies, in which foul brood was un- 
mistakably present, conquered the disease without 
assistance. 

This was during a heavy honey-flow. I shall 
have something more to say in regard to the bear- 
ing this has on the case. 

I now discovered that the colonies that had un- 
dergone the starvation process were far behind 
those similarly situated, except that they had not 
been starved. I then tried feeding them during 
their confinement, with phenolated syrup, and 
found it a great improvement over starvation. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



18 



By this time the fall yield of honey had come, 
and 1 still bad some cases of foul brood. T shook 
these from their combs into a new hive with a set 
of sections tilied with foundation above, separated 
by a gueen-excluding- honey-board from a contract- 
ed brood-chamber haviiijj;- only narrow starters of 
foundation— in short, Hutchinson's plan of hiving 
swarms. All these colonies not only went actively 
t<i work, filling- brood-chamber and 38 sections in a 
very short time, but none of them showed any 
traces of foul brood. This was in accordance with 
the theory I liad formed on the subject. Investiga- 
tion showed that Quiiiby used a plan embodying 
the same principles, .50 years ago, and which Doolittlc 
has more than once recommended in our journals. 

Meantime a number of nuclei used in queen- 
rearing were attacked by the disease almost 
simultaneously. T overlooked them carefully, 
washing out all affected cells with an atomizer, 
then sprayed bees and combs with thin syrup con- 
taining one-seventh per cent of carbolic acid. 
This ended the disease. 

It is not at all impossible that foul brood may 
reappear in my apiary, but I feel that, with the 
knowledge I have gained of the disease, I shall be 
able to speedily conquer and finally e.\terminate it. 

With the permission of the editor I shall have 
something more to say on this subject in the next 
number of Gleanings, detailing what I consider 
the best methods of cure according to varying cir- 
cumstances, with reasons therefor, and giving the 
exact steps so that a novice may not err. 

Dayton. 111., Dec. 10, 18bfi. J. A. Gkeen. 

I Hill very, very glad, friend G.,to have 
you indorse father (Juinby's sensible views 
of so many years ago ; and it is not very 
much to our credit that we have discussed 
the matter all this time without even think- 
ing of looking into our old standard text- 
books. I am glad to know, also, that you 
find carbolic acid, or phenol, at least a par- 
tial remedy. Let us have your best methods 
of cure. 

REPORT FROM L. C. ROOT. 

Something in Regard to his Honey Yields 
For the Past Twelve Years. 



THE POSSIBILITIES BEFORE AN INTELLIGENT AND 
SKILLFUL apiarist: 410.5 LBS. OF LINDEN HON- 
EY FROM 40 COLONIES IN ONLY 7 DAYS. 

iW EVERAL years ago, after having spent five 
^' years with father Quinby, I decided to com- 
i^ mence bee-keeping by myself. With the ben- 
■^ eflt of our combined experience I located 
here, considering it the best location we 
eoulil select, with all the experience we had gained 
in purchasing bees, honey, etc., during the years 
that had passed. In order to locate just where, and 
as I desired, I purchased the land without build- 
ings, and arranged all with especial reference to 
conducting this business. The facts are, this is a 
very fine location, and it is a rare chance for some 
one who desires to take advantage of it. Under the 
advice of a physician. I am to remove to a salt- 
water location. I have purchased a place at Stam- 
ford, Ct., on Long-Island Sound. I am quite anx- 
ious to dispose of my property soon, as I have pos- 
session of my place in Connecticut Feb. 1. 

L. C. Root. 
After receiving the above from friend 



Eoot. I wrote him that a report of his woik 
for the past twelve years would be exceed- 
ingly interesting to the readers of Glean- 
ings ; and although this report may favor 
him in securing a customer for his place, we 
are glad to get it nevertheless, for it is sel- 
dom that friend Root has been induced to 
write on bees for any other journal than the 
American Agriculturist : 

both sides. 

Tu answer to yours of Dec. C, I would say that I 
have not repoi-ted my yields of honey of late, for 
two reasons. First, because many people who are 
in less favorable locations will not ci-edit such re- 
ports; and, second, because reports of such yields 
often cause the inexperienced to engage in bee- 
keeping, with the anticipation of unwarranted re- 
sults. Let me say, then, first, that such yields as I 
have secured can be gained only in very favorable 
locations, and with much practical experience. Be- 
ginners should not expect such results. During 
my first five years in keeping bees as an exclusive 
business, while associated with the late M. Quinby, 
he would frequently remark, when I made mistakes, 
that I was paying for my license. This we must all 
do before we shall attain success in any calling. I 
shall not only give some facts in regard to the best 
yields of honey I have taken, but also some of the 
reverses. 

My first season, 1869, was a most disastrous one. 
There seemed to be absolutely no nectar in the 
blossoms, and nearly all stocks had to be fed for 
winter. The following year was a correspondingly 
good one, and we obtained what seemed to be an 
incredible yield. Some stocks gave us over 200 lbs. 
of box honey, and from one stock we extracted 3fil 
lbs. 

In 1874 I came from St. Johnsville to my present 
home. I selected this location because it offered 
more advantages than any other which I had seen 
during several years of experience in purchasing 
bees and honey. I commenced here with 100 colo- 
nies, in but medium condition. The first part of 
the season afforded me just honey enough to in- 
duce breeding, as a result of which I was able to 
make my stocks very populous. My first surplus 
was taken July 20, when linden came into bloom. 
During the next 40 days I secured 10.271 lbs., about 
one-third of which was comb honey. Since that 
time I have averaged good yields until the present 
season, which has been the poorest since 1869. Had 
it not been for experiences gained during that year 
I should not have been able to secure even the 6000 
lbs. that I did from 100 stocks. If we do not become 
discouraged during such reverses, experiences may 
be gained which we can not get in any other way. 

In referring to some of my best yields during the 
time mentioned, I do so in the belief that it may en- 
courage some to investigate the methods by which 
such results may be attained. My largest average 
yield from an entire apiary was 9727 lbs. from 40 
stocks. The largest in a given time was taken a 
year ago last summer, when I ecured from 40 
stocks 4103 lbs., all gathered in just seven days. 
This was gathci-ed from linden. It is little wonder 
that this source of honey should fail the present 
season, following as it did one of such extreme 
abundance. This entire failure of linden honey 
has furnished us a great opportunity for testing 
some of the other sources of honey. 
I have never been so thoroughly conviaced of the 



u 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



valiio of alsike clover as at present. Tlie quality of 
the honey can hardly be surpassed. As you are 
aware, the past season also g-avo us g-reat advan- 
tages for testing- the merits of the "Chapman hon- 
ey-plant," which seems to otter great promise for 
the future. Such a season also shows the wisdom 
of the present agitation of the subject of supplying 
forage for our bees, so that the sources may be 
greater and more certain. L. C. Root. 

Mohawk, N. Y., Dec. ti, 1880. 

There are three points iu the above, to 
which I wish to call attention. First, the 
wonderful capabilities of basswood. and 
that we are almost all of us destroying this 
beautiful tree in making honey-sections, 
about as fast as we can do it. How many 
l)ee-keepers are planting basswoods for the 



for instance? Ere long we are going to test 
the matter witli our 4U0(i young basswoods ; 
and -4000 large trees in full bloom would 
probably keep 40 colonies busy, say for the 
greater part of two or three times seven 
days. 



SKETCH OF THE HOME AND APIARY 
OF T. P. ANDRE-WS, FARINA, ILL. 



GLIMPSE OF THE IT^ACE WHEUE 
SPENDS HIS TIME. 



FKIEND A. 



y way of an explanation of the engraving I 
will state that only about two-thirds of the 
hives are shown in the cut. The small build- 
ing at the left is the honey-house, where the 
exti'acting- is done, where the honey is kept. 




APIAUY AND RESIDENCE OF T. P. ANDREWS, FAKINA, UA.. 



rising generation? Second, I want to em- 
phasize what friend Root says in regard to 
the value of honey from alsike clover. I 
have been able to secure about two dozen 
jars from the lot I have mentioned, exhibit- 
ed at our Ohio State Fair. I paid about 3.5 
cts. per jar for these, for samples. It any- 
body wants one before they are gone, they 
can have these for 40 cents. This beautiful 
liquid amber honey has not candied a parti- 
cle at the present writing, although we have 
had weather below zero. Third, forty colo- 
nies may gather, in one location, overlf lbs. 
a day each, on an average, for 7 days in suc- 
cession. Whicli one of us has even a glimpse 
of wliat the future of the honey-business 
may be, in favorable locations— an apiary 
located in the midst of a i)asswood orchard. 



and where the surplus coml)S, taken from the up- 
per stories of the hives, are stored away for winter. 
The larger building is my workshop, and is fitted up 
with machinery for cutting out lii\ e material antl 
other fixtures. 

Our honey in tliis \icinity is gatliered mainly from 
coreopsis. This plant, often miscalled " Spanisli 
needle," i.s very abundant in this locality, covering- 
many of the fields after harvest with a solid mass 
of bright yellow blossoms. The honey gathered 
from this bloom has an exceptionally rich and pleas- 
ant flavor. The superior qualiti' of this coreopsis 
honey is so well described by a correspondent in a 
I'ecent number of the Amciicaii Bee Jonriinl, that 
T will quote his words: 

" The honej lu-oduced by this plant is fast cominff 
into pubh'c fa\-oi-. Its rich, beautiful golden color, 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



lo 



ox(iuisitu fragrance anrt taste, with heavy rich 
liody, weigliing- about Iw lbs. to the {iaiioii, iiuike it a 
favorite among- epicures, and is sought lor in our 
home markets above all others." 

During- the past 17 years bee-keeping- has been 
my principal business, ha\ing' now ;!0() colonies. 

Karina, III. T. P. Andrews. 

We are sorry that friend A. did not take 
time to explain a little more. That honey- 
house with the wire cloth over the window 
fronting the audience— we want to know 
what is inside of it. Also that big wlieel- 
barrow with two hives loaded on it. and 
with very great big whopping wheels that 
look like palm-leaf hats. IIo'w do you like 
the arrangement, friend A.? llow far apart 
are the hives? and don't the bees get in the 
wrong hives more or less, when you have 
them' so close togetlier. and such long rows? 
I think you can tell us a little more about it 
in our next issue. 



MARKETING EXTRACTED HONEY. 



Something About the Right Man Eor Selling 
Honey. 

EXCELLENT SUGGESTIONS FROM E. FRANCE. 

^\ AlSIN(i large quantities of extracted honey is 

Of one thing; but when it comes to sell, and get 

'Ek paying- prices for the hone}', I confess we are 

\ not master of the situation. Still, we manage 

to get rid of all the honey we raise, although 

we have HO barrels yet of this year's crop on hand. 

Until the year 18S4 our home market took all we 
had, except a little sold to a fCAV neighboring- towns. 
In 1884 we secured 31,27(5 lbs. of honey. The ques- 
tion was, whether we could sell all that honey. To 
make the matter still worse, three other honey- 
producers had sprung up, with an aggregate 
amount of 1.5,000 lbs. of honey to sell, and they were 
all looking to our home market to dispose of their 
crops. This would take a big slice off from my 
home trade. AN'e were, in consequence, compelled 
to look up some other market. Wo put an adver- 
tisement in Gleanings, which brought an order 
from Messrs. Thurber, Whyland & Co., of New York. 
We sold them 21 barrels, and obtained cash for it, 
at SVi cents. We got several other customers, some 
of whom are still buying of us, to sell again. 
sharks, and what to do avith them. 

We also had an (n-der for 12 barrels, from f!. W. 
House, of Manlius, N. Y. We sent him the honey, 
and he cheated us oiU of our pay. liut we got rid 
of the honey all the same. My the way, I have 
learned we are not the only ones whom he cheated 
out of their honey. Still, he has no propertj — poor 
fellow! I am very sorry for him. He is worse off 
than most of the parties who sold him their honey, 
and I should think that, by this time, he has learn- 
ed that gambling and bad whisky are a bad combi- 
nation. Now, the upshot of this is, when one of 
our number gets caught we ought to " squeal " loud 
enough so that every honey-producer in the coun- 
try can hear it. Then the rest of us will lookout 
and not get caught. 

I bought a lOOit-mile ticket on theBt. Paul railroad, 
and took a trip out through Iowa, stopping over at 
almost e\ery village. T sold honey to grocerymeu, 
hotel-keepers, and others, to use and sell again. In 
that way we managed to w<n-k off the crop, besides 



starting a trade with several pai-tics who are still 
dealing with us. 

In 1885we had something o\er;!0,(K)U lbs. of honei ; 
l)ut with the trade that we had worked up the year 
before, we worked it off without much trouble. 

This year, 188t), we secured 42,489 lbs. of honf-i-, 
with prices fully one cent lower than last year. 
But we have the honey, and have to take the mar- 
ket, so 1 purchased another lOUOmile ticket; took 
another trip west through Wisconsin out into Min- 
nesota, stoi)iiing along- as before, and selling in al- 
most all the towns 1 visited. I went out to St. Paul 
and Minneapolis, and on as far as St. Cloud, Minn., 
then returned over another road. I was gone about 
four weeks. I sold a good deal of honey, but still we 
have 30 barrels yet to sell, and there is quite a long 
time yet before another crop will be harvested. I 
think we can work it off by that time. 

selling honey, and how to do it; the rh;ht 
man to sell. 

We have sold a large quantity of honey to grocery- 
men and store-keepers, to sell again; but we find 
that the grocery men are not the best men to sell 
honey— that is, extracted honey— in kegs and bar- 
rels. Thej' won't push the sale of it. There are 
very few of them who will keep it in sight, or make 
much effort to sell. If their customei's call for it 
they will sell. We find that, if some good honest 
person, one who is respected by his own town-folks, 
and who can take time to make a special business 
of selling- honey, will go to every house, show the 
honej', either by sample or sell it as he goes, and 
work up a trade, supply everybody who will buj', he 
is the man to sell honey. INIany small bee-keepers 
who don't raise enough to supi)ly their own home 
market are good men to sell honey, as their town- 
folks will look to them for honey. There are a 
great many towns which do not, as a rule, use hon- 
ey to any extent, but would use thousands of 
pounds every year if we could find the right kind of 
a man living in the town to sell the honey. I be- 
lieve nearly every town or village of any impor- 
tance has the right man or person to make a good 
salesman, and one covild build up a good ti-adein 
honey, make money for themselves, and help to 
work off' our big crops. Ikit the trouble is to find 
the one to do the selling; and when they are found, 
they are not store-keepers, as a rule, although the 
store-keeper is better than no one. 

1 have a little story to tell, to illustrate this point: 
I have been in the habit for some years of going 
once a year around a circuit that took two or three 
days, and would strike Ave or six fine villages, to 
sell honey, selling mostly to store-keepers at whole- 
sale rates, and they retail at a profit. The flrst 
year they would make some effort to sell, and 
would sell considerable. The next year their sales 
would be less, and less every year. About half way 
round my circuit was the town of S., of about 2.t00 
population. The first year my man thci-e (a store- 
keeper) sold 8(HI lbs., and sold less every year, until 
last year he sold only loo lbs. Now. I made up my 
mind that I could do better. My wife wanted to 
take a ride out through the country, and so we 
loaded up 1000 lbs. of honey in our big spring cover- 
ed wagon, and started out to go around the circuit, 
and do our own retailing. The first day we worked 
two small towns and sohl 70(1 lbs., and drove to the 
town of S. We got there just at dark, too late to do 
any peddling, so we put up for the night at a hotel. 



16 



GLEANINGS LN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



I had a chance to talk houey to some that night. I 
told them I should retail the honey myself, in the 
morning-, at 10 cts. per lb. The merchant who had 
been selling, charged 15 cents, he giving me 8 cents, 
and was not satisfied with his profits at that. In the 
morning I hitched up to peddle houey over the 
town. My wife went along to hold the horses and 
see the town; but just as I was hitching on my 
•wagon, a young man about 20 years old came to me 
and proposed to me to go along and help me sell 
honey. He said he was a carpenter s son, and that 
they lived in that house, pointing to a big new house 
on a little hill. His business haa leeu, going to 
school and raising berries to sell in town. He knew 
everybody in town, and they aU knew him. I told 
him, " AU right, come on." So I left my wife at the 
hotel. The young man ran home to change his 
clothes a little; and while he was gone I inquired 
about his standing lor honesty, and found him first 
class. All whom I asked about him said he was 
honest. He was soon back, and we started out. I 
gave him the lines and told him to choose his own 
customei'S. He drove to the doctor's house first; 
sold some honey; then to the houses of merchants 
and lawyers. Everybody knew and respected him. 
In a very short time our 300 lbs. of houey was gone. 
I saved a 5-lb. pailful of honey and gave it to him. 
I told him to go over the whole town and take or- 
ders with the sample, and I would send him by rail 
all the honey he could sell. He was to sell at 10 
cents, and pay me 7, and send me my part of the 
money when the honey was sold. He was also to 
send me back the empty barrels. He agreed to that 
and I left him. Then the good wife and I drove 
home. In two days 1 got an order from him for a 
barrel of honey. I sent it (370 lbs.). In less than a 
week he sent the money, and ordered another bar- 
rel, one 100-lb. keg and two 50-lb. kegs. We sent the 
honey as ordered. In about another week he sent 
pay, and ordered another barrel. He said he had 
the town pretty well sweetened up, and was going 
to sell to the farmers. He soon sent cash for all he 
had and ordered his fourth barrel, which we sent 
him. Now to sum up: This young man sold over 
1300 lbs. of honey in about 3 weeks. His commission 
was over $36.00, and that in the same town where 
the merchant sold last year only 100 lbs., and growl- 
ed like a dog with a sore head about there being no 
profit in selling honey. 

We have a man in a lai-ge western town who be- 
gan to buy of us in 1S84. He sold the first year, four 
or five barrels; last j'ear he sold 18 barrels, which he 
bought of us. This year he expects to sell 20 or 
35 barrels of honey. He has already had 13 barrels, 
and we are holding as much more subject to his 
orders. He is a bee-keeper too. Several other reg- 
ular customers are buying less quantities to sell, 
and the most of them are increasing their sales. 
We find no trouble to sell all our best grades of hon- 
ey, third and fourth extracting. Of the best grades 
wo never have enough. But our dark grades, first 
and second extracting, which we have always had a 
good trade in for manufacturing purposes, goes 
slow this j-ear. There has been a flood of dark hon- 
ey-dew honey this year, and it is so poor that it has 
played the mischief with the dark - honey trade. 
Some of it has been sold, I am told, as low as 3 cents 
a pound. We have no honey-dew honey, and I am 
glad of it. We have some dark honey, gathered iu 
the spring from dandelions and fruit - blossoms, 
which we have been selling at 5 and 6 cents by the 



barrel. We never sold our darkest honey for less 
than 6 cents before this year. Next year perhaps 
we shall be asked to give the honey, paj- freight, 
and throw in barrels. Houey is getting lower every 
year— poor time for beginners to set in now. 
Platteville, Wis. K. Fkanuk. 

Friend F., the facts you give us in tlie 
above are very valuable, and no doubt 
hundreds of our readers will i>iolit by them. 
The point yon strike on, that so many gro- 
cerymen never show goods till people in- 
quire for them, is a sad fact. Even in our 
ov/n lunch-room, over and over again I find 
certain articles I supposed would have a 
good sale, put under the counters, or upon 
the shelves, comparatively out of sight. 
When I inquire about them I <im told there 
has not been any call for tliem. Now. I 
don't suppose there would be a call for 
strawberries, or, at least, not very much, if 
the groceryman should put them under the 
counter as soon as they are brought in. I 
suppose, however, we should endeavor to 
make the best of humanity we can, and not 
grumble or find fault. Your twenty-year- 
old lad who learned his trade by peddling 
honey is the sort of chap we want. Why. 
it just makes me feel happy to come across 
one of these young fellows who love work 
of this kind. The fact that he knew every- 
body in tlie town was greatly in his favor. 
—Friend F., I want to take you to task a 
little for your concluding words. You 
have no cause to complain--that is, if you 
are complaining. I think you may thank 
God also, for giving you a" queen of your 
household who enjoys going with you on a 
peddling-trip. No wonder you are a big 
bee-man. Don't worry about low prices. 
God has always provided for us. and I am 
sure he will to the end. 



A SIMPLICITY HIVE MTITH BOTTOM- 
BAR SHORTEK THAN TOP-BAR. 



THF, ADVANTAGES OF .i HIVE MADE TO HOLD SUCH 
A FR.\ME. 

fHREE years ago I invented a bee-hive which 
• I then thought was "the hive for the South." 
After three years of thorough test I am now 
prepared to explain the hive and its merits. 
It is nothing more than the standard Sim- 
plicity with but a little simple change, and yet this 
little change makes a wonderful improvement in 
its manipulations and usefulness. The whole thing 
is easily described. The little simple change re- 
ferred to consists in shortening the bottom-bar of 
the frame so that the hive in which the frame is to 
fit will be just 141.1 inches square at the bottom, in- 
side measure, while the top of the hive and frame 
remains the same size as the Simplicity. The 
frame is shaped thus: 



/ 

ITS ADVANTAOES. 

Any one who has ever kept bees in the South 
knows something about the trouble caused by the 
combs melting down, even with wired frames. It 
was to obviate this that I constructed the new 
hive; and any one will see at a glance, that it is 
practically a great improvement, as, when the 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



17 



combs start to sag, it only tightens them, the bot- 
tom of the frame being smaller than the top. 

Another great advantage is, that the frames are 
always movable. Vou will notice that the least nj)- 
ward motion of the frame will loosen any part 
where the bees may have filled in with comb or 
propolis, and the more you lift the frame up the 
looser it becomes. You can really hold the frame 
down in the hive when you shake the bees off, thus 
keeping them from flying so much. It is the frame 
for Iransferring, as you will notice the comb, when 
cut to fit tight in the frame, will rather lie against 
the end-bar of the frame, and thus obviate the ne- 
cessity of tjing the combs in. The frame gi\"ps 
something like a comb of a natural shape, thus do- 
ing away, to a great extent, with the lower empty 
corner nearly always found in the ordinary S(juare 
frame. Again, this hive gives a large space on top 
ne.xt to the surplus bo.x or case— not larger than the 
Simplicity, but larger in proportion to the rest of 
the hive. 1 have noticed it as a fact, that the bees 
go mori' readily into the surplus-boxes. Vou will 
see from the peculiar shape of the hive that it will 
economize the warmth in winter. There are a 
great many other advantages to be had in using 
this hive, but experience will teach better than the 
pen can tell. The greatest objection is, that the 
hive is more difficult to make than others. 

Benton, La., Dec. IT, 1886. ("hakles King.sley. 

Friend K., the hive you mention is not 
new ; in fact, our friends across the water 
both used and described the same thing by 
drawings quite a number of years ago. One 
of the difficulties is. that you can not tier the 
hives up. one above another; and while we 
admit the advantages in lifting the frames, 
I believe it has been generally decided that 
this advantage does not overbalance the dis- 
advantages. Heddon's reversible frame has 
the end-bars that go only part way down, 
made wedge-shaped— thus accomplishing in 
a measure the same thing that you do. I 
believe your reasons for preferring such a 
frame are all of them sound ones ; and per- 
haps some of our readers may prefer to use 
hives made in this way ; but why so great a 
reduction as from 174 to 14i V 



BEE-LEGISLATION. 

UR. .MILIiER STtliL DEFENDS HIS POSlTll)N. 

Up S I read the remarks of Z. T. Hawk, p. 944, 
^Mk. and the queries of A. F. Stauffer on page 

j^K 947, Gleanings, 1886, I see plainly that there 
■*^ is an entire misapprehension as to the scope 
and bearing of bee-legislation. Bro. Stauf- 
fer asks, " Why should there be a monopoly of bee- 
keeping, any more than of any thing else V " I do 
not think there should be any more monopoly of 
bee-keeping than of farming. Bro. Hawk objects 
to class legislation. In the sense in which I think 
he use.>i it, 1 do not want class legislation. I want 
just tlie same legislation for bee-keepers that he 
wants for farmers, and that farmers have had ever 
since the settlement of this country. 

It is possibly a little unfortunate that the word 
"legislation " has been used, for nowadays there is 
so much of jobbing and dishonesty in much of the 
legislation that whenever any thing is not fully un- 
derstood, some hidden dishonesty is suspected. 
Yet, do away with all legislation, and nothing but 



anarchy is left, for which we are not yet ready. 
For my own part I believe I desire no legislation 
except that which shall promote the greatest good 
of the greatest number. Let me briefly state the 
basis upon which such legislation may be asked. 
The successful pj-osccution of bee-keeping maybe 
made a source of wealth to the country, hence is 
for the general good. To be successfully prosecut- 
ed, it is necessary that those who embaik in the 
business shall be reasonably secure that any out- 
lay of time, thought, or money, shall inure to a fair 
extent to their own benefit. This can hardly be, 
unless the bee-keeper can have a certain territory 
secured to his own use; and as laws now stand, he 
can have no assurance of this, hence the need of a 
new law. 

The editor of Gleanings offers a solutiou of the 
difficulty, p. 94.5, which, under certain circumstan- 
ces, would be very satisfactory. It is, to use the 
spirit that actuated father Abraham in his division 
of the land with Lot. But, admitting that there 
may be an Abraham in each case, can he be sure 
of a Lot to deal wichV It would do away with the 
necessity for law in nearly all, if not all cases, if 
everybody wanted to do exactly right. It is just 
because they do not want to do right, that laws are 
necessary. If every one were like Abraham, or 
even like Lot, no one would steal; but under exist- 
ing circumstances would you, brother Hoot, advise 
the abrogation of the laws against stealing? More- 
over, the cases are not parallel. Abraham and Lot 
jointly occupied the same teri'itory; and when the 
territory became overstocked an amicable divi- 
sion was made. To make the case parallel to the 
one in question, suppose that Lot, a year after the 
division, had brought his flocks and herds, and 
planted himself right by Abraham, and occupied 
Abraham's territory, would the old patriarch have 
quietly submitted to this encroachment? I trow 
not. 

Friend Hawk says, " If the professional bee-keep- 
er is to be protected by law against the amateur," 
etc. The protection I ask for is for any profession- 
al or amateur, as against any other professional or 
amateur who may be unwise «r dishonest enough 
to encroach upon him, the same as the law protects 
the professional or amateur farmer from any en- 
croachment upon his territory. Friend Hawk 
thinks no grocer should have exclusive right in 
any given territory. Neither do I. I think a farm- 
er should, and friend H. thinks so most emphatical- 
ly, as he says, '* I certainly should resent any law 
that would sell to him any right whatever in re- 
gard to my farm." Why should the farmer have 
what he is pleased to call class legislation, and not 
the grocer? Because the grocer can carry on his 
business to his entire satisfaction with the ground 
covered only by his building. Limit him to a lot 
30 feet square, and he may do a business of $.500 
or f .50(1.000 per year, dependent entirely upon other 
things than the ground he occupies. Plant right 
beside him another grocer, with the same territory, 
and even the same capital, and one may do ten 
times as much business as the other, and this com- 
petition is really a necessary thing for the general 
good. With the farmer (as with the bee-keeper> 
the case is different. Take from him the exclusive 
control of a definite territory, and he ceases farm- 
ing. His business can not be carried on without 
the control of that territory, and competition In 
his case comes in when his products are put upon 



18 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



the market. Friend Hawk, don't you see that the 
case of the bee-keeper is like that of the farmer, 
and not the grocer? 

Friend Stauffer, p. 947, asks if 1 would prevent, 
by law, farmers from keeping bees on their own 
land. T know that this will present itself as a diffi- 
culty to the minds of many. In general, the farm- 
er has a right to do as he jilcases with and on his 
own land; but that right must always yield to the 
general good, if necessary. A farmer may object 
to a railroad passing through his land, but if it is 
thought best for the general good, the railroad 
goes through in spite of bis wishes. Hetween my 
home and the village a man erected a slaughter- 
house. It was on his own land, where he had a 
right to do as he pleased, but the slaughter-house 
in that location was deemed not best for the gener- 
al good, and in spite of his own wishes be was 
obliged to take it down. I may think I can keep 
what plants I please on my own land ; tut if I at- 
tempt to raise a crop of Canada thistles I find my- 
self mistaken. So if it be for the general good that 
there be encouragement to have all the nectar 
gathered, and to have the benefit of the bees in 
the fertilization of flowers, it may be the right 
thing to re-district the land for bee-keepers, some- 
what as it was districted for farmers. 

Marengo, 111., Dec. 1.5, 1886. C. C. Miller. 



BOOK AGENTS, AND AGENTS IN GEN- 
ERAL. 



HAS GLEANINGS BEEN TOO SEVERE ON THIS CLASS 
OF PEOPLE? 



T THINK you are too severe on book agents. I 
jd^ think and know they may often do a great deal 
^r of good— are real missionaries. Many people, 
"*■ especially farmers, would buy but few books, 
except they were brought to their homes and 
offered for sale. Sometimes they are pressed to 
buy. The book is bought; and if a good one, it is a 
lifelong treasure to that family. I can see no rea- 
son why a book agent may not be a gentleman or a 
lady as well in that^calling as elsewhere, or why it 
is any worse to sell a book than to sell honej'. Our 
Bible Society sends out agents. 

Sarah J. W. Axtell. 
Roseville, Ills., Dec. V, 1886. 

To begin with, 1 am a reader of and subscriber to 
Gleanings. I should not like to be without it; but 
when 1 tell you I am, have been, and always expect 
to be, a " book agent," Ernest will feel like bump- 
ing a hive of hybrids to get rid of me, and you, Mr. 
Root, will feel like turning the "moral" in Mahala 
B. Chaddock's article (page 940, Dec. 1), with full 
force against me. Hut, as Mrs. Chaddock says, 
" there is lots of human nature in folks." 1 find, 
also, there may be lots of selfishness in folks. Now, 
let us e-vamiue a few articles in Gleanings that re- 
late to agents. 

On page 917, Nov. 1."), A. I. Root throws out some 
very strong inducements for an agent for Glean- 
ings at even/ postoffice. That is good so far, as I 
think that, if cvcryhody i-ead Gleanings we should 
not have to contend with so much ignorance in get- 
ting rid of our honey; besides, people would be 
benefited in many other ways. 

But Ernest, on page 91.5 of same issue, takes some 
steps in advance of his father (which boys are like- 
ly to in these days), and tells us how to get rid of 



any kind of agents. Now, suppose I should take the 
above number of Gleanings and go to one man of 
one postoffice, and, after trying to show him that 
the work was of special benefit to him. and failed, 
I should turn to page 915 and tell him there was an 
article that was worth a year's subscription. What 
would the man think? He would certainly be led to 
think an agent was something that niiisf be got rid 
of, even if deception had to be resorted to. Now, 
Mr. Root, is it a moral fact that book agents are not 
needed in any community? If so. what a needless 
amount of time, means, and talents are expended 
by Bible (book) agents, and those who support them ! 
Now, I will ask a few questions: What harm is there 
in taking a good book on anj- legitimate business, 
and trying to sell it to those who will be benefited 
by it? Is there any tnore harm in my taking the 
Story of the Bible to a person, and try to show him 
that his family will be bettered by having that book 
and reading it, than there is in your telling them so 
through Gleanings, as well as of the 95 other books 
you seem to be agent for? 

I admit there are dishonenl book agents; and what 
calling in life is there that does not have dishonest 
agents? Why are the American people so intelli- 
gent on so many subjects? Is it not because they 
read? How could some of our ver3' best books be 
got before the people if it were not for traveling 
agents? Christ says the children of this world have 
become wiser in their generation than the children 
of light. The powers of darkness are flooding the 
world with their pernicious and soul - destroying 
books and papers; and shall the children of light 
(or children who ought to be children of light) 
quietly sit down and tell people how to get rid of 
book agents? or shall we try to present to the peo- 
ple the true light and work in a Christian manner 
with Christian spirit, with perseverance to do so? 
3— T. D. Waller, 37—83. 

Port Andrew, Wis., Dec. 5, 1886. 

Many thanks, deav friends, for your kind 
rebuke, and especially for the way in which 
it is given. There is, however, justice and 
truth on both sides of this question ; but I 
see now that I have been altogether too 
sweeping, and I beg pardon. I did not 
mean, however, in my remarks to object to 
having anybody go to a neighbor's or ac- 
quaintance's. I am always glad to see a 
Medina man wilh any thing he may have to 
sell, provided he excuses me when I pleas- 
antly tell him I don't want what he has for 
sale ; and when I speak of having some one 
in every neighborhood act as agent for 
Gleanings I took it for granted he would 
go to only those with whom he is ac- 
quainted, and who would regnrd him asja 
neighbor. Most people will be quite willing 
to stop and listen to one with whom they 
are somewhat acquainted, wlien they would 
not feel pleasantly at all to be interrupted 
by an entii'e stranger, such as those who 
travel from house to house must necessarily 
be. The bee-keepers who get mail at one 
postoffice are almost invariably more or less 
acquainted with each other. The same 
would apply in regard to selling honey ; and 
if I thouglit thatany thing that has ever 
been said in ({leanings in legard to devel- 
oping your liome market meant that you 
should, "by importunity and such behavior as 
we often meet in hoak agents, induce any- 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



19 



l)ody to buy honey they did not want, I 
shoiihl l)y all means object. There are, 
without doubt, two sides to this matter ; but 
the wrong I had in mind is indeed a griev- 
ous one, and many tan bear me out in say- 
ing so. I mean, overpersuading people 
against their better judgment. In our es- 
tablishment, younger people who have not 
judgment and discretion have l)een persuad- 
ed again and again into buying books at 
extravagant prices wlien they hadn't the 
wherewith to pay their honest debts. A 
young married man was induced to buy the 
Life of Grant, when he ought not to liave 
bought it. Tlie same agent wanted to sell 
liim another book, but I objected, because 
the young man was out in the lield woiking 
on riu/ time. Tlie young man told me after- 
ward that he was very glad I did so, for he 
was so much in need of money that he very 
much regretted having made the foi-mer 
purchase. Books sold by agents, so far as I 
know% are sold at extravagant prices, and at 
extravagant profits. Those who sell books, 
or take subscriptions for bee-journals, are 
satisfied with a profit of from 10 to 25 per 
cent ; but book agents often make lUO per 
cent or more. In regard to religious books 
sold by colporteurs, I think this is indeed 
praiseworthy, and they ouglit to be encour- 
aged ; but the profits in this business are so 
small that a scheming and unprincipled 
man would never think of going into it. 

The waste of time that it takes to listen 
to a book agent, when you don't want wliat 
he has to sell, is, to my mind, one of the 
greatest objections. However, you have a 
right to stop and listen, if you choose— that 
is, when you are working on your own time ; 
but if you arew^orking by the hour for some- 
body else, I do not think you liave a right to 
stop your work and look at a book. In our 
establishment we have had to make very 
stringent rules, because of this kind of work. 
One lady book agent argued the matter with 
me quite at length. When I told her that 
the proper place to see our people was at 
their homes, outside of working hours, she 
replied. " But just think how much trouble 
it w^ould make me to go around to all of 
them at their homes, compared with seeing 
them all together here at once." I did not 
tell her about the boys and the frogs, but it 
seemed to me that what was rare fun for 
her was death to— my poeket-bo;)k. If you 
want to sell honey, get subscriptions for 
Gleanings, or sell A B (' books, don't. I 
beg of you, go to people who are working by 
the hour for somebody else, and inteirupt 
them during their work. What Ernest put 
in in reference to the insurance agent w as 
intended as a joke: but I am free to confess 
now, that I felt somewhat pained when I 
found it in print. A bee sting is, to many 
people, a serious matter, and we have no 
right to give pain to any one, especially any 
thing that is so excruciating as the pain of a 
bee-sting, either in jest or earnest. I now 
remember that several jokes of this kind 
have appeared in Gleaninos. and I thank 
friend "\Valler for calling my attention to it. 
One who professes to follow Clu'ist should 
never perpetrate jokes, nor have fun wlien it 
will give pajn to a fe]lo\v-being. even if this 



fellow-being has been importunate to the 
extent of l)eing troublesome. There is noth- 
ing in this world that is so much to be ad- 
mired as simple, frank honesty and sinceri- 
ty in all our deal and in all our differences. 

Friend W. strikes on another point in his 
remarks. I Avould not advise anybody to 
undertake to exhort a man in regard to his 
soul's salvation, even (without the employ- 
er's sanction), while he is employed by some 
one else, and while this some one else 
has bought and paid for his undivided 
time and attention. 1 think the cause of 
Christ would be furthered, many times, by 
remembering things of this kind. Choose 
a proper time and fitting oi)portunity, and 
don't say too much, remem])ering that the 
Scripture says, '■ Words fitly spoken are like 
ap]>les of gold set in pictures of silver." 



BEES vs. BEAVERS. 



A New Office lor the Bee-Sting, from the 
Scientifle American. 



F. CLAHKE'S NEW THEORV OF THE 

Cl'StfED. 



STING l>IS- 



N order that our readers may better un- 
derstand the purport of the following 
article from J). F. Savage, we clip from 
the Scievtiiic American, under date of 
Dec. -i, page 0.33, the item to which our 
friend takes exceptions. The waiter ques- 
tions the scientific accuracy in such a pleas- 
ant manner that we feel that our old friend. 
W. F. Clarke, will not take it unkindly. 

A ucw champion has arisen to defend the honey- 
bee from the obloquy under which it has always 
rested. Mr. Wm. F.'Plarke, of Canada, claims to 
have discovered, I'rora repeated observations, that 
the most important function of the bee's sting- is 
not sting-ing-. In a recent article he says: 

My observations and retiections have convinced 
me that the most important office of the bee-sting 
is that which is performed in doing the artistic cell 
work, capping the comb, and infusing the fornii<! 
acid by means of which honej' receives its keeping 
qualities. As I said at Detroit, the sting is really a 
skillfully contrived little trowel, with which the bee 
finishes off and caps the cells when thei' are filled 
brimful of honey. This explains why honey ex- 
tracted before it is capped over does not keep well. 
The formic acid has not been injected into it. This 
is done in the very act of putting the last touches 
on the cell work. As the little pliant trowel is 
worked to and fro with such dexterity, the darts, 
of which there are two, pierce the plastic cell sur- 
face, and leave the nectar beneath its tiny drops of 
the fluid which makes it keep well. This is the "art 
preservative" of honey. A most wonderful pro- 
vision of nature, truly! Herein we see that the 
sting ajid the poison-bag, with which so many of us 
v.ould like to dispense, are essential to the storage 
of our coveted product, and that without them the 
beautiful comb honey of commerce would be a 
thing unknown. 

MK. savage's comments ON THE SAME. 

Here is a strange theory of the uses of the sting 
of bees in slicking otf the cappiugs of cells, and in- 
jecting therein a p(n'lion of formic acid, so that the 
honey may keep the better. The idea seems to be 
I>ut forth in all seriousness, that the most important 
function of the sting is e.vercised within the hive, 
and that its occasional employment outside is only 
an incident or an accident. I find it in the Sciottitir 
Ameiicaii. purporting to be the substance of an 
article by Wm. F. Clarke, of Canada, who, it ap- 
pears, made some statements on the subject at De- 
troit. Now, I wish to know whether any company 



20 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



of bee-keeppi-s would receive, without question, 
such speculations. If Bro. Clarke merely supposes 
that the bees deliberately, and in cold blood, use 
their stings in this way, we suppose that they do 
nothing- of the sort, and one supposition is as good 
as another — perhaps better. He, however, claims 
to have come to this conclusion by repeated ob- 
servations. Hut has he really seen the bees doing- 
that? Does the bee, like the bea\er, use the tail for 
a trowel? Is the latter end indeed the " business 
end"? There are several implements at the other 
end, far better adapted for smoothing and finishing- 
off their work. I have many times witnessed, 
thi-ough the glass of my observing hive, the process 
of storing- honey in cells, and capping the same 
with mandibles and tongue. It'seems to be done in 
a quiet, leisurely, happy way, with no trace of 
anger or excitement such as invariably accom- 
panies the darting-forth of the sting with a tiny 
drop of poison on the barb; for the least knock or 
Jar is answered by a sharp yelp of resentment, and 
many bees are seen to spread their banners, and 
thrust out their weapons; but those engaged in 
feeding larva- or storing honey, or comb-building, 
and those just coming in laden with pollen and nec- 
tar, take little notice of the disturbance, and their 
stings ' are not unsheathed. No doubt, at such a 
time of alarm some poison is scattered on the 
combs and into the honey, as Laugstroth and others 
have remarked ; and if a hive is often disturbed the 
honey may become very highly seasoned. We have 
always supposed that the unsealed honey would 
I'eceivc this sprinkling, not that which was sealed 
or nearly so. Now, Ernest, look up the authorities 
and see what they say concerning formic acid in 
honey — whether all honey contains it originally; 
whether it is added unconsciously while the honey 
is in the honey-sack, or as it is deposited in the cell, 
or whether it is designedly and barbarouslj' infused 
at the end by the bees in order to give their plun- 
derers the stomach-ache when they eat the stolen 
sweets. Does sealed honey contain much formic 
acid, or more than unsealed or evaporated or ex- 
tracted honey? Is it the presence of the acid or the 
absence of air that preserves the honey? The 
scientists have studied these subjects, but I know 
not how far their conclusions will go to support the 
theory of Bro. Clarke; nor does it matter, unless 
he has really seen the thing done, as he would have 
us believe. In that case he has made a wonderful 
discovei-y indeed, ot something wholly out of har- 
mony with all that we have been taught and have 
observed concerning the habits and constitution of 
the bee, and the mechanism of its sting. The val- 
iant warrior's poisoned lance has become the peace- 
ful laborer's implement; spears are pruning-hooks, 
swords are plowshares, poniards are pitchforks, 
tomahawks are trowels. Truly, the millennium is 
nigh. 

It would Ik' (litlieult to remove the impressions 
that most of us have concerning the sweet satisfac- 
tion and exceeding joy of the bees in all their un- 
molested avocations at home and abroad; tlieii- re- 
luctance to (|uarrel when honey Is plentiful and 
they are full; their whole denieauoi-, so different 
from the irascibility disj>layed at other times. 
Friend Clarke, in his closing paragraph, discourses 
finely of their natural (juietness. industry, and 
peaeeableness, and in a strain that seems incon- 
sistent Willi his idea that aninslrnment so "skillful- 
ly contrived " for offense and defense, yet general- 



ly kept out of sight, but prompt to appear on slight 
disturbance, and that, too, with astonishing im- 
mediate effects on the community, the mere taint of 
the venom on the^skin or clothing, or' even in the 
air, being sufficient to awaken instant enmity and 
provoke a swift attack from multitudes —that such 
apparatus, with the feelings of disijleasure, resent- 
ment, and wild fury that are inseparable from its 
use out of doors, should be plied so placidly and 
constantly within the hive. 

It ill becomes a bee-keeper of prominence to add 
to the wild vagaries that prevailed in the former 
days of ignorance, and that still are held by many 
otherwise intelligent people. Most of the readers 
of such a paper as the Scientiflc American, no doubt, 
still suppose that bees are simply a si)iteful and 
dangerous nuisance; and though the article re- 
ferred to may enlighten and comfort them on that 
point, will it not create a fresh terror and panic in 
the minds of those who have always been hasty to 
believe that all bee-keepers and honey -dealers 
wickedly adulterate their products, and who now 
behold a more dangerous evil brought to light, not 
by an ignoramus, but by a bee-master who ought 
to know, the fact that honey is evermore unsafe, 
since it is poisoned by the bees themselves at the 
fountain-head. D. F. S,\v.\ge. 

Casky, Ky., Dec. H, ma. 

Friend Clarke says the sting is " a skill- 
fully contrived little trowel." My research- 
es with the microscope, however, during 
past years lead me to different conclusions. 
All the stings I liave ever examined re- 
semble a miniature awl, made up of three 
smaller ones, two of which are barbed. The 
three are held together by grooves, " skill- 
fully contrived '" so as to pierce the skin by 
a sort t)f pumping motion. A sting may be 
so mounted on a glass slide in balsam as to 
appear a little Hat. Other specimens are in 
danger of being perverted from their natu- 
ral sluipe after being mounted, I find ; but a 
sting in its normal condition, before being 
mounted (unless my Bausch & Lomb ob- 
jective and Coddington lens are very much 
at fault) is simply a fine-pointed instrument 
like a cambric needle. As to the office of the 
sting curing honey or capping the cells, I 
have nothing to say, either pro or con. 

Eknest 



HCW TO HAVE GRAPES CONVENIENT 
FOR BAGGING. 



ALSO HOW TO GET EAHI.IER AND BETTEK GK.iPES 
ON THE MAUKET THAN ANYBODY ELSE. 

SHEADING your article on covering bunches of 

Qr grapes with paper, reminded me of what I 

|\ learned about raising- grapes fifteen years 

"*■ V ago. I had in view, changing my business 

and trying what I could do with bees and 

grapes. I thought that T nndei-stood bees well 

enough, but was not (juite so sure on grapes. So 

I made a tri|> of observation, starting at Kelley's 

Island, and then down the coast of Lake Erie to 

Buffalo. Not finding any thing new I went on to 

Geneva, N. Y.; and on the east shore of Seneca 

Lake T there found the first man who knew 

more than I did about the business. Then J found 

a vineyard of Catawba grapes ripe enough to go to 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



21 



market; and right over a stone fence, on the same 
kind of soil, the g-rapes were at least ten days later. 
What I wanted to learn was, how this was In'ouMht 
about. Going- to the house I inquiri^d for the pro- 
prietor, and was informed that he had gone to the 
lake with a load of grapes for Now Vork city. I 
was invited to take a seat, or, if I preferred, go in- 
to the vineyard and look around. .Vs this suited 
me best, I went out and tt)ok a look at the grai)cs. 
At that time I thought it the grandest sight I had 
ever seen. The vines were all healthy, and of uni- 
form growth. Every bunch of grapes hung free 
and clear from any obstruction. All were good 
fair-sized bunches— not a small bunch in the vine- 
yard. If he had desired to use paper bags, every 
bunch in the yard could have been covered. 

I went back to the house and met the man, just 
returned from the lake, and told him I had come 
all the way from Michigan to learn how to raise 
grapes. He said he was always glad to see anj- one 
who was willing to learn. He had tried to teach 
his neighbors, but found they thought they knew 
as much (or more) than he did, so he went his own 
way, but year after year sold his grapes for live or 
six times as much as his neighbors. He had call 
for all he could raise, at from 2.5 to 30 cts. a pound, 
while they sold for from ^li to 44. He averaged 
as many pounds per acre as they did. All the ad- 
ditional expense he had more than they was in 
picking off all the small bunches soon after they 
had set, and freeing each bunch from all obstruc- 
tion, so that it would grow in the most graceful 
gbape. 

He commenced in the spring to cultivate the soil 
once in ten days with a weighted cultivator, going 
as deep as he could, and going less deep as the sea- 
son advanced, until the first of August, when cul- 
tivation ceased, except to pull up any weeds that 
made their appearance. The summer pruning 
consisted mostly in seeing that three or four vigor- 
ous canes were grown, on which to raise the ne.xt 
year's crop. In the fall, after frost, the vines were 
trimmed, and the canes left for fruiting were left 
to lie on the ground until spring. As soon as 
warm weather commenced in the spring, the vines 
were tied to the trellis, and cultivation commenced. 

The point he most emphasized was, to raise all 
the fruit on large and vigorous canes, as the fruit 
would be larger and earlier than on weak canes; 
then the early and constant culti\atioii until about 
a month before ripening, and picking off all the 
small bunches, and straightening out all that re- 
mained, so that they would grow in the best shape 
for market. When placed in market the grapes 
sold themselves. His motto was, "Have the best 
that can be raised, and a few days before somebody 
else gets them." L. ('. Whiting. 

East Saginaw, Mich. 

Friend W.,your communication is a most 
excellent one, not only for bee-keepers, but 
for grape-growers also. 1 really believe the 
plan you give will work almost every time, 
from what experience I have had with 
grapes. Bagging such clusters as you men- 
tion would be but a small job comparatively, 
and it would end the troubles among the 
bee-men and grape-men. The grapes around 
our bee-hives have improved just in propt)r- 
tion to the attention we have given them, 
and it is right in the line of your sugges- 
tions. 



OUK HONEY- MARKET. 

If'HIliNI) UKDDON'S views IN KEaA.RU TO HONEV 
BECOMING A ST.\PLE PRODUCT. 

T AM glad to note friend Dadaut's kind and en- 
1^1' couraging article on page 981— none the less so 
W because he (controverts ideas of which I am 
"^ convicted, especially when it is one I do not 
cherish. 1 would that friend 1). were right, 
and I wrong; but even after reading his article J 
can not see it that way. 

For 28 years have we been producing and intro- 
ducing e-xtracted lu)ney, and during all this time 
friend D. and his class have been talking about its 
becoming a staple when we get it fairly intro- 
duced, and the price becomes a little lower. Well, 
it is now so low that those less fitted to survive at 
the business are " freezing out," and those best tit- 
ted to survi\e, culling for organized effort to stop 
any further slaughter in prices by all known meth- 
ods, outside of the general influence of supply and 
demand. After all this "introducing," don't you 
think our people and our product ought to be 
somewhat acquainted with each other? Fifteen 
years ago I said, and to-day repeat, that it is my 
opinion that honey will never becoine a staple com- 
modity, nor even a staple luxury, like oysters, etc. 
Cane-sugar syrup is a staple, or standard sweet, 
and at the same price would many times outsell 
hone}', for the following reasons: First, it is two or 
three fold sweeter, increasing its worth for sweet- 
ening purposes precisely in the same ratio. Sec- 
ond, it possesses uniformity of chaiacter— a feature 
which enables creamery butter to command a price 
double that of the best roll butter, equally good. 
Third, I doubt if there is any honey of any c61or. 
flavor, or consistency that "wears" with the human 
appetite as does cane syrup. ] am sorry 1 can not, 
but I fht not believe that friend Muth nor any one 
else can work up any lasting or increasing demand 
for honey for purposes of cookery. 

I know there are " many children who have ne\er 
tasted honey," and that, too, children of those 
who have money enough to, and do, indulge in 
every lu.xury, notwithstanding the commodity is so 
very, very ancient. These children would have 
tasted it long ago, and many times, had it been an> 
thing like a staple with their parents. There are 
too many well-to-do people who do not wish to eat 
it, at any price. 

Ves, we have 14 grocery-stores, every one of 
which is well stocked with honey, 10 of which keep 
none CAcept my own. This isn't all: I attend to it 
that they keep the jars and crates conspicuously in 
sight— as a rule, right ou the counter. I have 
found, by so doing, sales are increased about three- 
fold. This is the strongest evidence that the article 
is a luxurious luxury, being as far from a " staple " 
as can be. It shows that, among people w ho are 
able to buy it at almost any price, they think of it 
rarely, except when they see it. We have cut the 
price in two in the middle, once, since I have been 
in the business, and we don't sell any more now 
than we did before; and if to-morrow morning we 
should cut it in two again, and thoroughly adver- 
tise the cut, people would say. ••Did you rrn- .'" and 
for a little time sales would be lively at these ruin- 
ous luiees, and finally we should hear exclamations 
likethis: "Well, T declare! after all I don't believe I 
like honey any better, if as well, as that nice golden 
syrup, and I know I don't on buckwheat cakes." 



(iLEAJSflNGS IN BKE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



\V(> should then Hud that wo had caused a large 
number of jjeoplc to conceive, lor the first time, 
that they had many times pui-chased honey in pref- 
erence to syrnp, from no other cause than that it 
cost more. 

I am sorry, but this is just what I believe. You 
told us years ag-o, that when honey came down to 
the present price there would he no end to the de- 
mand. I told you, no; nothing- would stop the 
downward tendency of prices except lessening- the 
production, which would come of necessity, when 
the weakest of ns began to starve out. Well, we 
have reached the point, and no more honey is con- 
sumed in Dowagiac than was consumed fifteen 
years ago, and producers are going to hold a con- 
vention to do all that united eflort can do to hold 
up prices, the satne as is done by other classes of 
manufacturers. 

Nearly every article of manufacture in a hard- 
ware store is sold at prices fixed by a pool. Go to 
your hardware store and inquire, and take a hint in 
time. True, honey i° >a product; but the method we 
employ to gather it and our processes in prepar- 
ing it for market, rightfully class us as manufac- 
turers, not producers. 

No, no one has worked harder than I to create 
local demand, and Prof. McLain or any one else, ac- 
quainted with the facts, will tell you that no honey 
excels ours in this northern climate, and under our 
care of production, and we never retail any but the 
white, A No. 1 grades. 

1 agree with friend Dadant, that the specialist in 
bee-keeping will be hardly more apt to quit his call- 
ing than the farmer. But the way the small ones 
will drop out in the near future will, I think, be 
highly worthy of his notice. One peculiar fact 
about the farm is. that it makes a home, and sup- 
plies the greater part of a living; in fact, the whole 
of a possible living, whether there is any such 
thing as money or not, to say nothing about 
"prices." I have more than $ijOOO invested in hon- 
ey-producing, and I could not exchage it even, for 
any $3000 farm in this county. I presume that the 
farmer whom friend Root mentions in his foot- 
notes had been dabbling -with bees or some other 
side issue. 

I think friend Dadant is mistaken in saying 1 fol- 
low his methods in producing extracted honey. So 
far as they are laid down in his excellent little 
pamphlet, many of them coincide with the methods 
I first adopted, sixteen years ago; but he is mistak- 
en, and you were also, in your foot-notes to my 
last communication, in thinking that I continue 
tiering, and do not extract till the close of the sur- 
plus season. My bees gather too much honey for 
that, and we keep our clover, basswood, and amber 
grades separate. 

I believe Mr. Dadant has not yet learned the val- 
ue of the slatted, break-joint honey-board, shorn of 
which I would feel like giving up the production of 
both comb and extracted honey. It is against ray 
wishes and likewise my interest in some directions, 
to state my convictions as above; but when drawn 
out upon any subject, I mean to stand by my old 
rule of making such statements in " the now," as 
I think will be verified in the future. 

In closing this article I feel it an obligation and 
pleasure to thank friends Hutchinson and Harmon 
Smith for their able and instructive articles in last 
issue. I feel that I have in-oflted much by both. 

Dowagiac, Mich. James Heddon. 



Friend H., I agree with you to a certain 
fxteiit in most of your statements, but 1 
hope you will excuse me for saying I think 
you putit a little too strongly throughout al- 
most all of your article. As an illustration, I 
know that many of the articles in hardware 
stores are sold at a regular and uniform price, 
while other things, and things which are sta- 
ple, are sold at prices that differ very widely 
by different manufacturers. It is true, the 
I vox Age publishes regularly an alphabetical 
list of the staple hardware goods; and it 
also gives the prevailing discount; and this 
discount applies to factories north, south, 
east, and west. Associations are formed, 
but they are being constantly broken. The 
combination on tinware stood, I think, three 
or four years at one time ; but in their anx- 
iety to get orders, certain manufacturers be- 
gan cutting under on the sly, and pretty 
soon the combination went to pieces. I still 
think O'ar best way of keeping prices up on 
honey is to buy out the smairproducers be- 
fore they have had a chance to run their pro- 
duct on to the market. It may be true, that 
no more honey is sold now with the present 
low prices than was sold before, when prices 
were high. But the times demand low 
prices on almost every thing; and what is 
true of honey is also true of almost all farm 
and rural products. Cane-sugar syrup is 
some sweeter than honey, if I am correctly 
informed, but not two or three fold sweeter. 
Suppose Prof. Cook straighten us out on 
this. And granting that it is sweeter, is it 
worth so much more for food ? A pound of 
sugar may be cheaper than a pound of straw- 
berries; but who is going to take the sugar, 
even if it is sweeter ? Perhaps you do not 
call strawberries a staple ; but with the tre- 
mendous trade that seems to be constantly 
increasing in them, I should call them a 
magnificent staple. Let us not waste time 
in arguing, when we simply have a different 
understanding of a certain word. The point 
before us is to understand how to get the 
most money out of the products of our 
industry. 

AN ABC SCHOLAR'S REPORT. 



A farmer's view of the question— legisla- 
tion FOR bee-keepers. 



y UNE 38, 1884, found me in possession of a newly 
hived swarm of bees. They were a present 



to me. That swarm gathered 49 lbs. of surplus 
that year, and had ample stores for winter. 
The spi-ing of 188.") found them in moderately 
weak condition. 1 lifted the frames and bees out of 
their hive, and put them in a new clean one; 
and during the process I found the queen, the 
first I had ever seen. Being a beginner, I of course 
felt proud of this. 

On the 9th of last .June I traded a hive filled with 
comb, containing considei-able honey, for a first 
swarm of bees. This swarm I call No. 3. My old 
swarm I call No. 1. On the 13th of June it cast a 
large swarm, which I call No. 3. I waited V 2 days 
after this swarm issued, and then cut all queen- 
cells from No. 1, as per Doolittle in his review of 
your ABC book. It was my first exjierience, and 
proved a success. I had n('\-er e\en seen a (|Uoen- 
cell before. 



18S7 



GLEA^UNGS IN i3EE CULTURE. 



No. 1 produced Im sections. No. ~ produced S4 
lbs. ill boxes. No. 3 produced 1*5 sections. 

The sections were part 1^4 inch and part 1 "» inch 
wide, and T use separators, so they lall considera- 
bly short of 1 lb. each in weight. Hut reclconing 
them at ^ lb. each, they make an ayfjrejrate of ;!(X) 
lbs. for the thi-ee swarms. 

LEGISLATION FOK FAUMKHS. 

I am a farmer, and have undertaken to keep bees 
for honey for home use; but what am I to do with 
it all, when the bees pile it up like this ? There has 
been some complaint about the farmer sellinfr hon- 
ey so low that the market of the a|)larist is being- 
demoralized. Some have intimated that legislation 
in favor of the bee-keeper is needed. I for one 
would be very willing to give up my bees, could we 
farmers have a little legislation in our favor that 
would enable us to get prices, say about double 
what we are now getting for our farm produce. I 
think it quite probable that the lowest price at 
which any farmer ever sold honej- is no lower in 
proportion than those at which he is obliged to sell 
his horses, cattle, hogs, gi-ain, potatoes, etc. I 
plead guilty to having parted with lOi lbs. net hon- 
ey at 12!2 cts. per lb., cash, and 60 sections at 11 cts. 
each In trade, and it was no easy matter to dispose 
of it, even at these figures. E. H. Whitaker. 

Peru, 111., Nov. 3T, 1886. 



HOW MUCH ROOM DO THE BEES NEED 
FOR BROOD AND POLLEN? 



IF CROWDED, IS THERE DANGER OF PUSHING THE 
POLLEN INTO THE SURPLUS RECEPTACLES? 

R, ROOT:— On page 94, Gleanings for 188.5, 
Mr. Doolittle says: "I use six (Jallup 
frames of comb (equal to .5 L. frames) for 
the veiy largest swarms, while others have 
but 4 or .5," etc. In an Oct. No. of the 
American Runtl Home, of 1886, he also says: 
" Queens, as a rule, will not occupy more than 800 
square inches of comb with brood, for any length 
of time," and, further along, " In order not to get 
any pollen in our boxes, we will allow 200 square 
inches of comb for that, and the little honey they 
always have in the upper corners of the frames, 
above the 800 the queen occupies." If it requires 
800 to hold the brood, where will the i)ollen go to, 
when we hive our very largest swarms on t> Gallup 
(or 5 L.) frames, which give but 72.5 square inches of 
comb'/ Is there no danger of the queen entering 
the sections, where side storing is practiced ? or if 
we use dummies to contract the brood-nest, will 
they not swarm as soon as the queen tills the combs 
with brood? In hiving swarms on empty frames, 
according to W. Z. Hutchinson, Avhere will the 
pollen go to that some of the bees of the swarm are 
carrying, at the time of hiving? As there are no 
cells below in which to jilace it, will it not be left in 
the sections, if they are supplied with full sheets of 
foundation or comb? I think there is pollen 
enough carried thus in one swarm to spoil a large 
number of sections, if it is put in them. How 
many pound sections should be given a large 
swarm, hived on 5 L. empty frames, or frames of 
comb in a good honey-flow? A little explanation of 
this subject would prove acceptable to me, at least. 
Ogden, N. Y. M. E. Gkidley. 

.\N explanation by g. .m. dooi-ittle. 
Some of the readers of Gleanings do not seem 



to understand why it is that I should recommend 
a hive holding 1000 scjuare inches of comb surface, 
as the right size for a brood-chamber, and then 
hive swarms in a hive so contracted that there is 
only enough room for less than TOO square inches 
of comb surface in it. To best explain, I will gi\e 
the reader a little view of brood-rearing as I find it 
in this localitj', after careful experiments which I 
have conducted for .years. One queen lays all the; 
eggs which are to become the future bees for lion- 
ey or otherwise. These eggs hatch in three days, 
so that a small larva takes the place of the egg; 
this larva is fed on chyme tor six days, during 
which it has grown from a mere speck so as to 
nearly fill the cell, at which time the cell is capped 
over. During the next twelve days this larva pass- 
es through the transformation process " from cat- 
erpillar to butterfly," and at the end of that time 
comes out of the cell a perfect bee, making a peri- 
od of 21 days in all from the time the queen lays the 
Qgg till the bee bites off the covering to its cell. 
Very warm weather hastens the process of devel- 
opment during all the stages, and steady cool 
weather i-etards it, so that I have known the period 
to be shortened to about 18 days and lengthened to 
nearly 24, but 21 is the rule. Now, the Creator of 
all things designed that bees should " multiply and 
replenish the earth," the same as all animated 
things, so gave them as strong instinct to prepare 
for swarming as we see manifested in birds to 
build nests wherein to lay their eggs and rear their 
young. This instinct causes the queen to greatly 
enlarge the circle of the brood during May and 
June, so that, when the height of her ambition is 
reached (from June 10th to 20th), she lays from 
3000 to 3000 eggs daily. 

From experiments conducted along another line 
I find that, at this season of the year, some of the 
worker-bees, in a colony being in a normal condi- 
tion, exceed 45 days as to length of life; so as the 
time, 21 days (from the egg to the perfect bee) is 
4.5 days (the life of the bee at this season) we can 
find the reason for swarming, through the crowd- 
ing of the hive. It will be seen that the queen can 
get 2 1-7 generations Of bees on the stage of action, 
to where one dies off; hence comes swarming, with 
both bees and queen bending every energy in that 
direction. Swarming accomplished, the same in- 
stinct that causes the Ijirds in midsummer to cease 
building nests, and prepare for a journey south in 
early fall, seizes hold of both bees and queen, the 
bees bending every energy toward getting a su])ply 
of food sufficient to carry them over winter, while 
the queen keeps " pace " by laying only enough 
eggs to koej) good the population of the hive. 

From this understanding of the inside workings 
of the hive I drew these conclusions: First, that up 
to time of swarming I desired a brood-chamber of 
the size occujiied by the average queen, plus the 
pollen room necessary for the brood. Careful ex- 
periments gave this as 1000 square inches of comb, 
or!) Gallup frames. Second, desire for swarming 
gratified; two-thirds of the room needed before is 
now amplj' sulticient to keep the population of the 
hive good, and care for the less amount of pollen 
now required. Besides, with the desire for less 
brood, pollen is gathered in far less quantities, so 
it is a rare thing for me to find half as much pollen 
in the combs surrounding the brood at this season 
of the year as I do in May; hence it is not often I 
get any pollen in sections. Again, the bees gather 



2A 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



JAN. 



no pollen, as I conclude, from hasswood, which 
gives us our main hone3--cTop; for 1 have watched 
for hours at basswood-trees to find a bee with pol- 
len on its legs. When white clover gives the main 
crop of surplus honey, this contraction system may 
give some pollen in the sections; yet I think that, 
if used on the above plan, not enough to do much 
damage. What we all should strive after, if we 
would be successful, is to let the bees carry out 
their natural instincts as much as possible, and at 
the same time turn those instincts to the best possi- 
ble advantage for ourselves. In the above I think 
I have made it plain how it can be done. Herein, 
also, lies one of the reasons why T prefer the Italian 
bee to any of the others. All know that, after 
swarming, they show a greater desire to retrench 
In brood-rearing- than any other race of bees, and 
at the same time gather unlimited quantities of 
honey. With the above management I throw all 
the early honey into the sections, while later, 
when the honey is of inferior color, T get enough 
stored in this ''i-sized brood-chamber for winter. 

One other item: Some seem to suppose that the 
bees seen in a swarm having pollen on their legs 
are bound to store this in the hive somewhere, and 
that, if treated " la Hutchinson, by using empty 
frames below, said pollen must go into the sections. 
This, [ think, is a mistake; for as far as my experi- 
ence goes it is " scuffed off " and thrown out at the 
entrance. I know it is, where the swarm is hived 
in an entirely empty hive, for the bees have no 
place to put it till comb is built, and no use for it 
during the first three days in any event, unless a 
frame of brood is inserted by the apiarist. 

Roi-odino, N. Y. G. M. Doot.itti.k. 



OPEN OR CLOSED TOP SECTIONS. 

IS THERE ANY PARTIfTLAK NEED OF MAKING 
THEM WITH CI-OSEn TOPS. 

TNASMUCH as considerable discussion 
M and some hard feelings have resulted 
if because we have sometimes sent open 
'^ sections when our customers wanted 
those with closed tops, '• but forgot to 
my so,'" we have thought best to copy the 
i following from the -1. B. J. It gives the 
opinion of many of our prominent lioney- 
producers : 

Query No. ."iSL-'A ))ep-keepei- in Iowa prefers elosed-top seo 
tion.s; but ill tiering up he uses open-top seetions. Is it an ad- 
vantage to liave the first ense and the one on top made thus ? 
and will the comlis (of course they can not be inverted) be as 
straight wifli elosed-top sections r- Augrnsta, Iowa. 

I see no advantage in closed-top sections any- 
where.— W. Z. Hl'TCniNSON. 

It is a disadvantage to have two sorts of sections 
on the same hive.— .7. P. H. Brown. 

We should prefer open-top sections for every 
purpose.— D.\1)Ant & Son. 

The combs will be just as straight with closed top 
as open, if you use full sheets of foundation or sep- 
arators. 1 prefer an open-top section, as I want to 
" tier up. "—H. T). Cutting. 

I use open-top sections, and can see no advantage 
in those having closed tops.— G. M. Doolitti-e. 

I should not expect combs to bo quite as straight 
with closed -top sections, but I have never tried 
them.— C C. Miller. 

I should always prefer the open-top sections. 
This permits tiering up, and enables one to see just 
what is going on.— A. J. Cook. 

Closed-top sections are no advantage, as they can 
be made closer with a cloth spread over the top of 
the case or rack. The open-top sections are neces- 
sary to the tiering-up system, and the latter is 
accessary for the best results.- G. W. Demaree. 



Never use both kinds on the same hive, or in the 
same apiary; in fact, never use closed-top sections 
at all. They are not good about getting straight 
combs, tiering up, handling in and out of shipping- 
crates, seeing the condition of the super, and so 
bad that they are almost totally abandoned.— 
James Heddon. 

The combs will be built as straight with closed- 
top sections as with open-top ones, but the former 
have no advantages over the latter. I prefer a thin 
board with a bee-space beneath to cover the sec- 
tions. Many use enameled cloth.— G. L. Tinker. 

I do not think there is any advantage in using 
closed-top sections in any case. Open-top sections 
can be easily closed, but closed-top sections can not 
be used in " tiering up." I prefer the open-all- 
around sections.— .1. E. Pond, ,1r. 

Several times, right in the height of the 
honey season, we have had customers who 
have declared they could not or would not 
use open tops. I suggested they cover the 
openings with wood, or some equivalent, 
and some of them refused to do even that. 
If there is another side to the question, we 
shall be glad to hear it; but some of the 
evidence must be quite conclusive. 



OUR p. BENSON LETTER. 



Introductory Chapter. 
bee-keepin in the hiest stile. 

IINEVlTABEli accumpennyment of troo grate- 
ness is modesty. That'b why I am so moddest. 
Bein the gratest of all livin or ded apearists, mi 
extreme raoddesty prevents mi alloodin to it, 
hents I never say enny thing about it. But 
moddest as T am I feel it mi dooty to instruck the 
risin Jcnnyration in the toppick of keepin bees. If 
they cood all cum to me it wood be better, for I 
cood lern them how to keep bees in ti short lessons 
without a master. It wood be much to their advan- 
tige to take lessons from the greatest sighentist in 
apiculturistical bee-keepin, whitch I am him. But 
1 ken giv mutch valyouable gnawledge throo in- 
struxion in a bee jearnal. The bee is divided in 3 
parts: drones workers and kings. The drones lays 
the egs. The workers makes the hunny under the 
direxion of the Kings whitch bosses the whole job. 
Layin egs is very exostive, on whitch ackount the 
drones doant last long and generlly giv out sum 
time in the ottem or fall of the year. When the 
drones dy off, the workers stop makin hunny and 
then eat up all the hunny by next spring. If the 
drones diddent dy off in ottem, the wurkers wood 
maik hunny all winter. T am gitting up a breed of 
a noo strain, whitch thair drones doant dy off so 
soon, and these will be moast prolifflck hunny mak- 
ers. Orders filled in rotashen. Satisfaxion garn- 
teed to enn.y reezenable extent, and if ennybuddy 
issent satisflde he ken return the munny to me. 

The bee is a soshel community and never lives 
seppereight, 1 in a place. Some peaple is gilty of 
this, but not bees. A bee ollwaze lives in a hive and 
sum times in a hollough tree. A sqnrl allso lives In 
a hollough tree but his tale is much more ornamen- 
than the bee. The bee hezzcnt got enny tale, oanly 
just a sting. The sting is very pennytrativ in kar- 
rickter. Moastly it gits sore whair the sting penny- 
trates. The bee is a verry ackomodating little 
brute, for when it stings it ollwaze leaves its sting- 
er in, soze to mark the place soze yule kno whair to 
scratch. P. Benson A. B. S. 

(whitch the A. B. S. it stands for Apiculturistical 
Beekeepin Sighentist.) 



iSHi 



GLI^ANINGS il^ 13EE CULTURE. 



26 



We are pleased to tell our readers that we 
have made an engagement with Mr. P. Ben- 
son for a seiies of articles on l^ee culture. 
Mr. Benson has, for many years, been rest- 
ing from his arduous labors : but some of 
our older readers may have heard of him as 
a teacher of music. Since he has deter- 
mined to direct his powerful intellect in the 
direction of bee culture, we may expect 
something bewildering and astonishing be- 
fore he gets through. 



FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS. 



HONEY, BITTER, FROM CHESTNUT-BIyOOM. 

T HAN'E read in Gleanings several times about 
,||f bitter honey. I will tell your readers the trouble 
]li I had with bitter honey, and from where it was 
■*• g-atherfed, in the summer of 188.5. I found that 
my bees were storing some vei-y dark honey, 
and I found, on tasting it. that it had a very bitter 
taste; so the next day I sallied out to find out what 
they were working on. I followed the direction 
they flew, and found them working hard on chest- 
nut-blossoms. I broke off a bunch, and found they 
soielled like the new honey, and tasted like that 
which the bees had stored in the hive. Then I 
knew it was chestnut honey T was getting in the 
sections. Tt is vei-y dark. I got that year over 68 
lbs. in the sections, i thought may be by age it 
would come all right, but it never was eata1)le— al- 
waj's a rank smell and bitter taste. I accordingly 
uncapped nearly all of it and placed the sections 
on top of the frames, and let the bees carry it below 
for winter stores, as they wei-e short in the fall of 
1885. They wintered all right. The cause of their 
storing so much chestnut honey was because the 
winter of 1884 killed all the white clover, and the 
bees had nothing but chestnut honey to gather. 
This year I could not see a bee working on the 
chestnut-bloom, so I got no bitter honey— not even a 
smell. I am of the opinion that this is the matter 
with Mr. W. H. Dickinson's honey. i>age 947— all 
chestnut honey. Josiah Eastburn. 

Fallsington, Bucks Co., Pa., Dec. », 1886. 



HONEV, bitter, from CHESTNUT-BI.OSSOM.S. 

In answer to Mr. Dickinson's in(iuiry in last issue 
about bitter honey, I will say it is probably caused 
by chestnut-blossoms. Chestnuts are vei-y uneven 
honey-)iroducers, and sometimes, for years in 
succession, give no yield; but when they do, the 
yield is invariably bitter— at least here in New 
Kngland. Mr. Dickinson has probably these trees 
in his neighborhood. Remedy, keep extracted 
close, and save the chestnut honey to feed, or to 
sell to A. I. Root for medicinal purposes at an ad- 
vanced price. J. C. Greenleaf. 

Greenleaf, Mass., Dec. 6, 1886. 



WORKING BY I-AMP AND LANTERN LIGHT. 

When Ernest works bees by moonlight or lamp- 
light, I wonder if he uses the smoker as by day- 
light, andjdont the.bees fly in the Vhimney of the 
lamp, and crawl over him ? 1 tried it once, but 
want to know hnw, better, befoi-e I do it again. 

Maria L.Deming. 

Watertown. Washington Co., O.. Nov. 24, 1886. 

A smoker is a help when working by lan- 



tern light, but T managed to get along with- 
out it ; that is. I made the lantern answer 
somewliat the same purpose. When the hive 
is opened, set tlie lantern right on top of the 
frames. If any bees liy up they will strike 
against the glol)t'. but receive no injury, nor 
will tlit'y as a rule get on to your peisl)!!, as 
the light is a strong counter-attraction. I 
do not like a lamp so well— bees are too apt 
to get down the chimney, and burn to death. 
Besides, the lamp is affected by any light 
wind. 'Ernest. 

While at the Michigan State Convention 
1 mentioned how Ernest worked by the 
light of a lantern, and a good many of the 
friends thought it astonishing. When I got 
home and questioned Ernest about it, he ex- 
plained as above, that the Tempest lantern 
was placed right on top of the frames, and 
kept there. Its construction is such that a 
bee can not possibly harm himself by it. 
The bees handled were all Italians, and very 
gentle. When the lantern w^as taken away 
it was done so quietly that none of the bees 
followed it. When I worked by the light of 
a lamp, several years ago, I placed the lamp 
a rod or so distant, on one of the posts form- 
ing a grapevine trellis. I have had consid- 
erable experience in trying to work with 
bees after it Avas so late in the evening that 
neither the bees nor myself could see, and 
under such circumstances I have had them 
get on my clothing, and buzz all over me, so 
that it was (|uite a task to hunt up the little 
rascals. With the light of a lamp, however, 
or the Tempest lantern, the matter is very 
simple and easy when you once "get the 
hang of it.'' 



HOW DOKS MH. HEDDON DRIVE BHES INTO HIS 
HIVINO-BO.X WHEN TR ANSh-ERIUNG V 

I have tried transferring from our box hi\e, but 
can hardly tell how much of a success it will be; 
but 1 have fully decided to have all Simplicity hives 
for another year. Don't you think it sets bees to 
robliing or flghting, to piU broken combs into hives ? 
I wish you would telll me how Mr. Heddon con- 
trives to drive the old queen and a ma.iority of the 
bees into his hiving-box from the old box hi\-e. 1 
can't see how it can be done without takiug the old 
hive all to pieces (I refer to his letter, ]>age 369, A B 
C book). If you can tell me, I shall be greatly 
obliged. Mrs. W. K. Nickt^y. 

Mitchell Creek, Tioga Co., Pa. 

My friend, it certainly does set bees to 
robbing, and very often" to fighting, to put 
broken combs into the hives, unless you put 
them in just at nightfall, and put in' only so 
much as they will cl^an up entirely, and go 
into their combs over night. I presume 
friend Heddon drives the bees out by the 
drumming process. If you put an empty box 
over any bee-hive, close all the openings, 
then drum on the hives with sticks occasion- 
ally, for 15 or 20 minutes, the greater part of 
the l)ees Avill ascend into the upper box. We 
have not recommended drunniiingin the A B 
C book, because we have always found it 
much slower than the plan I gave. See our 
brief references to the matter on the oppo- 
site page of the A B C book from the one 
you quote. 



26 



GLEA^i^GS lA BEE CULTU'UE. 



Jan. 



UO BUMBLE-BEES SWAKM ? 

Will you be kind enough to tell us how the colo- 
nies ol' bumble-bees increase? Do they swarm as the 
honey-bees do. or not ? And hornets also. 

KECIPE POR HARD HONEV-C'AKE. 

It is first rate; improves as it g-ets older: ti lbs. 
flour; ;S lbs. honey; r/2 lbs. sugar; lu lbs. butter; 
•/2 do/,, egg's; '» oz. saleratus; ginger if you like it. 
Roll out in cards. E. D. Howell. 

New Hampton, N. V. 

I think Prof. Cook will be tlie best man to 
tell US about bumble-bees. Ff I mistake not, 
he lias already given us something on the 
subject, but we want something plain and 
clear, and covering the whole ground. As 
the nuitter of different races of foreign bees, 
including the stingless, is now prominently 
before us, a brief history of their methods of 
propagation would also be interesting. Can 
we not have it soon, friend Cook V 



WHY BEES B.iLL QUEENS. 

C. C. Miller asks, on page 938, " Is it not possible 
that, in this case, the bees ball their queen for the 
sake of protecting her? " I have thought of this 
very point. Such might be the case, but 1 no lon- 
ger think it possihlc. The act of bees " balling a 
queen " is not one of protection, but one of ag- 
gression on the part of the bees. That they do in 
some instances kill the queen, even if we do nt once 
shut up the hive and leave them alone, is another 
fact that goes to show it is aggression. In most 
cases, as the doctor says, if the hive is at once 
closed when we find the bees balling their queen, 
and they are left alone for a few days, she is uftuaUy 
released, and we find her in no way apparently 
damaged, e.Kcept the wings are ragged fi-om being- 
gnawed by the bees. 

4— Abbott L. Swinson, 71—70. 

(ioldsboro, Wayne Co., N. C, Dec. 13, llSSti. 

CAR p. 

I want to ask you if you are sure the small fish in 
the carp-pond are carp. Here a species of sunfish 
get in all our ponds, and many persons are deceived 
by the little fellows, and some have sold them for 
car}) before learning their mistake. 

OLD BEES AS NURSES. 

The question is asked, "Can old bees act as nurs- 
es?" Eaj-ly last spring I moved 12 colonies about 7.') 
yards, and enough bees returned to fairly cover two 
Simplicity frames. They were furnished brood for 
queen-raising, and raised one; but she was lost, 
probably on her wedding-ttight. Afterward they 
raised another, bvit they then had young bees from 
a comb of hatching bi-ood Daniel E. Kobbins. 

Pason, 111., Nov. 2."), 188fi. 

Friend 11., our small carp may be suntish, 
but I hardly think they are. Our pond has 
no communication with any stream contain- 
ing lish of any kind. — I have been satisfied 
for a good while that old bees could act as 
nurses. 

HINTS TO GARDENERS. 

To destroy the striped bugs on cucumbers and 
other vines, fill a bucket two-thirds full of the con- 
tents of the henhouse, then fill up with water; ap- 
ply the water after it has soaked a while, to the 
vines. 

If you want to plant cabbage-plants when the 
groiHid is dry, dig a hole abnut H or 4 inches deep. 



with a lu)e. Pour in a pint of watei". press the roots 
down in the mud, and pack the loose dirt on top. 

If you want to keep cabbage from bursting, pull 
up on them till the main roots crack. This might 
also work with lettuce. 

Should you not be heavy enough to pull, put a 
2r)-lb. rock in your right and left coat pocket. 

Pleasant Valley. la. C. H. Ehlehs. 

Friend E., I am very much in favor of such 
remedies as the one you mention for striped 
bugs ; for if it does not hurt the bugs it will 
make the cucumbers boom until they out- 
strip the bugs. Your suggestion in regard 
to transplanting in dry time is a good one, 
but it takes a good deal of time. — We have 
tried the plan you recommend, for keeping 
cabbage-heads' from bursting, but it always 
seemed to me like locking the stable after 
the horse was stolen. Our cabbages some- 
times burst with a pop, even while holding 
them in the hands. iSTow, then, if anybody 
can tell when a cabbage-head is liable to' 
pop, he is a smarter man in that respect 
than I am. 

FUEL FOR SMOKEKS; DO BEES REQUIRE WATER 
WHILE IN THE CELLAR ? 

My wife wishes me to ask you one more question; 
and that is, what kind of sawdust, or what materi- 
al do you use in your smoker ? 

Do bees require water in winter when in the 
cellar? Can bees be moved a mile or two safely 
at this season of the year ? F. F. Hill. 

Barton, Vt., Oct. 26, 1886. 

The sawdust used in our Clark smoker is 
bass wood, of a rather stringy nature. It 
must not be too fine. For further particu- 
lars in regard to fuel for smokers, see back 
issues in the department of Our Own Apia- 
ry, particulai'ly page s,S;j. 

The question in regard to Avater for bees 
while wintering in a cellar has been fully 
discussed in our back volumes. Prof. Cook 
tried giving half of his bees water, and the 
other half no water ; and while those that 
had water seemed to want it, and took it up 
readily when offered, the result was that 
they did not winter as well as those that had 
no water at all. 

SUNSHINE FOR HORSES. 

That barn— yes, that barn that so many judges 
have pronounced the most convenient barn and 
stable that ever was— oh, where can the free sun- 
light of heaven get into those stables? They should 
be so arranged that the sun could shine in to purify 
the air and warm the stock. You built your hen- 
house so as to give them plenty of sunlight, and 
your horses and cows none (if I understand the 
plan as shown in Gleanings). It would save feed, 
and your stock would be in better health if confined 
to the barn much in winter. G. M. Horton. 

Smithboro, N. Y., Nov. 27, UXi. 

Friend II., our horses are out almost every 
day in the year, winter as well as summer ; 
and while" it is true that there are no win- 
dows that give them the sun, the doors are 
quite often left open when the weather is 
mild, so that the afternoon sun comes right 
into their faces. The largest doors of the 
tool-house, where the manure - spreadei- is 
kept, are seldom closed unless the weather 
is cold or stormy. Then there is a pretty 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEK CULTURE. 



27 



^ood-sized door in front of the passageway 
in front of the mangers. Wlien this is open 
the sun in the winter time shines right in 
their faces. F tiiink I have heard it stated, 
that stables should not liave too much di- 
rect sunlight. Will friend Terry tell us 
what he knows in regard to the matter? 

IN MEMORIAM OF OUR OLD FRIEND A. K. MOON. 

A {food many of your readers will remember tlie 
late A. F. Moon, the veteran bee-keeper who de- 
parted this lite in Rome. Ga., some three years ago. 

Mr. Moon, for many years, was a bee-keeper at 
Rome, Ga., having some two hundred hives con- 
stantly under his supervision. He made a business 
of raising- cjueens mostly, and his product was sold 
all over the United States and Australia. From 
this, as well as the cultivation of tiowers, which 
was as pleasant to him as the honey-bee, he derived 
a meager support; l)ut among all his trials he was 
always the genial gentleman, who always welcom- 
ed visitors, a^d liked to "talk bees." To say that 
Mr. Moon was one of nature's nobleman is not to 
say too much. He was a gentleman in every re- 
spect, and the veteran bee-keeper of the South. 
At our Southern fairs he was nearly always on 
hand to transfer, for the amusement and instruc- 
tion of the attendants, and he had learned to trans- 
fer so well and so quicklj' that he could complete 
the job in 17 minutes from the word " go." 

At one of our fairs he accidentally broke his leg; 
and the first amputation which was necessary, be- 
ing incompletely done, or done in an unskilltul 
manner, led In after years to a second amputation 
from which he never recovered. He died, regretted 
by the entire inhabitants of Rome, among whom 
he had made his home for a lung number of j'ears. 

Genial and warm-hearted in life, he died like 
'• one who wraps the drai^erj- of his couch about 
him and lies down to pleasant dreams." In the 
great hereafter, where he has gone before, may we 
meet again some summer day. T. E. Hanbury. 

.\tlanta, Ga.. Dec. 9, 1886. 



SELLING HONEY IN NEVADA. 

I have been prettj- busy putting up honey in 
those little glass pails, and packing my sections for 
market. I put 'ZO lbs. in a box, which I have made 
on purpose for them, compact and close, and each 
wrapped in blue paper, so when they get to their 
destination thej- are in good condition. T feel satis- 
tied, when I hear the remarks of the parties to 
whom they were shipped; as, for instance, "Hid 
you ever in your life see honey packed as nicely as 
this?" I tell you, I feel proud of it (but not envi- 
ous) to know that all parties are satisfied. Well, 
now, in regard to those pails, there were two dozen 
broken (out of i(M)), but otherwise all right. If they 
could only make the mouth of them a little smooth- 
er it would be a great advantage to all parties. 
My honey is going off at good prices. For the 
finest of it I get 2.t cts. per section in San F'raneisco, 
as well as in the adjacent counties. There is plen- 
ty of honey here that can be bought for 12 cts., but 
it is not so attractive, and, of course, does not sell 
as well as mine. I have found out that honej', as 
well as any thing else that is put up in proper 
shape, provided the quality is good, will sell, and it 
will pay, too, if you only take a little pains with it. 
That is my experience; and I know that, if we all 
take a little care, we can all do well. 

Keno, Nevada, Nov. 26, 188tt. E. A. Moohk. 



BOX-HIVE MEN IN KENTUCKY. 

Of the 6074 subscribers you report in Deo. I, No., 
it occurs to nic that but few if any are taken on the 
line of my recent trip across this State and into 
three small towns in Kentucky. The country 
abounds in natural resources and box gums, but 
few frame hives. I saw some at only one place, 
and the>- appeared to have been neglected. Many 
would get movable frames if, as they say, they 
knew enough aViout bees and the management of 
the hi\ es. When they fovuid out I had no interest 
in patent hives and clap-traps, none to sell, but, 
like them, kept bees for the pleasure and profit 
they gave, 1 had eager listeners for what I had to 
say, and many were the questions asked, and 
genuine and pressing the invitations to stay all 
night 01' spend the day. They get marvelous quan- 
tities of honey in an old-fashioned, awkward sort 
of way. That Mississippi bottom is a great place 
for bees, fish, and game, and— big graveyards. 

W. P. Henderson. 

Murfreesboro, Tenu., Dec. 4, 1886. 



jMewEf^ n]iB QaE^iEg. 



GREAT DROUGHT. 

T SOU) my bees down to 67 colonies to com- 
m[ mence the season with — about 50 good eolo- 
^t nies, the rest below par. The fore part of the 
"*• season was very good; the honey gathered 
was e.xtra, on account of being heavy, caused 
by hot dry weather; but the season closed with the 
most severe drought experienced in this section 
since 1871, the fall of the great Chicago fire. 1 
made 4000 lbs. of white-clover honey in ]-lli. sec- 
tions, and about 2000 lbs. of extracted. L increased 
to 130 colonies, which are all in the cellar in splen- 
did condition. I had to feed only a few pounds. 
North Prairie, Wis. W. Addenbrook. 



How shall we make labels stick on tin > 
Wheatland, Mich. Joel V. Mmerriman. 

[Several recipes have been given in our back vol- 
umes. Briefly, put some honey with your paste, or 
sandpaper the tin a little, or rub the tin with salei-- 
atus water. Lastly, use the Royal glue found on 
our 10-cent counter.] 

OLD hope for smoker FUEL. 

Among all the smoker fuels mentioned in 
Glean tNOS, I had not seen old ropes spoken of. 1 
tie them in knots, then cut the knots apart, and 
they make a good and durable fuel when used with 
rotton wood. etc. Rukdette H.\s.«!ett. 

Howard Center. Iowa. Dec. 10, 1886. 



how to kkep postage-stamps fro.m sticking to 
letters. 

If j'ou will tell customers, when sending stamps, 
to rub them on their hair in its natural state it will 
prevent sticking together, and not injure the 
stamps in the least. T. D. Waller. 

Port Andrew. Wis., Dec. .'», 18H(i. 

[Thanks, friend W., forgiving us one solution, at 
least, to the postage-stamp trouble. The only ob- 
jection I can think of is, that if you use hair-oil you 
might get the stamp so greasy it would not stick 
when it was necessary. The other is, that "t'other 
fellow" might lick his tongue on his stamp after 
it had been rubbed on your greasy hair. But even 
this would be better than having them stuck fast to 
letters, so far as we are concerned— begging pardon 
if we seem selfish.] 



28 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Jak. 



A QUEEN AND '2 I'B. OK BEES. 

fS^ HE season has closed, and has been a good 
^ one all together. Hut little fall honey, ex- 
< cept buclivvheat. We started with i colo- 
nies, and increased l)y natural swarms to T, 
besides losing: two fine swarms. I boug'ht a 
qiieen and '2 lb. of l)ees of A. I. Hoot, received 
May 28. From these we have a fine colony that 
g-ave us some surplus. We have 400 lbs. of honey 
for our work. It is selling at only 10 cts. We hope 
to make even a better record ne.xt year. 
Philo, 111., Nov. 37, 18Stl. M. L. Bkewf.u. 

.SUM TOTAL. 

My crop of surplus for 1884 was i:J,.">00 lbs.: lor 1885 
was l^jm; for 188(i was 1:5,45(1. A. B. Cheney. 

Sparta, Kent Co., Mich., Nov. 8, 188t). 

skven colonies. 
This year 1 have got 800 lbs. of honey in one- 
pound boxes from seven colonies of bees. 
Orangeville, O., Dec. 1, 188K. P. Mover. 

TOO LBS. per colony WITH BLACK BEES. 

We beg-an this season with T good colonies and 
;j poor ones; increased to Ut, one of which abscond- 
ed. We extracted about 3235 lbs. of honey, but 
fed back about 75 lbs.; 16 of our colonies are 
Germans, the other 3 arc hybrids. Supposing our 
;{ weak colonies to have given 135 lbs. of honey 
(which estimate may be rather low), the other 
yielded TOO lbs. to the hive. If you have heard of 
any man in Ontario who has beaten us with Ital- 
ian bees, you can let us hear of it through Glean- 
iNOS. J. Fennell. 

Shelburne, Out., Can., Nov. 3(;, l«8(i. 



SWINSON'S REPORT FOR 1886. 

1 began the season with 66 colonies, separated in 
four different apiaries. I ran all for queens and 
increase. I bred American-Albino-Italians, Syri- 
ans, and Carniolans. 1 sold 33 nucleus colonies, 238 
queens. Received from sales of bees and queens 
for the season, :|?375. I increased to 71 colonies, in- 
clusive of sales. Nine-tenths of the ordei's were 
for Italian queens. During May, and up to June 
30th, ordei'S were plentiful; after that date I sold 
but few riueens and no bees; 95 per cent of orders 
were for untested queens. Honey-flow was poor. 
All in fine order for winter. 

Abbott L. Swinson, 71—70. 

(Joldsboro, N. C, Nov. 35, 1886. 

•'NEVER OBLIGED TO REPORT A FAILURE;" 1S7 

LBS. EXTRACTED HONEY, AVERAGE, PER 

COLONY. 

1 commenced the season with 175 colonies in tour 
apiaries, from three to six miles apart. Of these, 
95 colonies were run for comb honey in 1-ib. sec- 
tions; the average yield was 105 IVts., and increase 
of bees to 145 colonies. The remaining 80 colonies 
were run for extracting. The average per colony 
from these was 187 lbs. In all, 175 colonies increas- 
ed to 3TO; surplus honey, 35,000 lbs. Bees are all in 
g'ood co7idition for winter; most of them have more 
honey than is necessary. 

I have been engaged in bee-keeping for the past 
eleven years in different localities in this State; 
and although some seasons have been excessively 
wet and cold, and others right the reverse, yet 
I have never been obliged to report a failure. 

MaustoD, Wis., Nov. 17, 1886. F. McNay. 



BLACK BEES AHEAD. 

I packed my bees on summer stands last winter, 
and left the packing around them until near swarm- 
ing time, to prevent spring dwindling. The bees 
began to swarm in May, and got nearly through by 
the time my neighbor's bees commenced, which had 
been in the cellar. A pai t of my bees are Italians, 
which I got of friend Root; a part hybrids, the rest 
blacks. The blacks and hybrids led off in swarming, 
the blacks a little ahead, but not tnuch; but when 
the Italians got at it they did not know when to stop. 

Now for the honey: The Italians were a long 
way behind the others in the amount of honey gath- 
ered, but tliey are much nicer to handle. 1 have 
taken our frames of Italians several times with the 
queen on it, and she kept right along laying as 
though nothing had happeiK d. I used Root's 1-lb. 
one-piece sections, and I don't want any other kind. 
When filled with basswood hf)ney they are hard to 
heat. I secured about 3300 lbs. of comb honey. 

.1. IJ. Whiton, 46— .50. 

Ithaca. Gratiot Co., .Mich., Sept. 38, 188fi. 



J)jY;SEIiK WD MY Ps[EI6JIB0R^. 



Their feet are swift to shed blood. There is no 
fear of God before their eyes.— R<m. 3:15, 18. 

1^ N tlie night of Dec. 2i' (just after the 
'Kl shortest day of the year had gone) I 
^ was awakened about lialf-past four in 
^^ the morning by the sound of fire-bells. 
Now, ever since the burning of our 
M'arehouse last March, the sound of bells in 
the night starts me itistantly until T regain 
consciousness enough to recognize that it is 
not a tire-alarni. Tiiis time, however, it was 
the lire-;i1arni for sure, l)ut there was not 
any lire. 'Die cause of it was something as 
follows ; 

About one o'clock, as the night-watchman 
was passing along his beat on one of oui- 
principal streets, two individuals approached 
him. Tie supposed they were boys out late 
at night, and accosted them pleasantly. 
When close to him one of them quickly 
swung a revolver up before his eyes while 
the other held a club over his head, and 
threatened to kill him if he moved or made a 
sound. He was tlien l)ound and gagged, his 
overcoat was tied over his head, and he was 
led to the court-house, M'here about $40,000 
was deposited in the safe of the county 
treasury — the taxes that had been collected 
preparaitory to being forwarded to Colum- 
bus. There were live men all togteher. Three 
worked at the safe while the two others kept 
watch. Tliey were prepared with safe- 
breaking tools, and i)lenty of dynamite; but 
our safe was too well made for them to get 
through in three hours' time. One of the 
sentinels announced, somewhere about four, 
that people were stirring, and so they were 
compelled to give up the job. Our marshal 
released himself in lifleen or twenty min- 
utes, and gave the alarm, as before men- 
tioned. The thieves escaped with horses 
and buggies taken from our citizens. The 
horses and buggies have been secured, but 
the robbers are at large. 

I have often told you of talking to crimi- 
nals, and men guilty of crimes of various 



1887 



GLEA.Ni^GS IJN BEE CULTL Hh;. 



•2» 



kinds, as I met them in our county jail. In 
all the cases that I remember, or nearly all, 
thei'e were some extenuating- circnmstanccs. 
A good many o! tiie crimes were committed 
while under the inlliience of strong drink, 
and sometimes 1 i'elt satisfied that the crime 
in question was committed when the party 
did not know what he was doing. Generally 
the criminals have repented of the act about 
the time 1 talked with them, or, at least, 
claimed to be iienitent. 1 have never yet 
talked with a man w ho was on the eve of 
committing a ciime. I have sometimes 
wished I could do so. in order to study more 
perfectly the phases of the hiunan heart, es- 
pecially of a human heart wholly given over 
to Satan. 1 have met many men who re- 
jected the Bible ; 1 have met some who re- 
jected the golden rule, claiming that it is 
every man's business to look out for Xo. 1. 
I have talke(,l with tramps who very honest- 
ly owned up that they did not propose to 
work for a living; and I have found a few 
who seemed so callous and hardened, that, 
when I asked them if they were content 
to have poor, weak, hard-working women 
cook and prepare their food while they did 
nothing, would, when pressed hard, saythey 
did not care. Such individuals, however, 
seem hardly human, and I have sometimes 
been tempted to think they were about half 
way between the brute creation and human- 
ity, and right in the midst of civilization 
too. It seems to me that Darwin might 
have accepted these phases as his " connect- 
ing link." These live men of whom I have 
been speaking, however, without (piestion 
deliberately and Avith premeditation not only 
rejected God and the Bible, but they reject- 
ed Christ and his teachings; they "rejected 
the golden rule, and they declared by their 
actions that they did not care whose money 
it was, nor what "it cost to get it. They were 
willing to sacrifice every thing— the chances 
of being shot themselves, and the probability 
of committing murder themselves, for a few 
paltry dollars. These dollars M-ere the hard, 
scraped-up earnings of the farmers of Me- 
dina Comity. These five men were probably 
aware of the fact that farmers have had "a 
terribly hard row to hoe in raising wheat at 
75 or so cents a bushel, corn for 20 or 25. and 
other things in proportion. They recog- 
nized how hard it has been for many of the 
farmers to scrape up enough money to pay 
their taxes; and yet they would, without 
scruple, appropriate the hoarded earnings 
of our county. In the language of our text, 
•' There is no fear of God before their eyes." 
They had sold themselves to the evil one ; 
and when I w ant to be reminded that Satan 
is actually at present finding a lodging-place 
in the hearts of men in this nineteenth cen- 
tury, I have only to think of the state of 
these men's hearts. Some of us are begin- 
ning to think that stories of highwaymen are 
getting to be a thing of the past. Alas, my 
friends, they are not a thing of the past. In 
spite of our scliools and churches, and the 
progress we as a nation are making in civili- 
zation and Christianity, our papers contain 
accounts like these continually. Woe be- 
tide us if we sit down and fold our hands, 
thinking the victory is won. If we banish 



saloons from our land, it may have the effect 
of somewhat lessening this sort of work ; 
but 1 am afraid that not all of these men 
can plead the poor excuse of being hard 
drinkers. I have been told there are men 
of this class to be found who are never 
intoxicated at all. Suppose it were jiossible 
to sit down and have a talk with such as 
they while the piu'pose was in their hearts 
of committing these crimes, what sort of 
defense would they make V Every rational 
human being is, as a rule, prepared to de- 
fend his course. A great many commit 
crimes through revenge ; and I have heard 
men admit that they would risk death itself 
for the sake of indulging their passion to 
pay back somebody who had wronged them. 
Men sometimes connnit mni'der because of 
dwelling on fancied or real injuries, and let 
Satan into their heart in this way. These 
robbers, however, of whom I speak, had no 
revenge in their hearts; they had no ill will 
toward the marshal, whom they threatened 
to kill. When they started away, one of 
them took the overcoat from off the mar- 
shal's head and folded it up for a pillow for 
him to lie on, indicating that there was a 
.^pdik of humanity of one kind in their 
hearts yet. They had no disposition to do 
him harm, oidy so far as it was necessary to 
get the money." In view of this, what, then, 
is the remedy V Simply Christ Jesus. This 
class of men are as far away from the Bible 
and Bible teachings as it is possible for any 
thing to be. The Bible is at one side, and 
they are far away olf on the other side. A 
great gulf lies between them and Christ's 
spirit and his teachings. They were pre- 
pared to commit deliberate murder— yes, 
even to murder those who had never wrong- 
ed them nor injured them. We call a man 
heroic when he gives his life for his friends. 
Christ gave his life to save his enemies. 
Does it not seem almost hopeless to try to 
put the ditfea'ence on paper, between Christ's 
spirit, or even that of a Christian man in 
whom Christ's spirit has found a lodging- 
place, and these men in whose hearts Satan 
has found a lodging-place '? I wonder if 
they know any thing of the teachings of the 
Bible ; I wonder if they have ever at any 
time in their lives thought of becoming 
Christians. My mind follows them, dear 
readers, because they are my neighbors. It 
is true, they do not live in Medina— at least, 
I hope they do not ; V)ut the spirit that actu- 
ates them"^ is finding a lodging-place, to a 
greater ov lessei- extent, in the hearts of hu- 
manity ail round about us. These events 
have this effect upon myself : They make me 
love the Bible more than I ever loved it be- 
fore, and tiiey make me love good, lionest, 
God-fearing inen more than I ever loved 
them before ; and I turn with renewed joy 
and thankfulness to that promise in the ser- 
mon on the mount — '• Blessed are the meek, 
for they shall iidierit the earth." Through 
Christ this evil spirit is to be con(iuered and 
driven out ; and upon Clnistian people rests 
the burden and responsibility. It rests with 
such as we are. sinful and imperfect, to 
hasten the time when God's kingdom shall 
come and ('hrist's will be done in earth as it 
is in heaveii. 



30 



GLJEAKINGS tN BEE CULTURE. 



JAiJ. 



dim 0WN Jiinnwi' 

CONDUCTED BY ERNEST B. BOOT. 



SUITABL,E DRESS FOR AVORK7NG AMONG THE 
BEES. 

Conveniences for the Apiary — Continued. 

to work among the bees to the best ad- 
vantage dining hot weather. I deem 
it highly essential that the apiarist 
pay Hue attention to the matter of 
dress. He should be so attired that 
he can work with comfort as ^\ell as conven- 
ience, burning hot though the sun may be. 
His clothing should be rather cheap, and not 
easily injui ed by honey dripping. 

Coiistitutionsare so widely different that 
what will be applicable to one will not be 
to another. Some will be easily affected by 
the sun's heat, others from piofuse sweat- 
ing. In the face of these ciicumstances I 
am not sure that I can recommend a dress 
suitable for all. But I fancy that many of 
my readers are constituted like myself. 

I once thouglit I w^as not adapted to sum- 
mer work out in the ai>iary. The sun's heat 
completely " played me out."" as I was wont 
to express it. But 1 wore no underwear. In 
fact, I was attiied in about the same dress 
that Dr. Miller says he wears ; * namely, 
" One straw hat and veil, one cotton shirt, 
one pair of cotton overalls, one pair of cot- 
ton socks, and one pair of shoes. "" He fur- 
ther states, that about noon he sponges him- 
self off and puts on dry clothing in place of 
that which is wet with sweat. The latter 
is put out to dry, to be used the next day. 

Unlike Dr. Millei', 1 never could sweat 
enough to keep sufficiently moist to counter- 
act the burning rays of the sun. The single 
thickness of cotton cloth of one shirt was not 
enough to ])revent my back from blistering. 
The heat on such occasions, wdien I was at- 
tired thus, seemed unbearable, and I had a 
burning desire to get to some cool shady 
nook. Not only this, but the sun's rays 
made me feel dizzy at times, and a sort of 
sickness, which I thought savored of sun- 
stroke, came over me. 

The next summer, in addition to the cot- 
ton shirt. I wore an undershirt - the latter 
not heavy, part cotton and part woolen. I 
was aware of the fact that many wear their 
underwear the year round, claiming that it 
protects them, not only from cold, but from 
extremes of heat. I* likewise noticed, in 
works on health and hygiene, that under- 
wear is recommended, ihlluenced by this, I 
decided that, at the a])i»roach of warm w^ea- 
ther, I would not cast aside my underwear 
as usual. The following summer in the api- 
ary attested the wisdom of this decision, and 
I nevermore experienced any incoiivenience 
when working in the hottestsun. The wool- 
en not only proved a great protection, but 
stojjped the si)eedy eva])()ration of perspira- 
tion — what little I do have. The moist 
woolen, for me, has a delightful coolness 
whi(ii is indeed refreshing. I have gone di- 
rectly from the hot sun in the aviary to the 
office. The latter place seemed oppressive- 
ly hot, w hile in tlie open air I felt very com- 

* A Year Among- the Bees, p. 64. 



fortable. Mind you, it was right the re- 
verse wiien I formerly worked among the 
bees with but one thickness of cotton cloth 
over my back. 

My experience may be a little singular ; 
but, fellow-apiarists, if you are troubled 
much by the heat of the "sun, try light un- 
derwear the coming summer. l' feel sure 
that some of you will find it a decided ad- 
vantage, w^hile others may be so constituted 
as to i)refer the dress recommended by Dr. 
Miller. 1 don't know, but it seems to me a 
light underwear for our friend the doctor 
might prevent such in'ofuse sweating ; but 
it may be that experience has taught iiim to 
the contrary. 

A SUITABLE HAT KOR THE APIARY. 

Reasoning from the foregoing, my readers 
might naturally suppose that I would rec- 
ommend a heavy hat. Not so. I prefer a 
light hat — the lighter in weight the better. 
That you may get a 1 letter idea of the one I 
prefer. I will ask the reader to turn back to 
the cut on page 1001, last issue. The ac- 
companying engraving shows the same hat, 
but not so closely. Tlie covering is cloth, and 
of a light drab color. The brim is lield out 
in position by a light steel hoop. The crowm 
on the inside is so made tliat it will fit any 
head. This is accomplished by means of a 
light rubber band sewn into the cloth crowii. 
The lower side of the Inim is covered with 
green cloth. When it is on the head, one is 
scarcely aware that he has any head-cover- 
ing, so "very light and easy is it^. The broad 
brim, with" the green on the under side, has 
a softening eff'ect on the eyes, and com- 
pletely shades them iroui the glare of the 
summer sun. When the latter is very hot I 
pull a couple of large plantain-leaves, or, 
better still, a large grapevine-leaf, and place 
it in the top of the hat. 

'"Why isn't a broad-brim palm - leaf or 
straw liat as good ? " you ask. In the first 
place, they ai'e much heavier, and warp into 
shapes that are outlandish, to say the least, 
after a little iise. The average farmer will 
go about with a thing on his head that looks 
more savage than civilized. Again, in a hot 
burning- sun I can not bear to have a hat 
pinch tightly aroiuid my head — it gives me 
the headache. The cloth one I have just 
described is entirely free from this latter 
ol)jection, and, on the contrary, is so con- 
structed as to give a comparativelv free cir- 
culation of air about the forehead. I have 
used this style of hat four or five summers, 
and therefore take jileasure in recommend- 
it. In a future number I will tell how 
well this hat is adapted for holding a veil. 

Before leaving this subject of hats, I wish 
to s.iy that I think. u]H)n inquiry, they can 
l)e purchased in their season at most of the 
clothing-stores. They retail at 25 cts. each. 
In the "meantime wewill see what we can 
do in the way of furnishing them for next 
season's use, should there be a call for them. 

STRAAV CUFFS TO PROTECT THE W^RISTS 
FROM STINGS, AND Tf) PREVENT SOIL- 
ING} THE SHIHT-SLEEVES. 

My readers will please take a look at the 
cut on p. 1001, last issue, as well as the one 
opposite, for a view of the cuffs. You ob- 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTIKK 



SI 



serve that they are made of straw, closely 
knit, and large enoii,2;h to cover the sleeve 
half way to tlie elbow. 

When workino- among the bees I always 
like to have my shirt-sleeves draw up a lit- 
tle from the wrist. They arc held uj) by coil- 
ed wire garters. This diuws the sleeve tight- 
ly about the wrist, and prevents, to a great 
extent, bees crawling up. I'ut whether tlie 
sleeves are drawn up or not, the l)ees are lia- 
ble to sting the exposed i)arts of the wrist, 
which, when stung, with me, the pain is ex- 
ceedingly sharji. To protect myself during 
past seasons T wore the straw cnfts. You 
notice they drop down close to the hands, so 
that, when a bee crawls n|) the latter, being 
unable to walk under, he crawls ui) the cuff. 

In autumn weather, during fall feeding, 
for instance, when it is comfortable to wear 



ducking, tlie ordinary m;ilerial. Those 
made of lin(Mi arc in general a better tit. 
The ordinary overalls are so ill fitting and 
baggy that I am afraid I should be ashamed 
to be introduced to visitors when attired 
thus, especially if father should come out 
(as he is liable to do) and say, '• Mr. .Jones, 
this is my son. He will take great pleasure 
in showing you about." 

In warm weather I prefer low shoes and 
light cotton socks. If the grass is wet with 
dew in the morning, as is often the case, I 
slip on rubbers. Lately, however, I have 
found something that I "like a little better 
than rubbers; i. e., light rubber boots de- 
signed for ladies. I think 1 shall prefer the 
latter, for the reason that they keep the l)ot- 
tom of my pnnts dry. which rubbers some- 
times fail to do. 




THE .\P1ARIST AT WOltK OVBH A H I \ K ; \>, 



■ himvim; (?is m vnnkk Or iiiit;.-.-^. 



a coat, the sleeves of the latter may be tuck- 
ed into the cuffs, and thus prevent the bees 
crawling up the mouth of the sleeve, which 
always seems especially Inviting to a bee, 
especially if hybrid or black. As stated in 
the heading, the cuffs are useful in another 
respect; namely, keeping the coat or shirt 
sleeves clean from honey or wax. Our boys 
have, therefore, found them invaluable 
when transferring, or in any other job where 
one is liable to get his fingers sticky. 

OVEIt.VLLS. 

If I intend to work for any length of time 
among the bees, I invariably don a pair of 
overalls as you see. The kind I use are 
made of a fine quality of -blue linen — not 



Having now for tlie present disposed of 
this matter of dress, perhaps you in(iuire 
what the fellow in the picture is doing. 1 
intended, among other things, to illustrate 
how I use the Simplicity-hive t.-over for a 
stool. 1 sit down to a hive thus, w^hen I be- 
come tired of stooping when on my feet, 
and. as you see. the cover answers admira- 
bly. Indeed, I think it is a far better sub- 
stitute than a tool-box. which has to be lug- 
ged about. The stool is always ready as you 
see. 

I had intended to mention one or two oth- 
er items in this connection, but as the " boss 
printer '' says my room is limited. I will de- 
fer them until next issue. 



82 



(^LEANING8 IN BEE CULTUUE. 



Jan. 



KEPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE 
CHAPMAN HONEY-PLANT. 



WRITTEN OUT BY PHOF. MCI.AIN. 



T|--' iS considerable space lias already been 
i|]bi given to reports in regard to this plant, 

j^' we thouglit it hardly worth while to 
■^^ go over the ground again ; l)ut as 
Friend Cliapman particularly wishes a 
full report from all the meml)er.s comprising 
said committee, we subjoin the following : 

The committee appointt^d by the North-American 
Bee-Keepers' Society, at the "auiiual meeting- held 
in Detroit, Mich., December, 1885, to investigate 
the merits ol a honey-bearing- plant now being- cul- 
tivated h^■ Mr. Hiram Chapman, of Versailles, N. Y., 
met at that place July 28, 1886. One member of the 
committee, Mr. Manum, of Bristol, Vt., was not able 
to be present; but as each member of your com- 
mittee was furnished with a sufflcient number of 
plants to affoi-d opportunity for observing their 
growth and habits, and also to gain some informa- 
tion concerning the value of the ]>lant as a honey- 
producer, a letter from Mr. Manum, in which he 
gives the result of his experience and observ-ation, 
is herewith appended. This plant, which Dr. Beal, 
of the Michigan State Agricultural College, and Mr. 
Scribner, Asst. Botanist of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, tell us is Erliinops Sph(vriicii}h(tlit!<, is 
an imported perennial, native in Central France, 
and, like all of the family to which it belongs, verj- 
rich in honey. 

This plant will probably be popularly known in 
this country as the "Chapman honey-plant," so 
named on account of Mr. Chapman being tirst to cul- 
tivate it, and being first to bring it to the notice of 
liee-keeperg. We found three acres of the plant in 
bloom. The height of the mature plant is from 
;5 to 4^2 feet, and each root bears from 5 to 15 round 
balls, or heads, from one inch to l'« inches in diam- 
eter. These heads stand upright, and the entire 
surface is covered with small white Howers having 
bluish stamens. 

The stalks and leaves so nearly resemble those of 
the common thistle, that, were it not for the head, 
the difference would not be easily noticed. There 
is, however, in this particular, a vei'y marked differ- 
ence, the appearance of the head being aptly de- 
scribed by its botanical name, which signifies round- 
headed, and in appearance like a hedgehog. The 
flowerets on top of the head open fii-st, then they 
open later along the sides of the ball, continuing 
in the order of nature around the entire surface of 
the sphere. Near to the stem the last flowerets 
open after the blossoms on the tops of the heads 
have disappeai'ed, and the seed-capsules of the first 
blossoms have hardened. 

Unlike the thistle, the seeds are provided with no 
balloon by which they may be borne by the wind. 
The seed is, in weight' and appearance, very much 
like a small grain of rye; is inclosed in a capsule, 
and falls directly to the ground, if not seasonably 
gathered, not spreading more than oats, if left to 
fall without harvesting. 

From the time of the aijpearance of the bloom 
upon the tops of individual heads until the fading 
of the last blossoms upon the lower part of the 
head near to the stalk, is about eight days; the con- 
tinuance of the blooming depending upon the na- 
ture of the soil and the season; but the heads, or 
buds sentoutfrom each individual shoot, and form- 
ing each individual cluster, vary in degree and size, 
so that the natural term of blooming and honey- 
bearing may safely be reckoned at from ~0 to 30 
days. The term of blooming may also be prolonged 
to a considerable extent by cutting liack a i)ortion 
of the plants, and the facility with which the honey- 
harvest may thus be prolonged constitutes an im- 
portant feature when estimating the value of this 
plant. The plant is hardy, easilj' propagated, peren- 
nial, and appears to fiourish in all kinds of soil, and 
there is no danger of its becoming a pest or a nox- 
ious weed. It does not bloom until the second sea- 
son; and as it does not spresJd in seeding, its extir- 
pation would be easily accomplished. Its seed may 
be scattered in waste places, or it may be sown in 
drills or hills, like onion seed. It seems to be char- 
acteristic of the plant to root out all other vegeta- 
tion, and take possession of the soil. No weeds, and 
but very little grass, was seengTOwing in the three- 



acre plot observed. A ten-acre field, sown broad- 
east and harrowed in like rye, has also made a vig- 
orous growth, and seems to be taking possession of 
the soil, in opposition to ijuack-grass and weeds. 
As to the value of the plant to the honey-producer, 
there appears to be no room for doubt, whether 
quantity or quality, or both, be considered. 

Within reach of Mr. Chapman's apiary, no other 
resources were accessible for honey-gathering. 
The severe and prolonged drought destroyed all 
other honey -yielding blossoms, and yet in some in- 
stances the liees were making an excellent showing 
in the hives. No definite conclusion could be reach- 
ed as to the probalile returns in pounds of honey 
from a given area. That the returns would be sat- 
isfactory, was evidenced by the fact that the entire 
area was " alive with bees," and they visited the 
flowers from daylight until dark, and sometimes 
eight or ten bees were ujton a single head at one 
time. Mr. Hubbard, who cultivated some of these 
plants obtained from Mr. Chapman, represented 
that he had counted the number of visits made by 
bees to a single head from 5 a. m. to 7 r. m. He re- 
ported the number as being 2135, actual count. In 
order that the committee might have some idea of 
the quantity of- nectar secreted in the flowers of 
a single head, the daj' before ovir arrival Mr. Chap- 
man had wrapped a thin paper about a head, the 
half of which was in full bloom, and tied the paper 
around the stem with tape, thus preventing the 
bees from appropriating the nectar for 34 hours. 
Upon removing the paper on the forenoon of the 
day of our visit, the flowerets were found to be 
dripping with nectar, and the drops sjiarkled in the 
morning sun. Each of us have made similar tests 
with like results since that time. We cheerfully 
and confidently recommend this plant to the bee- 
keepers of North America as a most valuable ac- 
qr.isition to the list of bee-forage plants. 

We believe that a trial of the plant will, better 
than any further words of approval from us, pub- 
lish its own commendation. 

Rt'spectfnlbi submitted. 

N. W. McLain. 

A. I. KooT. 
L. C. Root. 

The following is a report in regard to the 
plant, from Mr. Manum, who was absent at 
the time the other members of the commit- 
tee asseml)led at Mr. Chai)man"s: 

L. C. Root, ChairiiKitt of Committee on the Chap- 
man Homy-Plant— Dear Sir;— As I failed to put in 
an appearance when the committee met at Mr. 
Chapman's, in July last, it is not only due you, but 
to Mr. Chapman aiid the convention as well, that I 
make a short report of my experience with the 
Chapman honey-plant, 50 roots of which Mr. Chap- 
man so kindly sent me last spring-. The plants 
thrived well through the summer, under moderate 
cultivation, and planted on light sandy soil. I did 
not take extra pains with them, as I wished to test 
their hardiness. The plants commenced to bloom 
July 14, and contiinied to bloom until Aug. 21, 
making 39 days that they continued in bloom; and 
from the first day of their blooming until the last, 
the little flowei--balls were covered with bees every 
day from early morning until dark, rain or shine 
(we had no very heavy rains during this period), 
the bees constantly going and coming. I have 
counted 16 bees on one ball at one time, all sucking 
the sweet nectar from the richly laden flowers of 
the Chapman honey-plant. At Mr. Chapman's re- 
((uest I covei-ed 8 of the balls with tissue paper, and 
2 with muslin. On the following day there were 
several bee-keepers here. I removed the paper 
fi-oin the balls, and. lo and behold! the flowers were 
filled— ies, covered, as it were, with honey. We 
found, by holding the hand under one of the balls, 
and jarring it, the honey dropped in the hand 
enough to make sevi;ral dn^ps. In a moment a bee 
alighted on one of the uncovered balls, and never 
mo\-ed until its sacK was filled, when it flew iiv\iiy. 
On timing them I found that five bees filled them- 
selves and flew away in two minutes and twenty 
seconds fi-om the time the fir?t bee alighted on the 
plant. The two balls that were covered with mus- 
lin were now uncovered; but the honey seemeil to 
have evaporated, as there was but little visible, 
although 1 had noticed bees alight on the muslin, 
and try to suck honey through the cloth. This fact 
was conclusive to me that the bees could smell the 
honey through the cloth. I find ;that, by cutting- 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



33 



back the plants in June, they will bloom later in 
the season. This would be of advantag-e, perhaps, 
to those who are favored with an abundance of 
buckwheat for their bees to work on during- Au- 
gust, as, by cutting it back, it would then com- 
mence to bioom the last of August, thereby afford- 
ing good pasturage for bees in September. 

In conclusion, I must say that I am well pleased 
with the plant, judging from this first year's trial; 
and T venture to say, that the time is not far dis- 
tant when it will be extensively cultivated for its 
honey-producing qualities. I e.xpeet to plant an 
acre ne.\t spring. Were it possible for me to meet 
with you at the convention, I would move a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Chapman for having introduced this 
valuable plant. It is valuable, not only to bee- 
keepers, but to the florist as well, because it is a 
very beautiful plant, and so very rare withal. 

I remain yours truly, A. E. Manum. 

Bristol, Vt., Oct. 7, 188ii. 



Gleanimcs in Bee Culture, 

Published Semi-3Ionthly. 

.A.. I. I^OOT, 

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 

MEDINA, O. 

TERMS: $1.00 PER YEAR, POSTPAID. 

For Clntbing Bates, See First Page of Beading Matter. 



And (xod said, Behcild I hfive uivt-n yuti evtrv herb hearinj; 
seed, which is upon the face of the earth.— (iEX. 1 :•». 



THE AMERICAN APICULTUKIST FOK .lANUAKY. 

We congratulate friend Alley on having given us 
another number containing so many good things. 
I am especially pleased with his remarks in regard 
to procuring good (lueen-cells, on page 34. 

the bee-hive. 
The above is the title of a vei-y pretty and well- 
gotten-up little bee-journal, for the small sum of 
:W cts. per year; and commencing with the April 
number it will be hereafter published once a month 
instead of only once every other month. The printing 
and general get-up of the whole does much credit 
to friend Cook. We can furnish it with (Jleanings 
for only f 1.30 a yeat\ 

difference in charges between E.XPKESS AND 

freight. 
A great many times, heavy and bulky goods are 
ordered by express. When we feel quite certain the 
party who made the order was thoughtless or not 
posted, we take the liberty of sending by freight. 
The following illustrates it: 

The yoods you shipped nie on the 2tith of November were re- 
ceived to-dav, nil in jjood shai)e. 1 am pleased with them; 
freight was '80 cents, or ?2.00 less tlian b.v express. Thev are 
heavier than I thought they would be. G. L. Honkvwei.l. 

Carr's Creek. N. Y., Pec. 8, 1886. 

You will notice, the goods were 13 days on the 
way. Perhaps they might have gone in less than 
half that time by express, but our friend saved 
$3. (to by waiting a few days longer. 

ATTENDING STATE AND COUNTY FAIRS. 

SEVER.it, of the brethren have taken me to task 
because I, a professing Christian, recommend other 
professing Christians to mi.v in with those usually 
found at such places. If it were a horse-race or 
a beer-garden, or even a skating-rink, I should be 
very slow in advising our boys and g-irU to go. 



Our fairs, however, are instituted for educational 
purposes, and teaching rural and mechanical in- 
dustries—a sort of education I begin to feel is of 
just about as mu(!h importance as that to be re- 
ceived at schools; therefore 1 recommend that all 
Christians should be on hand every time if possible, 
and by their weight and influence hold on and en- 
courage the gooii, and crowd out the evil. A part 
of our Savior's prayer for his disciples was, "' 1 pray 
not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, 
but that thou shouldst keep them from the evil." 



DU. (. C. MII-r.ERS BOOK, "A YEAR AMON<i TH!', 
BEES." 

I SH.VLL have to confess I never got time to read 
this little book thoroughly until while on the cars 
on Hiy way to the Michigan Con\ention. I put it in 
my overcoat pocket, and I found it in more ways 
than one a blessing. It is extremely tiresome for 
me to be obliged to sit in a car-seat while riding 
evenings, hour after hour. In the day time I can 
look out among the homes scattered along the line 
of travel. Well, I read friend M.'s little book clear 
through, and I am so very much pleased with if 
that I wish, during the coming year, to make a re- 
view of it through the pages of Gleanincjs, illus- 
trating every point I think worth illustrating, bj 
appropriate cuts. When friend M. reads this edito- 
rial he must understand that, if he has any objec- 
tions to make against my so doing, he must speak 
quick, ur he may get into print more than he ex- 
pects, and before he knows it. 

is THE NECTAR OK THE FLOWERS .MATEK1.\1.LV 
CH.VNGED BY IIKING GATHERED BY THE BEES V 

My attention has been called to the fact that on 
page 881, Nov. 1.5 issue, where I say sugar syrup 
fed to the bees will be sugar syrup still, I am in ap- 
parent contradiction with what Prof. Cook says in 
his Manual in regard to the same matter. My reply 
is this: Prof. Cook does say theie is a slight differ- 
ence in sugar syrup, or nectar of the flowers, after 
having passed through the honey-gathering appa- 
ratus of the bee. I insist, however, that this dilfei- 
ence is so slight that my remarks are iu geni'ral 
true. I have fed bees sugar syrup, and made them 
fill sections. The product was beautiful to look up- 
on, but everybody pronounced it sugar as soon as 
they tasted it. I have also by accident fed syrup a 
little burnt. Now, even though it remained in the 
hives six months, the burnt taste was just the same 
as when the syrup was made. Furthermore. I have 
melted candied honey, and fed it to the bees to fin- 
ish out unfilled sections. Now, this melted candy 
honey, even though perfectly sealed up iu the 
combs, candied again almost at once, so that you 
could tell at a glance the honey gathered directly 
from the fields Irom that which had been fed to the 
bees to finish out the sections. I could mention 
many more experiments that indicate that the arti- 
cle fed to the bees passes in and out of their boney- 
gatbering apparatus without any change, practic- 
ally speaking; therefore neither Mrs. Cotton nor 
anybody else can feed bees sugar so as to induce 
them to make honey; and those who have tried 
feeding bees glucose, have found simply glucose 
stored in the combs, and nothing else, so far as 
taste is concerned. In some cases there may be a 
slight acid taste i)erceptible after nectar has been 
gathered by the bees from the flowers, but not 
enough to be worthy of much cotnmont. in ray 
opinion. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



The number of subscribers up to date numbers 

607«. 

mysetjF and my neighbors. 

As you will notice, this department is to be here- 
after in the first issue of the month, in order to 
di\ide up mj- friendly talks to you a little more. 



MATTER FOR GLEANINGS. 

As usual at this season of the year, a g-reat amount 
has accumulated. We hope the friends will be pa- 
tient, therefore, if their communications should 
not be presented for three or four issues after they 
have been sent in. 

THE CONVENTION AT ALBANY. 

I EXPECT to be on liand some time during- Tues- 
day, the 11th, and to be present during the three 
days' session. As this will take me so near the city 
of New York, I shall probably make a call there, 
and try to write up such items of interest as 1 may 
find for the readers of Gleanings. As the lo- 
cality is a central one for manj' of our veterans in 
bee culture, we hope to see a large attendance. 



DATING bee-keepers' CONVENTIONS. 

It seems a little unfortunate that the Ohio Con- 
vention should be exactly on the three same days 
as the fon\ention in York State, which so many of 
us have been proposing- to attend. Can't our friends 
who have these matters in charge have au under- 
standing-, so wo may avoid having- them come on 
the same day'/ Surely our winters are long enough. 
My engagement to attend at Albany will, of course, 
prevent my being at Columbus, but Ernest will be 
there even if it is bad lor us to be both away at once. 



KIND WORDS. 

It seems as if the kind words from tlje readers of 
(tLKAnings this year exceeded any thing we ever 
recei\ cd during any former year. Over and over 
again have I thought this or that g-ood friend must 
certainly have such an answer as he deserves, 
forthwith; but when so many of them came it be- 
gan to be out of the question; and when I talked 
with the subscription clerks about it, they said it 
was all they could possibly do, even by working 
over hoHi-s, to get the names on the list, let alone 
replying to letters. And now I want to say to you 
all, may God bless you all and reward youl These 
words of friendship and encouragement are not 
forgotten; and if I can not get time to reply to each 
(me of you personally, I can remember you in my 
prayers. May he send a happy New Year to you all. 

SHIPPING VUEKNS FROM THE SOUTH DURING 

winter months. 
In response to an advertisement of Miss Nellie 
Adams, seen in another column, we sent for a 
queen, partly to test her ability in mailing queens 
during cold weather, and partly because we desired 
a queen for a queenless colony in an observatory 
hive. We are glad to announce to our friends that 
the queen shipped from Florida arrived in Medina 
in good condition, and only one bee dead. This, 
too, was when we had quite a cold snap of weather 
—so cold, indeed, that on opening the cage the 
queen and her attendants were stitfeued with 
cold. They soon revived, however, on exposure to 
warmth. It is an interesting question how long a 
few bees may remain stiffened during- shipment, 
and yet be revived on arrival at their destination. 
We are glad tomake this announcement in favor 
(•four friend Miss Adams, even if it does savor a 
little of free advertising. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



We will pay UO cts. each for May Gleanings, 1875. 
Kemember, 1875, and not 1876. 



discounts for .lANUARY. 

Kemember our discount for this mouth will be 
4%; and we have decided to let this apply to all 
goods of whatever nature. Please remember to 
have your orders in before the month is gone, If 
you wish to avail yourselves of this offer. 



CHANGE IN PRICE. 



Since E. L. Gould's advertisement was printed 
on page 2, we have received from him the follow- 
ing card, taking the place of the advertisement. 

The price for Chapman honey-plant seed is as follows: K oz., 
40e; 1 oz., 80c; 2 oz., SI..''": 4 oz. ,*2.00; 8 oz., 53.(10. F,. L. GOOLB. 

Brantford, Can. 

BOSTON MARKET LETTUCE-PLANTS. 

We have a beautiful stand of nice little plants now 
in our greenhouse; and in order to test the matter 
of sending them safely by mail, we will send 10 
I plants for 5 cts.; 100 plants for 10 cts.; and if they 
I don't reach you in good order there will be no 
j charge. These plants are from seeds from selected 
' heads of our own raising 

HOW TO ORDKH SEEDS WITHOUT WRITING A 
LETTER. 

We can furnish, on application, a sheet of paper 
containing the matter on pages 1 and 5. Take 
this sheet, and with a pencil mark around the 
seeds you want. Inclose the cash to correspond, 
and we will know just what to do, and you need 
not write a word unless you choose, except your 
name and address. Our complete catalogue of 
seeds and implements will be out in a few weeks. 



DADANT'S FOUNDATION FACTORY, WHOLE- 
SALE AND RETAIL. See advertisement in 
another column. Sbtfd 

"BEE-KEEPERS' ADVANCE " 

Is a monthly journal of 10 pages, 35 cts. per year 
Clubbed with Gleanings for *1.15. Sample copy 
sent free with our illustrated catalogue of supplies. 
Don't forget to send name and address on a postal 
to JAMES B. MASON & SONS, 
Id Mechanic Falls, Maine. 



IN order that I may pay off my debts, and devote 
my whole time to preaching the gospel, I offer 
my entire apiaries, consisting of about 90 colo- 
nies of Italian and hybrid bees, 60 empty hives, 3 
extractors, and other bee supplies, for sale at a 
great sacrifice. Persons wishing to buy would do 
well to correspond with me immediately. I must 
sell. JAS.' ERWIN, 

Sltfd Smith's Grove. Warren Co., Ky. 

GOOD NEWS FOR DIXIE! 
SIMPLICITY HIVES, 

Sections, Extractors, Smokers, Separators, 

&c., of Root's Manufacture, Shipped 

from Iiere at ROOT'S PRICES. 

Also S. hives of Southern yellow pine, and Bee- 
Keepers' Supplies in general. Price List Free. 

J. M. JENKINS, WETUMPKA, ALABAMA. 

3-34db 

ATTEND THE CONVENTION 

And see the Stanley Automatic Extractor. But if 
you can not do this, please mail a postal, asking for 
circular for 1887, with testimonials from those us- 
ing the machines. Address at once, 

G. W. STANLEY, Wyoming, N. Y. 



i88^ 



GLEAirtN^GS IN 



BEE CULTUKE. ' C - 39/ > 

Recent Additions to the Counter Store. 

THRKE-CENT COUNTER. 

I PLATE, 6-IN., g-lass, crystal or colored | 28 | a GO 

A little beauty, aiui hrtiidy for many purposes. 
3 I SHOE AND OLOVE BUTTONEE | 28 | 2 50 

B..th i.Ti :i kev lint;-. All for 3 cents. 

2 I BEASSFEEULES lor tool-handles | 25 | 2 40 

Dozen pksfs, .■> 16. 6 Ifi. and 7 10. You may have a dozen as- 
sorted or :ill of one size. 

2 I PATTY-PANS, EOTOD, 5-IN | 20 | 1 80 

Just right for small pies or maple-sugar cakes. 

3 I PENCIL, LEAD, with rubber cap; 20 cts. 

per dozen | 17 | 1 50 

This IS a plain cedar pencil, with an inserted rubber cap. 

2 I SLATE-BOOK, 6 pages and pencil | 25 | 2 40 

Much smaller t^an the 5-cent ones, but very handy. 

FIVE - CENT COUNTER. 
I SENSATION PIOELE-DISH, colored glass I 48 | 4 % 

This is a bcMUtv. The pattern is nmch like "polka dot." 

6 I SENSATION SALT OR PEPPER BOTTLE | 46 i 4 .50 

With nickel top; same iiMttirn as the pickle-dish, and col- 
ored glass. The lo|i hciii^;- nickeled, it will not tarnish. 

2 I SLATE-BOOK, *i iiages and a slate-pencil | 40 | 3 80 

Very handv for taking notes. 

3 I PEOPELLINa-PENCIL 1 36 | 3 60 

This is a very handsome lead-pencil, black-Bnameled, and 

nickel ends. The point of the lead may be protected, or a new 
one inserted, when the first is worn out; 6 extra leads in a 
neat wooden box, for double above prices. 

2 I BRASS FERULES for tool-handles | 40 | 3 80 

Dozen pkgs.; \,. 11-16. and ^. We have obtained some more 
of these that are stronger and nicer, and you may have a doz- 
en assorted, or one size. Just as you choose. 

A. I. ROOT, Medina, O. 

DADANT'S FOUNDATION FACTORY, WHOLE- 
SALE AND RETAIL. See advertisement in 
another column. 3btfd 

A BARNES foot-power saw at half price. For par- 
" ticulars, address J. A. ROE, Union City, Ind. 

rOR EXCHANGE.— Section-machine and cutter- 
' head, for making- the one-piece section; Root's 
make. Used but little; in good order. Will take 
$60.00 for both. Sent from Jefferson, la. Also other 
machinery for hive-making. Write me at Trenton, 
Hitchcock Co., Neb. E. Y. PERKINS. 



Contents of this Number. 



Apiary Near Railroad 50 

Apiary, Andrews' 41 

Bears and Honey 69 

Bee Legislation 53 

Bees in Honey-House 47 

Bees, Working Qualities ... 50 

Bees Strange Death 66 

Bee-Keepers' I'nion bi 

Beeswax, Pre ducing 49 

Bingham's Visit U 

Blacks. Report from 63 

Brood, Spreading in Spring 63 

Brood, Frozen 66 

BumbleBees 42 

Class Legislation 66 

Comb Between Brood and 

Entrance 51 

Comb,Worker, Without Fdn 51 
Comb, Drone, in Brood- 
Chamber. 51 

Comb Honey, Best 46 

Convention at Albany 45 

Editorials 75 

Eggs, Making Hatch 42 

Granulation. Preventing... 43 

Frames, to Handle 73 

Fotindation, its Use 51 

Fdn.. Full Sheets 43 

Heads of Grain 64 

Hive, Heddon's 48 

Hive, Glass on the Back ... 68 
Hive, Empty, Under Brood- 
Nest 51 



Hives, Shallow 44 

Honey at Fairs 64 

Honey Column 40 

Honey from Heather 65 

Honev. Price of 66 

Hone'v. Milkweed 63 

Hone">, E.Ktiacted ." 45 

Honey-Tumblers. Sealing. . . 64 

Hutchinson's Pamphlet .54 

Introducing, Hints on 65 

Italians. Big Record 52 

Lanterns and Bees 69 

Manipulating Frames 46 

Miller's Legislation 54 

Ohio State Convention 43 

Our Own Api.irv 73 

Positions at Work 73 

Queen 5 Years old 68 

Queens, Crami>ing of 50 

Queen-cell Protector 52 

Queen's Head Wrong Way . 68 

Raspberries and Bees 63 

Reports Encouraging 74 

Scotland....: 65 

Separators or Not 48 

Special Notices 76 

Sweet Melissa 66 

Toad Getting Stung 65 

Tobacco Column 70 

Trap, Alley, Not New 65 

Vinegar. Honey 64 

Water for Stings 68 

Woman. What one can Do. . 43 



CONVENTION NOTICES. 

The Northeastern Mich. Bee-Keepers' Association will hold its 
fifth anntial meeting. Wednesday. Feb. 2, in the Common- 
Council Rooms of Bav City. W. Z. Hutchinson, Sec. 



The Wisconsin State Bee-Keepers' .Association will meet in 
the Capitol, at Madison, on Thursday, Feb. 3, at 9 a. m. I think 
no ai-gument is needed to show that these conventions, well 
attended and properly conducted, will be a source of profit to 
tlie bee-keeping fraternity, and pleasure to those who attend. 

The State Agricultural Convention will be in session at the 
some place from Feb. 1st to the 4th in<hisive, with a very in- 
tei-esting programme. The pajn-rs and discussions of this con- 
vention wiil be of interest to everybody. 

Hotel ar( i.mmodations abundant, at any price from one to 
thtee dollais per day, and return tickets over the principal 
roads at reduced rates. 

We especially desire the attendance of those bee-keepers 
who have learned it all as teachers; we more es]iecially desire 
the presence of those who have not learned it all. tor they 
make the best of pupils. F. Wilcc >x, Sec. 



C. M. aOODSPEED, 

THORN HILL, ONONDAGA CO., N. Y., 

Furnishes any newspaper to single subscribers, 
away below the usual club rates. Our list compris- 
es ail the leading papers, and is the lowest-priced 
list in the field. Alsike, bees, queens, poultry, and 
small fruit. Write for 2(3-page catalogue. Mention 
this paper. 

MUTH'S 
HONEY-EXTRACTOR, 

><IIJARE GI..ASS HONEY-JARS, 

TIN BUCKETS, BEE-HIVES, 
HONEY-SECTIONS, &c., Ac. 
PERFECTION COLD- BLAST SMOKERS. 



Apply to CHAS. F. MUTH & SON, 

Cincinnati, O. 
P. S.— Send 10-cent stamp for " Practical Hints to 
Bee-Keepers." Itfdb 



A BARGAIN FOR 30 DAYS ONLY. 

Any one sending ifl.oO can have one pair of white 
Rabbits, or one pair Brown Leghorns, or one pair 
Plj-mouth Rocks, or 2 sittings of Langshan eggs, 
booked for April or May delivery. Say which you 
want. Yours for promptness and satisfaction, 

O. 1.. COVER, Covington, O. 

ALSIKE. 

Write for prices of pure seed before buying, and 
save money. C. M. COODSPEED, 
T horn Hill, N. Y. 

DADANT'S FOUNDATION FACTORY, Whole- 
sale and retail. See advertisement in another 
column. 3btfd 



S f B? i^^> Tested, sure to grow. 130 kinds* 
t EL L/ W "f POTATOES, all the new 
^«-j«t-^j^ .«=- ~- Berry Plants. Superior Stock. 
Prices low.. Catalogue free. Itwill pavtogetit. 
FRANK FORD <& SONS, Ravenna, O. 




What Mr. Beyer says:,;:^r-. 

I ihanl.3 1 .1- the epleniliil s^eds received ii'uia your firnt. 
iLwoukll jaratberlcnu'tljy li -tif I should name all, but 
viillsjiy thatainoiigstS'Sflrst, find .3 second premiums 
awarded me at our fairs iu Northern Indiana and 
Southern Michigan, 28 tirst premiums were for vege- 
tables r.used from your seeds. MTiat firm can beat 
tbi.«-. ? " ArorsT Bki-er, So. Bend, Ind. 

Seed of this quality I am now ready to Bell to every one 
who tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FREE my 
egetable aud Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1SS7. Old customers 
need not write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild 
potato. J.\8. J. H. GREGORY, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mass 



40 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Jan. 



peNEY CeMMN. 



CITT MARKETS. 

Detroit.— Honej/. — The market continues dull, 
with no change in prices. Best white comb, 12! i; 
Bucl£wheat and tall flowers, 10@11. Extracted otter- 
ed at 6@8. Beeswax, 23o. M. H. Hunt, 

Jan. 10, 1887. Bell Branch, Mich. 



Philadelphia. — Honey. — White clover, fine, 
14@15; white clover, fair, 12@.13; buckwheat, flue, 
11@12; same, fair, 9@10; one and two pound glass 
sections. Extracted, 6@8, as to quality. Becawax, 
20@23, as to quality. 

Jan. 10, 1887. Pancoast & Griffiths, 

243 South Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



St. Louis.— i?o»iei/.— Market is dull; choice comb, 
white cloven 1-lb. sections, 12@13. Other grades in 
sections, lOCgjll. Broken comb, 6@8; white clover, 
extracted, in cans, 5V2®6. Southern in bbls., 3@5. 
California extracted, in cans, -tJiSS, for dark, or 
amber; 5!4, choice white sage. Beesicax, 21(5^22, as 
runs; 25, selected. W. B. Westcott & Co., 

Jan. 10, 1887. 108 and 110 Market Street. 



Cleveland.— HoJiey.-This market has been very 
dull the past two weeks. Prices are unchanged; 
best white 1-lb. sections sell at 13c; 2d quality, 10. 
Best white 2-lbs., 11@12; 2d, 8@9. Extracted is very 
dull at 6c. Beeswax, 2.5. 

Jan. 10, 1887. A. C. Kendel, 

115 Ontario St., Cleveland, O. 



Cincinnati. — Houejy. — Nothing new of impor- 
tance since last report. Demand is very slow for 
all kinds of honey since Christmas, and occasional 
concessions have to be made to effect a sale of comb 
honey. 

Quotations have to be made as heretofoi-e; 3fc"7 
cents for extracted honey on arrival, and 12@15 for 
best comb honey, in a jobbing way. 

Beeswax.— Demand is good for beeswax, which 
brings 20@-22c on arrival for good to choice yellow. 

Jan. 11, 1887. Chas. F. Muth & Son, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Boston.— flojiey.— Demand very light since the 
holidays, and we quote: Best 1-lb. white clover, 
13((ftU; same, 2-1 b. sections, ll(a 12; California comb 
honey, 10(gl2. Extracted, .5@,7. Beeswax, 24c. 
Blake & Ripely, 

Jan. 10, 1887. 57 Chatham St., Boston, Mass. 



Chicago. — Ho»jej/.— Dullness prevails in the hon- 
ey-market; no change in values since last quota- 
tions. K. A. Burnett, 

Jan. 10, 1887. 161 So. Water St., Chicago, 111. 



New York.— Honey.— There is no change to note 
in our honey market. The demand is limited, and 
prices remain unchanged. The finer grades of 
white honey are getting exhausted, but there is any 
amount of the poorer grades yet to be disposed of. 

Jan. 10, 1887. Thurber, Whyland & Co., 

New York, N. Y. 

For Sale Cheap. — 4.500 lbs. choice white-clover 
honey in 10 and 25 gal. kegs and in 48-gal. bbls. ; also 
2500 lbs. very flue Spanish-needle honey in 25-g;al. 
kegs and 48-gal. bbls. Will send samples on receipt 
of 2-cent postage-stamp for each. 

Emil J. Baxter, Nauvoo, Hancock Co., 111. 



For Sale.— 2000 lbs. best clover honey in Root's 
"raised-cDver pails." One set, 30'/2 lbs., $2..50; 4 sets, 
122 lbs., %9:ih. Boxed, they ship same as bbls. 

Oliver Foster, Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 



ATTENTION I 

SECTIONS, BEE-HIVES, HONEY-BOXES, 
FKAIWES, ETC. 

LARGEST FACTORY IN THE WORLD. 

Best of goods at lowest prices. Write for free il- 
lustrated Catalogue. <i. B. L.EWIS A: CO., 
Itfdb Watertovru, Wis. 




TKE BEE -KEEPERS' ^DY^^CE 

is a monthly journal of 16 pages. 
We want every reader of Gleanings to send their 
name and address on a postal card, as we wish to 
send them a sample copy of the ADVANCE. It 
will cost you but one cent, and we guarantee that 
all will get their money's worth. Address 
The BEE-KEEiPERS' ADVANCE, 

Mechanic Falls, Me. 



GIVEN AWAY. 

We will send free by mail one of our latest im- 
proved drone and queen traps to each yearly sub- 
scriber for the AMERICAN APICULTVRIST. 
Price 11.00 per annum. Sample copies free. Send 
the $1.00 in common letter at our risk. 

Address AMERICAN APICULTURIST, 

24tfdb Wenham, Mass. 



THE CANAOSAN BEE JOURNAL 

WEEKLY, $1.00 PER YEAR. 

JOITES, MCFHEBS017& CO., Publishers, Beeton, Ontario, Canada. 

The only bee journal printed in Canada, and con- 
taining much valuable and interesting matter each 
week from the pens of leading Canadian and United 
States bee-keepers. Sample copy sent free on re- 
ceipt of address. Printed on nice toned paper, and 
in a nice shape for binding, making in one year a 
volume of 8.S3 pajres. Stfh 



WONDERFUL! 

Owing to the reduction in subscription price 
to 25 Cents, on and after Jan. 1, 1887, we are 
able to make the following wonderful offer. 
"We w^ill send 

BEE-KEEPERS' MAGAZINE 

—and- 

GLEANINGS 

Oxxo "SToa-r for $X.10. 

For only 10 cts. more than Gleanings you can 
obtain the BEE-KEEPEES' MAGAZINE, whose price this 
year was *1.00. Send for sample, and see what a 
splendid magazine we publish. Sample free. 

Address BEE'KEEPERS' MAGAZINE, 

22tfdb DARRYTOWN, N. Y. 



Headquarters in the South. 

FACTORY OF BEE-HIVES, ETC. 

EARLY NUCLEI, ITALIAN QUEENS. 

NINTH ANNUAL 
CATALOGUE FOR 1887 NOW READY. 

p. li. VIAL.LON, Bayou Goiila, La. 

FOR ^Al F One Barnes combined scroll and 
run OnLbi circvilar saw. Has fourteen cir- 
cular and ten scroll saws, one cutter-head, two man- 
drels, three gauges, one sawset, one emery wheel, 
all in running order; will sell for $35.00, which is 
about half cost. Address E. C. APPLEGATE, 
l-2d Poplar Flat, Lewis Co., Ky. 




TERMS: $1.00 Per A NNTM. IN Advance; I I7',,7-^ 7,7," „ 7> ^ ^ -,"-,^ 7 O ly a 

2CopiesforS1.90; 3tor$2.75;6for.M.OO; I i!(ACtt'C't't'6/t'e>U' VTl lO/O. 



Pl!RLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY BY 



10 01- more, 75 cts. eaoh. Single num- 
ber. 5 ct.s. Additions to clubs may be 

Ift^r^M'l^r^Sl.o^^r^'.^'''' '''''-'] A. I. ROOT, MEDINA, OHIO. 



Clubs to different postoflSces, not less 
tlian 90 cts. each. Sent postpaid, in the 
U. S. and Canadas. To all other coun- 
tries of the Universal Postal Union, 18 
cts. per year extra. To all countries 
NOT of the U. P. U., 42 cts. per year extra. 



Vol XV. 



JAN. 15, 1887. 



No. 2. 



T. P. ANDKEWS' APIAKY. 



A FURTHER DESCRIPTION OF THF, SAME. 



fKlEND ROOT:— Replying to your request fox- 
fuller information in regard to the cut of my 
apiary in Gi>eanings, I would say that the 
photograph from which the cut was made 
was taken with a lens not adapted to this 
kind of work, as it considerably diminished the ap- 
parent size of objects in the background, thus exag- 
gerating their apparent distance. In reality, those 
rows of hives that look so long are only about ^V^ 
rods long. The apiary is laid off in squares, by 
streets eight feet wide, crossing each other at right 
angles. The one broad irregular street shown in 
the cut running from east to west is an error of the 
engraver. The squares between the streets are one 
rod square, and contain sixteen hives— four rows of 
hives each way. This puts the hives a little more 
than five feet from center to center. I have not 
found that the bees mistake their hives to any ap- 
preciable extent. 

The honey-house is 14 by 18 feet. The south side 
is seen in the picture. The northwest corner of this 
building is occupied by a honey-tank holding 5000 
pounds. It is securely made of 2-inch pine planks; 
is lined with tin, and rests on a strong frame, high 
enough to draw off the honey into barrels or cans. 
At the south side of this tank stauds a four-frame 
Stanley honey-extractor. The pail in which the 
honey is carried from the extractor to the tank, 
stands in a deep rectangular tin pan, which 1 made 
several years ago, to use in making tdn. from 
plaster-of -Paris casts. This pan is to catch any ac- 
cidental overtiow from the honey-pail, and stauds 



between the extractor and tank. A piece of oil 
cloth, hanging from the upper edge of the tank, 
reaches down into this pan, to catch any drip from 
the pail while being emptied. 

A much more convenient honey-house could be 
built on a side hill by placing the honey-tank on a 
lower floor, as does friend Christie, of Iowa. 

For convenience in getting the full combs to the 
extractor, and the empty ones away, I have made 
two openings in the south side of the honey-house, 
about six feet apart, and one foot above the floor. 
I also made two sets of rolls, each about eight feet 
long. They are like ladders with rollers instead of 
rounds. These ladders are placed so as to project 
out through the side of the building about two feet, 
far enough to set a hive on before sliding it in on 
the rolls. My comb-boxes are simply hive-bodies 
with a thin bottom nailed on, and covered with a 
piece of cloth, one edge of which is tacked to one 
side of the hive, the other edge being tacked to a 
slender stick which keeps the cloth straight, and 
holds down the edge. Three of these comb-boxes 
are placed side by side in the cart, which 1 will de- 
scribe at another time, and are drawn out to the 
hives, and filled with combs. These are taken back 
to the honey-house, and shoved in on the first set of 
rolls. The cart is then drawn forward to the next 
opening, where three boxes of empty combs are 
rolled out to fill the cart for a second trip to the 
hives. T. P. Andrews. 

Farina, 111., Jan. 7, 1H87. 

Many thanks, friend A. You certainly 
have things very conveniently arranged. 
We should he glad to have you describe 
more fully your hive-cart.— In "regard to the 
distance of hives, ours are 7 ft. from center 



42 



GLEANLNGS LN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



to center. Besides this, the entrances are 
turned to all points of the compass. Yet we 
find that bees in early spring and late in the 
fall are very often confused as to the exact 
location of their hives. 



BUMBLE-BEES. 



SOME OF THEIR PECULIARITIES. 



fS^ HE question of E. D. Howell, in Gleanings 
I)"- for January 1, page 26, brought to my mind 
< the fact that we have in Hilliard, 0., an in- 
telligent young man who, about seven years 
ago, during one season, had several colonies 
of bumble-bees. His first colony was secured early 
in the spring, and consisted of a queen and one oth- 
er bee, seemingly just hatched, and a small bit of 
comb, not more than three cells, and these contain- 
ed no eggs or brood, as he now remembers. The 
nest, bees and all, was placed in a box about eight 
by twelve inches, turned upside down on a board 
about two feet from the ground. The entrance was 
about one-half by two inches. He knew nothing of 
the inside of this nest-box until late in the fall; and 
when he opened it, he found neither honey, brood, 
nor bees, either dead or alive, but one beautiful 
comb, nearly round, and measuring about seven 
inches in diameter. The queen was long and yellow, 
while the workers were much smaller and quite 
dark. There was a middle class, which seemed idle, 
and he thinks they were drones. The other colonies 
were secured later, and seemed to be more or less 
demoralized all the season, doing their work in an 
Inferior manner, though this may have been their 
normal conduct and skill, as they were a different 
bee from the others, being much smaller and much 
more inclined to sting. Their nests were also empty 
when opened in the fall. 

My young friend gave me many interesting facts 
about his bumble-bees and about bumble-bees in 
general. He has never detected the least symptom 
that they have the swarming habit, and gives it as 
his opinion that they never swarm. In early spring- 
he usually finds each colony composed of a single 
bee— the queen— and usually about a dozen eggs, 
the eggs being something smaller than hemp seed. 
His colonies kept their houses very clean and tidy; 
and the fact that they would invariably walk to the 
edge of the bottom-board, and, with a quick right- 
about movement, dump their excrement beyond 
the board on the ground, was a very prominent 
characteristic; and the queen was no exception in 
this particular. They also appreciated kind treat- 
ment, for while they never molested him in the 
least, they would not allow his younger brother, 
who would tease them by throwing chips at them, 
to stay in the neighborhood of their box homes; 
they would follow him for rods, that they might 
sting him, and they sometimes got in good work on 
the young rogue. They always kept a guard at the 
door, and in the evening this guard would close up, 
with grass, the entire entrance, except one little 
place, where she would sit and look out. In the 
morning this grass would ail be taken away, but 
was replaced again each night. In very hot weath- 
er the queen and many of the bees, perhaps all of 
them, would sit on the bottom-board, outside of the 
hive. In his first colony he counted at one time as 
high as nineteen sitting outside at one time; but he 
had no means of knowing whether they were all the 



colony. One day be moved one of the boxes about 
eight inches to one sido, and a bee that came in from 
the fields tried for about fifteen minutes to find its 
home, but could not, so he helped it into the hive. 
Hilliard, O., Jan. 8, 1887. J. S. Ricketts. 

Many thanks for the interesting facts you 
have given us in regard to these bees. We 
have frequently had them under old bottom- 
boards in our apiary ; and while we pursued 
our regular work, minding our own business, 
they gave ns no trouble ; and, as you may 
have read in October 1st issue, we could han- 
dle them, or pull apart their nest, without 
their making even a show of resistance or 
attack. Not so did they behave toward the 
small boy. equipped with a paddle and a 
pole to poke their nest up. 



MAKING EGGS HATCH WHEN TAKEN 
FROM THE BEES. 



transformation from the egg to the larva. 



jn^DITOR GLEANINGS:— When first reading 
"^^j your ABC, when I came to that part relat- 
iKr ing to " Bees," you say that you have " never 
■^™ been able to get eggs to hatch when taken 
away from the bees," although the tempera- 
ture was carefully preserved. At that time I had 
had but little expeineuce in matters of that kind; 
but being of an inquisitive turn of mind I decided 
to make some experiments in this direction. How- 
ever, I put the matter oft' from year to year until 
the summer of 1884, when the following experiment 
was carefully conducted: I placed a sheet of foun- 
dation in the center of the brood-nest, and left it 
there until it was filled with eggs, and a small area of 
larvse had appeared on either side. I then removed 
the comb, and with the point of a pin I drew a line 
carefully dividing the larvaj from the surrounding 
eggs; the comb was then placed in the nursery, and 
left over night. An examination the next morning 
showed that no additional larvse had been hatched. 
I then marked half a dozen cells containing eggs 
next to or joining the little patch of larvas. With a 
little spoon I dipped out the milky food from the 
cells containing larva". I placed this food over and 
around the half-dozen eggs that were marked. I 
then replaced the comb in the nursery. Two hours 
later I made an examination with a gla^s, and 
found that, in each of the cells thus treated, larvae 
were present, but no development was discovered 
in cells not treated with the milky food. These ex- 
periments were successfully carried on immediately 
ai-ound the patch of larvte previously formed, for a 
period of 48 hours, after which no development 
could be had. I then treated a like number of cells 
near the outside limit of the field occupied by eggs, 
and had the satisfaction of seeing perfect larvre in 
80 minutes after supplying the milky food. 

Another point worthy of note was the disappear- 
ance of the tissue inclosing the larvae after the ac- 
tion of the milky fluid. From these experiments 
it would seem, first, that bees' eggs do not hatch, 
but are liberated by the action of the acid contained 
iu the food for young bees, the larvas having no 
means of biting or breaking his way out of the pris- 
ou wall that surrounds him. Second, the disappear- 
ance of these tissues results from the neutralizing 
or destructive action of the acid upon the same. 
Third, that larvfe will stand 48 hours of confine- 



1887 



GLEANLNGS LN BEE CULTURE. 



4;^ 



ment, without physical development. This fact will 
perhaps account for the discrepancy of time in the 
hatching' of queens being from 16 to 18 days. 

Siam. la., Dec. 25, lH8fi. K. B. Robbins. 

Your experiments in making the queen's 
eggs hatch are very interesting. I liave care- 
fully looked through Cheshire's book, "Bees 
and Bee-keeping," upon this matter, but 
can not discover that he touches upon the 
point you bring out. If your experiments 
were carefully conducted it would seem that 
the egg, in oi-der to hatch, requires the 
milky food ; but as to whether this food ab- 
sorbs" the shell, or covering, of the egg, I 
must confess that I feel a little uncertain 
yet. Perhaps Prof. Cook, or Prof. J. Com- 
stock can give us some light upon this mat- 
ter. 



A FE-W POINTERS FROM THE OHIO 
STATE CONVENTION. 



A FEW NOTES FROM ERNEST. 



(TAN. 14. I have just arrived home from 
cJr the State Convention, held at Colum- 
■^1 bus, Jan. 11, ]2, and 13. As we are 
^ about to go to press with this issue, I 
will throw out a few hints which I 
gathered there, in advance of the regular de- 
tailed report which will be sent in for next 
issue by the secretary. 

PREVEIS^TING THE GRANULATION OF LIQ- 
UID HONEY. 

Our readers will remember that we have 
once or twice had occasion to refer to the 
liquid honey sent us by Mr. Goodrich. This 
honey still retains its beautiful transparen- 
cy, although it has been subjected to vary- 
ing temperatures. Mr. Goodrich, the pro- 
ducer of said honey, was at the convention. 
By request he gave his manner of keeping 
his honey, which, in brief, is essentially as 
follows : 

The honey is extracted, and drawn into 
sap-pails where it is temporarily covered 
with cloth. To prevent its granulation he 
heats the honey in the pails to a tempera- 
ture of about 120 or 130 degrees. This he 
does by placing a number of said pails, filled 
with honey, in a vat or tin trough of hot 
water, heated to the proper temperature. 
There is thus no danger of overheating the 
honey. While the honey is being heated it 
is stin-ed, so that every portion may be heat- 
ed alike. He ascertains the proper tempera- 
ture by inserting a thermometer in the hon- 
ey itself, and not in the water, as we should 
naturally suppose. The honey is then put 
in Math's 2-lb. bottles. 

Of course, the idea of heating honey 
to prevent gi^anulation is not new ; but the 
manner of doing it will, I think, be valuable 
to some of our readers. Heating honey is 
apt to takeaway some of that delicate flavor; 
but I think all who taste the Goodrich honey 
will acknowledge that it is as fine as the 
finest. 

FULL SHEETS OF FOUNDATION, VERSUS 
STARTERS OR EMPTY FRA3IES. 

I was surprised to see how many reported 
favorably in regard to frames with starters 



only. I then explained the Hutchinson 
plan, and a number thought it seemed rea- 
sonal)le. No less authority than our good 
friend Mrs. Jennie Culp favored full sheets 
of foundation, notwithstanding, and she 
was backed by Mr. A. S. Goodrich. 

WHAT A WOMAN CAN DO. 

As you may guess, Mrs. Culp, of Ililliard, 
O., was at the convention, and I hardly need 
say that we all enjoyed hearing her tell of 
her experiences with the bees. Her kind 
face, and pleasant manner of speaking, 
make her one of the welcome members of 
the convention. Indeed, 1 think it is not 
too much to say in her favor, that I doubt 
if there are many bee-keepers among the 
sterner sex who are her peers as honey-pro- 
ducers, even though she is nothing but a lit- 
tle woman. Let us see : She took about 
8000 lbs. of honey last season, and increased 
from 40 to 65 colonies. Her average per col- 
ony was, as you see, 200 lbs. She did all 
this work unassisted, with the exception 
that she got her pupil, J. S. Ricketts, to 
help her a few hours on one or two days. 
Finally, in the midst of the honey-flow, 
when she discovered that her strength was 
not equal t(5 her energy, she left the apiary 
and went to camp-meeting to recruit up. 
One of the members of the convention then 
asked her why she did not get some one to 
help her, and thus have secured a very large 
average per colony. 

" Why," said "she, " I couldn't get any- 
body to help me, either for love or money ; 
what could I do?" 

She then stated, that, if she had not had 
the " light wheelbarrow sold by Bro. Root," 
she never could have handled those heavy 
crates as she did. Her honey has been sell- 
ing for 16c for extracted, and 18c for comb 
honey. She mentioned one instance which 
I will relate here : 

She had taken so much honey from one 
particular colony (nearly three hundred 
pounds) that she" marked "on one side of the 
hive, "I shall not expect any thing more 
from you this season." This was toward the 
close "of the honey-flow, and she feared to 
drain it too closely. She had, however, 
left the surplus-receptacles on the hive. " A 
few days after," said she, "I thought I 
would just peep in and see what they were 
doing." She found it full of honey. On 
taking off and weighing, the scales showed 
95 lbs. of honey. 

These facts were not told us by the lady 
with any spirit of boasting— in fact, it was 
with some difficulty that we were able to get 
her to tell how much honey she had secured 
from the bees the past season. She has 
a good ^locality for bees, l)ut I believe her 
management has a great deal to do with her 
success. 

There are many other things that [ should 
like to speak of; for instance, Mr. J. W. 
Newlove's manner of preventing, to a large 
extent, the swarming fever; Mr. Frank A. 
Eaton's method of inducing bees to go into 
sections, etc. ; but I fear I should be en- 
croaching upon the secretary's report. I 
believe, however, I have enlarged upon some 
things of which the nature of a report would 
not permit. 



44 



GLEAJSIINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



MR. T. F. BINGHAM. 



His Visit at The Home of the Honey -Bees. 

SMOKERS, SHALLOW HIVES, ETC. 

R. T. F. BINGHAM, of smoker fame, 
on his way to the convention at Al- 
bany, stopped off at Medina, partly 
on business and partly for a visit. I 
will say, at the outset, that whenever 
one of the old veterans in bee-keeping finds 
it convenient to visit the Home of the Hon- 
ey-Bees, so-called, 1 regard it as a special 
privilege to show him about, and ask him all 
the questions I can. Whether he be a sup- 
ply-dealer or not, he is at liberty to appropri- 
ate any idea he may find useful to himself, 
even if he should intend to use said idea at 
future date in competition to our business. 
This has always been our policy ; and while 
we may sometimes have suffered in conse- 
quence of this kind of competition, taking 
into consideration the little hints and ideas 
we gain in return— we never lose. 

Mr. Bingham and ourselves, for a number 
of years back, have made and sold smokers, 
and, as a matter of course, our goods have 
come more or less into competition. As was 
to be expected, in our conversation yester- 
day we freely discussed the relative mer- 
its of the Clark and the Bingham smok- 
ers. The inventor of the latter, after noting 
the manner in which we made the Clark, 
kindly offered suggestions, or, if you please, 
" short cuts,'" in its manner of construction ; 
and while we may use said suggestions, we 
shall respect the" principle of his smoker, 
which, indeed, Mr. Bingham gives us the 
credit of doing. When we were discussing 
this smoker question I inquired what he 
thought of the shaving fuel which Mr. Hed- 
don recommended in his book, and which 
had been talked of lately in the journals. 

"Well," said he, "t prefer hard-wood 
chunks to any thing else." 

He then explained that the shavings were 
too apt to cause sparks, and, besides, woidd 
not last as long as the hard wood. He stat- 
ed that it was a prevalent opinion among 
bee-keepers that rotten wood is the fuel for 
smokers. This opinion he regards as a 
great mistake. The rotten wood will not 
only burn out too quickly, but is open to 
the objection of shavings ; namely, a too 
frequent cause of sparks. 

While no doubt friend Bingham is correct 
as regards the proper fuel for his own smok- 
er, yet with the Clark the difficulty with 
sparks from rotten wood and shavings is to 
a great extent obviated, I think, by virtue of 
the cold-blast principle. Of course, I am 
not forgetful of the fact that the Bingham 
possesses good features which the Clark has 
not. I will not, however, take space to dis- 
cuss it here, but defer it until next summer, 
when T propose trying both smokers side by 
side, and, T hope, letting them stand solely 
on their own merits. 

I asked Mr. Bingham how long he could 
make his smoker last, without going out, 
charged with the hard wood. If I am cor- 
rect, his reply was tliat it would last all day 
without refilling, and that it would give hirh 
smoke just when he wanted it. This, surely, 
is about all that could be desired. But it 



seems that Mr. Heddon, his "friend," Dr. 
Miller, and others, prefer the shavings. 
Perhaps, however, these latter gentlemen 
have not acquired the knack of burning 
hard wood. 

SHALLOW HIVES. 

Knowing that our friend Bingham for so 
many years back has used, and very suc- 
cessfully, too, the shallow closed-end frame 
(6iX23 inches), I took the opportunity to 
question him in regard to the working and 
merits of such a frame, with which he says 
he has had an experience of nearly 20 years. 
A few facts from him will be of interest just 
now, when the discussion of shallow frames 
is before bee-keepers. 

Mr. Bingham's frame is ()4x28 in., as al- 
ready given, with closed end-bars 1* inches 
wide. This frame has no bottom-bar. The 
top-bar is a stick, I inch square. At each 
end of this is nailed the closed end-bars, the 
stick being so nailed that one of the corners 
will form a comb-guide. 

One would naturally suppose that a frame 
of this description would hardly be secure 
enough, and that the end-bars, on account of 
the absence of the bottom-bar, would be 
easily knocked out of "whack," as the ex- 
pression runs ; but Mr. B. assured me that 
such was not the case. Eight of these shal- 
low frames, or any other number as conven- 
ience may requireif^are held securely together 
by compression. This is effected by a well- 
known principle ; namely, a wire loop, or 
link, each end of which "is hooked over a 
screw-head. A little stick, equally distant 
from each screw-head, is made to spread the 
wire taut. 

It did not seem to me that such a contriv- 
ance would hold securely enough ; but Mr. 
Bingham assured me that he had used it a 
good many years. To satisfy myself more 
fully I took seven shallow-depth closed-end 
frames which we happened to have on hand, 
and looped them together, as described 
above. I dropped the seven, as thus secured, 
on the floor, and scuffled tliem about with 
my feet, and yet they held together. 

Mr. Bingham told me he could invert his 
brood-chamber if he chose to do so, but that 
he did not find it necessary. If I remember 
correctly, I believe he said he did not even 
alternate the sections of his hive, although 
it could easily be done. I tlien asked if, 
from his experience, it were practicable to 
handle these shallow liives instead of frames. 
He replied, that it was possible to a very 
large extent. He told me he had not handled 
the frames of some hives for several years ; 
that he could perform many of the needed 
opei-ations by simply handling hives. By 
grasping one of his shallow sections, and 
holding it up to the light, lie could hunt out 
the queen-cells on the several frames at 
once. He, said, that in a shallow|brood-nest, 
the exact location of the (jueen can often be 
determined by the peculiar commotion of 
the bees toward a common center. Then, if 
he chooses to catch or view her majesty, he 
loosens and spreads apart the frames, and 
selects the one whereon she is to be found. 
He can also, when occasion requires, shake a 
large part of the bees from whole sections at 
once. In short, our readers will see that 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



45 



Mr. Bingham verifies Mr. Heddon's state- 
ment as to the possibility of handling /mw 
instead of /rame,s. 

Although the construction of the Bing- 
ham hive differs in detail from the Ileddon, 
yet, in a few of its fundamental principles, 
the former is similar; as, for instance, 
closed-end shallow frames, held together by 
comiiression ; and the possibility of hand- 
ling hives ijistead of frames. 

I hope 1 am not trespassing on any of Mr. 
Heddon's claims, as I am sure Mr. Bingham 
concedes to Mr. Heddon the right of liis in- 
vention. Mr. B. has told me that he is glad 
that Mr. H. has brouglit out his invention. 

In conclusion, I desire to say that all who 
shall be so fortunate as to make Mr. Bing- 
ham's acquaintnnce will find him a pleasant 
conversationalist — in short, a gentleman. 
While he has a keen sense of justice, and his 
ow^n rights, they will, I think, find him dis- 
posed to be fair. 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



quire tiering' up to dry it out— very much more so 
than among- the hills here. Bee-keepers living- in a 
hilly locality extract often, and there is no talk of 
unripe honey. I know there is no use of so much 
fussing- here to get flrst-class ripe honey. 

Platteville, Wis. E. France. 

Thanks, friend France. I think it is 
quite likely, as you suggest in your last par- 
agraph, that the differeuce in locality has 
much to do with the matter of ripening 
honey. 



E. FRANCE'S VS. HEDDON'S METHOD. 

fT AVING read Mr. Heddon's article in Glean- 
1 iNGS, Dec. 1, entitled, " Extracted Houey," 
1 etc., I arise to make a few remarks on his 
^ system as he has it laid out. I understand 
he works to a large extent for comb honey 
and considerable extracted honey. Now, as I am in 
the extracted-honey business quite largely, I study 
carefully every thing I can get on the subject, es- 
pecially from as good authority as Mr. H. ; but I 
don't see how it is possible for me to wait until the 
honey-season is over, and then do our extracting. 
We possiblj' could work our home yard in that way, 
but I don't see how we can work our five yards, 
away from home, by his plan, as we have nothing 
but a tent to work in, and that we carry with us. 
We extract four and sometimes five times at eacli 
yard, taking out from 1500 to over 2000 pounds each 
time from each yard. Now, to tier up combs to 
hold the honey, we should need to have combs to 
hold 9000 pounds of honey in each yard. As about 
2000 pounds of honey would be required to winter 
each yard, we should have spare combs in each yard 
to hold 7000 pounds of honey, or, for the six yards, 
spare combs to hold 42,000 pounds (which was our 
surplus for the year 1886). As we have no place 
away from home to store the spare" combs where 
they would be safe, they would all have to be hauled 
home; and what a time we should have with rob- 
ber-bees, extracting and fussing with all those spare 
combs after the honey season is over, which closes 
with us from the 5th to the 30th of July ! 

As for the quality of the honey, judging from the 
reports of my customers, many of them dealers of 
long standing in the honey-trade, I am led to be- 
lieve that our honey is A No. 1, and I believe our 
location has very much to do with it. We are locat- 
ed among the bluflfs of the Mississippi, still away 
from the river, where the hills are dry; and the 
honey, as a rule, is thick when gathered. Often the 
honey in^nowjcombs is so gummy that it is impossi- 
ble to extract it and.save the comb. 

I don't know any thing>bout Mr. Heddon's local- 
ity; but judging from his place on the 'map he is 
near the lake, and I should expect the country to 
be flat, and more or less wet, and the honey may re- 



CONVENTION AT ALBANY. 



NOTES BY THE WAY. 



TT is now Monday morning, Jan. 10, and 
M I am waiting for the train. I have got 
W some postal cards, addressed to myself, 
-■■ in my pocket, and whatever I find of in- 
terest I propose to send back to the 
printers, and have them give you the latest 
intelligence up to the moment of going to 
press. 

I am now at Cleveland, Ohio. I find that 
friend Kendel, of the Cleveland Seed 
Store, seems to be doing a fair business in 
comb honey. One - pound sections, best, 
bring loc ; second quality, from 10 to lie. 
A lot that looked very fine, he says don't sell, 
because customers have found the sections 
inside do not turn out so nice as those packed 
next to the glass. Do you see how it works, 
friends? Glassed sections do not sell well 
in Cleveland, unless at a season w^hen 
no other is to be found in the market. 

Mr. K. has an ingenious method of his 
own invention for testing seeds. A coil of 
gas-pipe is placed in the fire-box of the base- 
burning stove that warms the store. Proper 
attachments carry the pipe under benches 
near the window. On these benches, small 
pots containing seed are placed, each pot 
containing 25 seeds. By counting the num- 
ber that vegetates, the percentage can easily 
be estimated. The same coil of pipe warms 
a tank of German carp that seem lively 
enough, even in the depth of winter. This 
arrangement seems to answer every purpose 
of a regular hot-water warming apparatus ; 
but altogether it did not cost over SI 0.00, 
aside from the cost of the pipes, which was 
about S40.00. A sort of " stand pipe." with 
which the ends of the coil are connected, al- 
lows room for the expansion of the water. By 
means of such an apparatus, any part of a 
building may be warmed, and the consump- 
tion of coal is but little more than what is 
ordinarily needed. 

1 found lettuce from Cincinnati already 
on the Cleveland market. It is a small vari- 
ety, that does not make a head. It is very 
crisp and tender, and seems to suit this mar- 
ket best. I succeeded in selling the crop of 
Boston Market in our greenhouse at home. 
I was pleased to find at friend KendeFs the 
seed or this Cincinnati lettuce, and a pack- 
age was mailed back home to be sown in the 
greenhouse at once. 

At the office of the Ohio Fai'mer I was 
pleased to make the acquaintance of the ed- 
itor, M. J. Lawrence. Their circulation has 
now become" so large they keep two large 
Campbell presses running constantly. Quite 



46 



GLEANINGS LN BEE CULTUEE. 



Jan. 



a goodly company, both of men and women, 
assist friend L. iii getting out weekly one of 
our best agricultural journals. 

I am now writing on the cars, en route for 
Albany. 

These fast trains do not stop for supper, 
and the dining-room car is therefore the 
only chance. A dollar for supper seems 
even worse than a dollar for a dinner ; for 
who wants to eat a " dollar's worth," or any 
thing like it, just before going to bed? 
However, as I am employed by the readers 
of Gleanings to travel and take notes, I 
thought I would see if I couldn't get some- 
thing out of even a "• dollar supper '' for 
their benefit, and I got it. What do you 
think it was? Why, this : I found on the 
bill of fare, " Beefsteak and Mushrooms;" 
and as I had noticed in the eastern market 
reports mushrooms at $1.50 per lb., I have 
been getting the mushroom fever. They 
are to be raised in winter in a warm cellar 
or cave. Mammoth Cave is said to answer 
nicely. But suppose I get some raised how 
shall I know when they are just right, and 
fit for market? Why, if they are just like 
those T had on the dining-room car, to be 
sure they are right. 

Well, it is after supper, and mushrooms 
are tiptop. They taste a good deal like those 
that grow in the fields in summer time. I 
believe there is money in them, gi'own in 
winter. " Gardening for Profit " tells all 
about growing them. 

A farmhouse is on fire this bitter cold 
night. The roof is just falling in as we rush 
by. The family doubtless fired up the stoves 
strong to keep out the frost, and this is the 
resu*lt. Home, and all its contents gone. 
Take warning, friends ; look to your flues 
and chimneys. When the weather is severe, 
and you are firing heavy, keep watch of 
things. Fathers and mothers, look after your 
homes and little ones. 

Continued, next issue. 



PIRST-CLASS COMB HONEY. 



THAT WHICH HAS REMAINED I.ONG ON THE HIVE, 
THE BEST. 



T HAVE just been reading what friend Heddon 
(^ says, on page 883, about extracted honey. I be- 
^l lieve he is cori-ect, and also that what he says 
-*■ in reg-ard to extracted is equally true of comb 
honey. 
Friend Root, on page 77 of the ABC book you 
say, " Very white new comb honey is seldom of the 
fine, pure, sweet flavor of honey that has been a 
long time capped over, such as is found in the dark- 
looking comb." You also tell us about that honey 
which you left on the hives until winter, and then 
cut out of the frames, which wag the nicest, richest 
honey you ever saw or tasted. You don't get much 
of such honey now. No, the most of our comb' 
honey now is taken from the hives as soon as finish- 
ed, to prevent its being soiled; and the consequence 
is, a large part of the honey found in our markets 
is Very white and nice-looking; but when it is eat- 
en it doesn't give satisfaction. The fact is, it is 
nothing more nor less than green honey. If you 
were buying for your own use, you would not buy 
such honey. I think you would get that which is 
much better, except in looks, for from 3 to 5 cents 



per pound less. I could not help thinking of this 
when you spoke of that " snowy white " honey, in 
Gleanings recently, which you were selling for 18 
cents. Such honey will sell well, but it will not sell 
next year's crop. With such honey it would be 
difficult to develop a market in villages and country 
places; people will buy it for awhile, but will soon 
get sick of it, and " stop short off"," as friend Martin 
says. I think there never will be an overproduc- 
tion of first-class honey, either comb or extracted. 
The trouble is, only a small part of the honey pro- 
duced at the present day is first-class in ev^ery re- 
spect. 

I believe this is an important matter, and I think 
that, if the brethren would all take hold and " pull 
together," instead of sitting down and crying over- 
production, we should soon see an improvement 
in the honey-market. O. G. Russell. 

Afton, N. Y., Nov. 29, 1886. 

Thanks, friend R. While I think you are 
correct in the main, I can not think that 
nice wliite honey that has been taken from 
the hive as soon as capped is " green " or 
unripe honey. We have been selling just 
this class of honey, and it has always given 
good satisfaction. I believe, however, as 
stated in the ABC, that honey long capped 
over has generally a little finer flavor; but 
whether it were better to sacrifice the snowy 
whiteness of our market honey for this 
slight improvement in flavor, I have my 
doubts. 

MANIPULATING FRAMES. 



pond's METHOD. 

Jf E. POND, Jr., has got hold of a correct 
„ ip principle in handling frames for the pro- 
•^1 duction of comb honey. What is the use 
*^ ' of having movable combs if we do not 
take every advantage of so great a prin- 
ciple? I am pretty sure that another season 
will demonstrate the fact to the satisfaction of 
every one who will take the trouble to experiment. 
To illustrate his plan: I will state my practical ap- 
plication of it by describing my hive. I use the 
ten-frame Gallup hiv^e, frames 11 'j in. square. 
Hives inside, measure 13 x 13'/i and 15 inches long; 
the frames hang crosswise; and the 10 frames, spac- 
ed lYi inches, just fill the 15 inches. Now, in the 
opening of the clover in the spring, I just shove the 
ten frames up and put in a wide (3 in.) frame at 
one end, filled with i sections and fdn. Then I 
have ten brood-frames in the space of 13 inches. 
This, 1 think, is about right. At the proper time T 
set on top my case of pound sections, and so work 
for pound section honey till the close of the season, 
or about the last of July. I then take off and put 
away all top cases of 1-lb. sections. I now open 
the brood-nest, take out the wide frame at the end, 
and I find four l'/2-lb. frames of nice clover honey 
—six pounds or more. No. 1 clover honey. I now 
proceed to pull back or spread the ten brood-frames 
on the 15 inches, which puis them 1| inches from 
center to center, and they will find enough during 
the fall tlowers to build out and fill up for winter. 
We never get any surplus here in Southern Missou- 
ri in the fall, but they get enough in September to 
winter well. I should like to hear others report 
on this plan. W. H. Ritter, 

North Springfield, Mo. 



188? 



ULEAMINGS 12^ HKE CULTURE. 



47 



A CHAPTER FROM REAL LIFE. 

KOUGETTING TO CLOSE THE DOOR OF THE HON- 
EY-HOl'SK, AND THE CONSEQUENCE. 



TN the bill of goods I ordered of you were a lot of 
I'M nest pails. I ordered them for the purpose 
W of extract in>r honey. There was but little call 
■*■ for the \argo pails, while I supposed they 
would soil the best. I could not dispose of 
them for wh-Jt they cost me, consequently I have 
(lulte a number on hand. I found that quart pails 
with 3 lbs. of honey sold by far the most readily, 
and I ordered a gross of them from Fort Wayne. 
They cost a little less than 5 cts. apiece, including 
freight, and in them I sold the remainder of my 
extracted honey very readily for 30 cts. each, in- 
cluding pail. 

I had a ton of honey, including section and ex- 
tracted. I commenced selling sections at 14 cts., 
but most of them for a shilling, and the dark, or 
fall honey, for 10 cts. I had 34 swarms in the 
spring, and put .54 in winter quarters. Though 
they apparently had honey enough for winter 
stores, they were dying badly, and some were 
atfeeted with dysentery. 

I was compelled to move my bees to keep good 
friends with my neighbor who owned land but a 
few rods from where they were, and I would not 
have a quarrel with my kind neighbor for the 
worth of the bees. 

IT.\r.,l.\NS, BLACKS, OR HYBRIDS— WHICH ? 

I have Italians, hybrids, and blacks, in my apiary. 
.\s lioucy-gatherei'S, I know no difference. Some 
(it I lie blacks are the most docile bees 1 have, while 
(.ihcrsof the Italians and hybrids are too vindic- 
ii\ (■ to handle without a quantity of smoke. T have 
had hut one swarm ruined by worms in many 
>('ars, arid those were blacks. After filling nearly 
I.i:i sfoiions, they took to swarming, till but few 
b('<'S were left; then the robbers ruined them, and 
the worms made a clean sweep of them. I would 
n:it care for Italians, if I did not hate to hunt black 
queens so badly. 

.lUST HOW I GOT CAUGHT. 

It has been a very busy season with me, putting 
up and repaix-ing buildings, with an abundance of 
>vork on the farm ; and being of a nervous tempera- 
ment (some like friend Boot) I often get in a hurry, 
and from a fast walk I would get into a run. I had 
lieeii taking off sections, and, for want of time to 
put them on the shelves, I packed them helter- 
skelter on the floor of the honey-house till a more 
"convenient season " to put them away. It was 
near the close of the honey season, and bees got 
crazy at the slightest smell of honey. In my great 
hurry one day I went into the honey-house for 
something; and when I went out I slammed the 
tloor after me, not thinking but it was fast, and 
went about my business. After awhile, wife called 
me, and said ] had better look and see what the 
bees were doing. I did look, and, sure enough, 
there were bees enough to make two good swarms, 
in the house, on the windows, and piled on the 
sections; and when 1 went in they " piled " on mr 
too. If ever a fellow was stumped, I was. But 
necessity always had been the mother of inven- 
tion; and If it failed this time it would be the first 
with me. 1 said, "Wife! I'll kill them with sul- 
phur," and at it I went, and made smoke enough, 
as I thought, to kill any thing. I closed the door, 
and left them to their fate. In half an hour I came 



back and found but few dead. I thought best to 
renew the sulphur smoke. I did so, but it almost 
choked me, and I slammed the door after me, and 
left them a second time to their fate. After awhile 
I went back and found the door standing wide 
open, and such piles of bees I never saw piled into 
one room. I said, " What shall I doV what ahall I 
do?" and what would you have done, friend Root ? 

I have read somewhere, that, if at first you don't 
succeed, try, try again. I said, " Wife, 1 have got 
to kill all my bees " (57 swarms). But another 
thought struck me. I had seen bees smoked to 
death, so I put in kettles and iron dishes, after 
making fires in them, and piling them full of trash, 
just as we used to smoke mosquitoes when it was 
all woods around us, and I was careful to shut 
the door this time. The house was made tight, in- 
tended to keep out the moths and millers, and the 
smoke soon began to tell seriously on the bees, but 
I let them sweat till not one could fly, and 1 could 
not stand it longer than 1 could hold my breath. 
I let in what air I could through the window-screen, 
occasionally opening the door; and when the 
smoke cleared away so I could move the sections 
into the closet, brushing off the dead bees, it was 
a fearful-looking place. 

I said, " Wife, I have conquered at last." She 
said, " You look as if you were about conquered 
too." 

You had better believe I was happy. Now you 
will ask what about the honey (for there was the 
best part of a ton). Was it not ruined by the 
smoke? Of course, I supposed it was. At first, 
for a week or two it smelled too smoky to be sal- 
able, but it gradually wore away by giving it all 
the air I could, till that which was nicely capped 
had no taste of smoke; but all that was uncapped 
retained the smoky flavor a long time; but it is all 
disposed of, except what we need for our family 
use. 1 have always been particularly fond of see- 
ing and handling bees; but I pray that I maybe 
excused from handling any more in a honey-house. 

La Otto, Ind., Dec, 1886. E. S. Hanson. 

Friend H. wants to know what I would 
have done under the circumstances. Well, 
I would not have killed my bees, whatever 
I did. You say you were happy after you 
got them all killed. Now, the thought of 
tliose murdered bees would not have let me 
sleep nights had I been in your place ; how- 
ever, there is no use wasting words on that 
part of it, for they are gone now. I have 
been throiigli just abotit the same experi- 
ence a good many times, and I will tell you 
how I manage, i^f course, the tirst thing is 
to shut the door; and, by the way, the 
latches to the door of the bee-house ought 
to be so arranged that they shut easily and 
securely every time. I have often thought 
that a spring" to the door, such as we have 
on our screen-doors, would be a good in- 
vestment, then have the catch so it will 
fasten the door, no matter wliere or how 
the door may be left. Prevention is better 
than cure, you know. But if the bees do go in 
because of the door l)eing fastened open. Or 
something of that sort, shut all the doors 
and windows securely, so that no more can 
get in. When the bees collect in a large 
quantity on one of the windows, raise the 
window, and with a brush broom, or some- 
tliing similar, get out as many as possible. 



48 



GLEAN li^^GSs iJS JiEE OLILTUUE. 



3 AH. 



When another lot collects, let them out in 
the same way, and in a very little time yuu 
can have every bee out of "your room. In 
view of su(;h occurrences 1 would have a 

food wide shelf just below the window, and 
eep this shelf clear of rubbish. Then at 
any time, by raising the window a little you 
can easily brush out all the bees that have 
dropped down, so as to keep your house 
tidy and neat. Where there are only a few 
sections that the bees can work on I woulil 
put them in a tight box or cupboard. Sim- 
plicity hives piled up will hold frames of 
comb or sections of honey very well tem- 
noi'arily. Now, if yon want to cure yom- 
bees of hanging around the honey-house 
doors oi- windows, just let them go in the 
room and out at pleasure, until they are 
satistied there is not a drop of honey to be 
obtained. If it is during a season when 
they rob l)adly. Simplicity hives piled up 
may be a rather bad arrangement, for bees 
smell the lioney through the cracks. In 
such a case, cover the pile of hives with a 
large sheet, or, better still, an oil cloth, 
such as is used to spread over wagons ; or 
if your room is not large enough, open 
your bee-tent, and spread that o\er it. 
Surplus comb honey ought to l)e very secure 
indeed, to prevent bees from scenting it. 
Friend Ileddon aiid some others have rec- 
ommended double sheets of wire cloth, with 
a space between them. 'ITiis prevents bees 
on the inside from passing Money througli 
to those on the outside ; but whatever way 
yoii take to make it secure, don't have any 
"mistakes about it, or you may h;ive such 
scenes as our friend describes' so graph ic- 
allv in the above article. 



SEPAHATOKS OB NO SEPARATORS, 

lliHO SOMETHING IN REGARD TO THE WORKING 
OF HEnnON'S NEW HIVE. 

ENTIRELY agree with G. M. Doolittle, on page 
f 939, that we have been making- a move in the 
wrong' direction in reg^ard to separators. Un- 
til three or four years ag-o I thinli it was prettj- 
well settled that comb honey could not be sat- 
isfactorily produced without separators. About 
this time a number of comb-honey cases appeared, 
designed to be used without separators. Some of 
these were very convenient to use, and, aside from 
the non-separator feature, were much better than 
the old systems. These were " boomed " by those 
favoring them; and from being written and talked 
about so much it became fashionable to do without 
separators, and many who really preferred them 
were ashamed to admit that they could not do with- 
out them. Everybody followed his neighbor. 

One of the most characteristic traits of the Amer- 
ican people is their tendency to popular crazes, a 
tendency to take up every thing that is new and 
attractive, and carry it to extremes. Never more 
Strikingly shown than in their amusements— as, 
for instance, roller-skating and progressive eucher 
—this tendency has its intluence in every depart- 
ment of life. Any l)U8iness that is more than ordi- 
narily profitable is rushed into, and almost imme- 
diately overdone. Bee-keeping is suffering now 
from just such an inundation on a small scale. 
But this is a digression. 



With all the hue and cry against separatoi-s, 
everybody seemed to think that everybody else 
was giving them ui>, iiiid that he must fall into line 
or be left behind. How the movement against sep- 
aratoi-s was for\varde(l, may be learned from the 
way the subject was handled at one of our conven- 
tions. After some talk in which the anti-separator 
men aired their views, while those who favored 
separators for the most part stood back and listen- 
ed, the subject was put to vote, and all who could 
secure marketable honey without the use of sep- 
arators were asked to stand up. Of course, the 
most of those who voted at all stood up. Almost 
any one can produce marketable honey without 
separators. That is not the question. The report 
of that convention, stating that three-fourths of 
its members could get ak)ng without separators, 
was, to a ceitain extent, misleading, as giving the 
impression that they were in favor of doing with- 
out them. I do not think this was the sentiment 
of the convention. 1 think most of them were in 
favor of se|)arators, and continued to use them, 
and believe in them to-day. But their half-unwlU- 
ing admission, that they could get along without 
separators, no doulit had its influence in inducing 
otiiers to try the non-separator case, who, finding 
themselves reasonably successful with it, became 
loud in its praise. 

I can produce comb honey without separatcjrs. 
I have done so successfully. This season I had 
over 200(1 lbs. of honey made without separators. 
There may have been 2.5 sections that could not 
well be crated. Perhaps 30(i required a little extra 
care in crating, while the rest could be put togeth- 
er anyhow without the combs touching. Stiil. 1 
know that, without extraordinary care, 1 should 
not obtain as good results every season; and as 1 
can see no very important benefit to l>e derived 
from dispensing with separators, I shall continue 
their use, and shall ^jrobably make no more cases 
to be used without them. I can certainly get as 
much honey by using separators as without them. 
When they are not used there is constant annoy- 
ance from the uuflnished sections at the sides, and 
particularly in the corners of the case, unless the 
easels left on until all are finished; and no one 
who expects to produce the best honey can afl:'ord 
i to do this. With separators the work of the honey- 
I producer goes on much more smoothly and satis- 
1 factorily, and the marketaliility of the honey is not 
] so dependent on chance. 

The wide-frame sj-stem is, in my opinion, the 
' best way of using separators, but they should not 
j hold over one tier of seetif)ns, and should be so 
i arranged that thej' can be tiered up to any desired 
I height. Kxpansibility and contractibility are both 
! valuable features in any hive. A hive should be 
i so made that its capacity may be readily and quick- 
; ly enlarged or contracted, to suit the extreme re- 
, quirements of any colony, and so that these chang- 
es may be made gradually. 
This brings us naturally to a discussion of the 
• Heddon hive, of which more, perhaps, has been 
i claimed in this direction than of any other hive. 
I have used a number of them during the past sea- 
I son, some of them since early spring. I am thus 
. enabled to form a tolerably correct idea as to the 
merits of the hive. I had formed a very favoi-able 
opinion of it before 1 had ever seen it, and I must 
' say that, in practice, it nearly fulfilled my highest 
expectations. There were some drawbacks, how- 



1887 



GLEA^IJSGS IN BEE UULTUKE. 



49 



over, which I think oug-ht to be mentioned. ' You 
have all heard of its advantag-ee, so I will not dwell 
on them, but only refer to what 1 consider Its weak 
points, and its failures to do what has been claimed 
tor it. 

The tlrst shock that was given to my good opinion 
of the hive was when a too ambitious queen found 
her waj' upstairs and filled nearly every section in 
one case witli hrood. This, of course, can easily be 
prevento<i by u (|ueen-excluding honey-board. 

A more serio\is trouble came when dry weather 
caused the end-bars to shrink so that the sot-screws 
no longer held theiu tightly enough; and in hives 
that had been inverted, the frames slipped down 
until thej rested on the bottom-board, almost clos- 
ing the entrance. Then rains came, and the sides 
of the hive and the wooden screws swelled so much 
that I could not turn said screws; and colonies 
that I particularly wanted to examine might al- 
most as well have been in box hixes for all T could 
do with them. The hives, I may say, were well 
painted, and the screws had been soaked in linseed 
oil. 

The frames are not nearly so movable as ordina- 
ry frames, even when they are new; and T am 
afraid that, with time and use, propolis will find its 
way between the frames and the ends of the hive. 
The heat of summer will melt this propolis, and 
stick hive and frame so tightly together that, in 
time, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to re- 
move frames from the hives. This is a very serious 
objection to the hive. I do not think we can afford 
to abandon movable-frame hives. 

"Why do you want to handle the frames V" I 
think I heai' someone say. Because foul brood is 
abroad in the land, and an experience with it that 
has cost me se\eral hundred dollars has taught me 
that it i.s next to useless to attempt to get rid of 
the disease unless it can be detected in its early 
stages, and that this can not be done except by 
fre<iuent and thorough examinations of the brood- 
combs. 

1 would most willingly adopt the principle of 
handling hives instead of frames if it were not for 
foul brood; but with this dread disease threatening 
me I am afraid to adopt a hive and frame that will 
make it any more difficult to detect and subdue it. 

My next count against the hive is, that it has 
utterly failed, with me, in one of the strongest 
points claimed in its favor. We have been told 
that, by its use, we could secure all the honey in 
sections, leaving the brood-chamber empty. I 
found, though, that, as the end of the fall yield 
approached, the brood-chamber was steadily filled 
with honey until, at its close, the combs were 
hea\-y with honey, to the almost entire exclusion of 
brood. This was the case with all colonies, blacks 
as well as Italians, in which the brood-chamber had 
been closely contracted, although no hives or 
frames had l)een reversed during the fall yield. 1 
J have about .35 colonies, which were in Heddon 
hives, or contracted to five Simplicity frames, 
which I am afraid will not winter well. They are 
in excellent wintering condition otherwise, but the 
colonies are much smaller than 1 should like. 

Oayton. 111., Dec. ->:!, 1886. J. A. Green. 

Friend G., I think yon have hit it exactly 
in what you liave to say about "popular 
crazes." Just now. sliding down hill on a 
toboggan seems to he the craze in many of 
our cities : and riding liehind a fast voling 



horse in the daintiest-got-up cutter is not 
to be compared to sliding down hill and go- 
ing ])ack on foot, pulling your toboggan aft- 
er you. As the latter course gives outdoor 
exercise to some who might not get it oth- 
erwise, I guess we had better say amen to 
it, and not grumble. I have been greatly 
rejoiced to see Caddie and Connie and 
cousin Mabel — yes, and Huber too, when 
the weather is not too cold, exercise their 
hmgs and muscles in sliding down hill, al- 
most from morning till night, in a M'ay 
they never did before. Dress the children 
up warmly, and encourage them in rough 
and tumbles out in the snowdrifts. When 
our whole nation shall get a craze in that 
direction, we can thank God for it.— I have 
felt a good deal as you do, all along, and I 
am inclined to think Heddon agrees w ith 
you, from the fact that he has turned about 
and adopted wide frames and separators. 
I think all the difficulties, or nearly all, can 
be readily remedied. Have the set-screws 
made of galvanized iron, which may be 
turned out and dipped in oil occasionally, 
and I think you can turn them with your 
fingers. I was surprised when I saw old- 
fashioned screws on one of friend Heddon's 
sample hives. The very minute I saw that 
Heddon recommended a frame almost tight 
fitting in the body of the hive, I decided at 
once they would not be very long movable 
in our locality, on account of t)ropolis. The 
same arrangement was exhibited at the 
Northern Ohio State Fair, in Cleveland, 
years ago, and I afterward saw some hives 
wherp the frames had been pushed in when 
the propolis was soft from the heat of the 
summer sun. They were about as securely 
cemented in as you could do it with melted 
rosin.— In regard to the foul-brood part, 
friend G., I should say that a bee-keeper 
has no business having foul brood in liis 
apiarv, and therefore need not calculate on 
it. If the above does hit us, no matter. 
—Perhaps Heddon, bv a different arrange- 
ment, will be able to "keep the honey out of 
his brood-chambers.— 1 think the progeny 
of certain queens are more disposed to till 
up solid all around the brood-nest, than 
others are. 



PRODUCING BEESA^AX FOR THE MAR 
KET, INSTEAD OF HONEY. 

Can We Not do it Now, Since Honey ii« 
so Low P 



SOME THOUGHTS .\ND 6UQ0KST10NS GKOWINO 

OUT OF AND PERTAININO TO THE ABOVE 

.MATTER. 



fRJEND ROOT:— This question of wax secretion 
is really one of the apicultural problems of 
the day. I have been reading all that I can 
find upon the subject; I have also been cor- 
responding with some bee-keepers who have 
been experimenting in something the same line 
as I have. I have thought about it in the day time, 
and lain awake nights, and pondered; and it is my 
^mi conviction that we have been losing a big 
thing in not utilizing the natural wax secretion 
that is going on more or less all through the work- 
ing season. I am aware, that when wax is needed 
for eomb-bullding, the wax sacretlon is tfieatly in- 



.50 



(iLEA^^NLNGrS LN i$H}E CULTUJiK 



Jan. 



creased; but at the low price at which honey is sold, 
is it not possible that it would be profitable to enciMi- 
agc wax secretion and natural comb-building-V To 
what extent, when, where, how, in what manner, 
and under what circumstances, it would be advisa- 
ble to have natural comb built instead of using- 
fdn., will probably take some time to decide; but 
if we will only start out with this object in view, 
and M'or7f, we can find out. In my locality, and 
with my management, 1 know that the use of fdn. 
in the brood-nest, when hiving- swarms, is unprofit- 
able; but I do not think the matter stops here. I 
think there are still more advantages to be g-ained 
by utilizing- the natural secretion of wax, but just 
how it is to be done 1 do not know, and 1 don't 
know hut T am glad I do not, as there is now be- 
fore me the pleasure of flnding out. I have not a 
particle of doubt that there are times, places, and 
conditions, when the use of fdn. is very profitable; 
and what we need to learn is, how to use it benefi- 
cially. 

1 sometimes feel Impelled to write an article up- 
on this subject, but its magnitude appalls me, as 
there are so many things to be considered, so many 
ifs and ands, that 1 fear 1 could not do it justice. 

Rogersville, Mich. W. z. Hutchinson. 

Our friends will remember that this has 
been broiij^ht ni) at different times thi-ong-h 
our j)ast volumes. Friends Hasty and 
Viallon have given tis the most light'on the 
subject. Imt we are still a ^'ood deal in the 
dark. The above lettei- from W. Z. 
Hutchinson was not intended IVu- i»riid, btd 
it comes in so well with several other sug- 
gestions that I have taken tlie liberty of 
giving it just as he gave it to me, and I 
think he will not object. 



VARIOUS MATTERS. 



APIAUY NEAR RAILROAD. 



TT. CO RRESPONDENT wishes to know (p. 171, J><8.5) 
2£|K i^ it will be a damage to an apiary, if located 
^^K\ within ten rods of a railroad. As a rule, I 
"^^ should say not; yet if the bees are to be win- 
tered in a cellaror underground cave, the jar 
from the trains might cause trouble. I have little ex- 
perience along this line, as I live eight miles from 
any railroad; but a friend of mine who lived within 
six rods of the Auburn branch of the N. Y. C. R. R. 
told me that he believed very much of his loss during 
winter was owing to the disturbance of his bees 
caused by this raih'oad. While there one day he in- 
vited me to go into his bee-cave, or special under- 
ground repository in which he wintered his bees, 
about train time, to see what I thought about the 
matter. The repository was as nice a one as I ever 
saw, as the sides and bottom were of clean white 
sand, and kept at a uniform temperature of from 
43 to 46°. If 1 recollect aright it was in December 
when I was there; and when we went into the cave 
all was as quiet as I ever knew a bee-cellar. No 
light was yet made, for he wished me to note the ef- 
fect of the train on the bees, the same as it would 
be every time a train passed. Soon we began to 
feel a slight jar to the ground, and in a moment 
more the bees began to buzz, or show signs of be- 
ing disturbed, which increased as the train neared; 
and as it went by, the trembling of the earth in this 
dark place was bo g-reat that it was any thing but 



pleasant to me, and I did not wcnder that the bees 
became so woke u\) that they came to the en- 
trance of their hives and ran wildly about to see 
what the trouble was. He told mo thiit this dis- 
quietude lasted them from ten to fifteen minutes 
after the passing of every train; while toward 
spring they did not get settled down between the 
passing of the trains. He never was successful in 
wintering bees in this jilace, and soon sold out and 
moved away. Since then I have thought I should 
prefer some other jilace for cellar wintering of bees 
besides one near a railroad. 

WORKING (QUALITIES OK BEES. 

Another correspondent writes (p. 430, 188')) that he 
thinks that Italian bees work best on basswood and 
thistle: the blacks on raspbei-ry and buckwheat, 
and wants m.y opinion in the matter. After the 
most close watching of these two varieties of bees 
during a period of ten years, up to three or four 
years ago I failed to find a single instance when, or 
a single plant or tree upon which, the blacks ex- 
ceeded the Italians in the least as to honey-gather- 
ing, while at many times the Italians were actually 
making a gain while the others consumed their 
stores. F(ji- this reason T discarded the blacks en- 
tirelj', since which, of course, 1 have had no oppor- 
tunity to test them. To be sure I was right, I sent 
and got (lueens of the isaid to be) hirge hrount bees, 
and of the industrious gray bee; but a thorough 
trial of both only proved, as I expected, that each 
was not different from the black bee of our fathers' 
time. Next 1 tried the much-praised hybrids, pro- 
duced by the famed breeder of Apin Americana, and 
found them not a whit ahead of the hybrids which I 
had had for years; at last, the profit made from my 
sales of honej' from my Italians forced me to part 
with all other varieties of bees. I know that black 
bees will store more dark or buckwheat honej- 
than the Italians; but my experience is, that, at the 
same time this is being done, the Italians are stor- 
ing more white honey from red clover, whiteweed, 
and selendine, than the others get from buckwheat. 
When this white honey is not obtainable, then the 
Italians store of dark honey an etiual amount with 
the blacks. 

CRAMPING OF yUEENS. 

When queens are caught by the wings they often 
double up and appear to have a cramp, the death of 
a queen having been reeorded from this supposed 
cause (p. 532, 188.')). For a long time I supposed this 
doubling up was caused b.\- a real cramp; but after 
a little I learned what the trouble was. 1 caught a 
queen to clip her wings, when she doubled upas 
has been described. I thought to let her go as I had 
always done before when they had thus cramped, 
but I hesitated, as she was ashyl)ody; and I had 
had several times of hunting for her before I foiuid 
her. I soon concluded to clip her, even if she died, 
rather than hunt for her again; sol lowered my 
hands very close to the top of the frames and clip- 
ped off all the wings as I usually do. She lay on the 
top-bar of a frame, apparently lifeless, so it gave 
me a good opportunity to examine her closely, 
when I soon saw that she had one of her front feet 
tightly clamjjcd in the opening from which the 
sting extrudes. In a moment more she began to 
kick about (as the bees hovered around her, so she 
saw she was in her own home), when the foot was 
loosed liy the opening parting, and she crawled 
down among the bees unharmed. Since then 1 
have closely watched scores of queens when thus 



' 1887 



G-LEANIJ^iGS IN BEE CLLTURE. 



51 



doubling- up, only to witness the same operation. 
The queen strugg-les to get hold of something, so as 
to liberate herself if ])()ssible. atul in these strugg-'es 
curves her abdomen and partly thrusts out her 
sting'. Wliile in this shape one of tlie front feet 
catches hold of this apparently' secure foothold, 
upon which the opening is closed from the sensa- 
tion caused by the foot, holding the foot as in a vise, 
thus keeijing the queen in her doublcd-up condition 
as long as the foot is thus held. I have known 
queens to remain thus for several minutes, when 
not returned to the bees. The death reported must 
have i-esulti'd from tliefoot being stung accidentally 
while held in this shape. G. M. Doomtti.e. 

Borodino, N. Y., .Ian. 1. 1SK7. 

I should think it quite likely that a bee- 
cellar within six rods of the track miglit be 
objectionable, as you say; however, our bees 
are. the nearest or thera. tifteen rods from 
tlie^track. and aie, of course, located out of 
doors ; and as we have been exceedingly 
successful in wintering, we can not think a 
railroad at this distance is any detriment. 
There is, however, comparatively little trav- 
el on our road, and no lightning express 
trains, as you have on the great thorough- 
fares. I can imagine these would be more 
objectionable than the slow-running coal- 
trains that comprise the greater p;irt of the 
business on our road. — Your experience with 
V)lack bees compared with Italians is sur- 
prisingly like our own. althougli we have 
never' tested the brown and gray bee, so 
much talked of in some localities. T have 
always been of the opinion, however, that 
they were common bees, and nothing else.— 
Yoiir discovery of the cramping of queens is 
quite new ; and until I verify it I can hardly 
Ijelieve it possible that the cases that have 
come under m\ observation were all caused 
in the way yoii suggest. The queens I have 
seen seemed absolutely dead, and doubled 
up exactly as if they had been stung. I 
have looked them over carefidly. to see, if I 
could, any thing the matter; aiid when they 
finally straightened out and walked off, I 
have been tempted to think they were either 
frightened out of their little wits, or that 
they had been •■ pla> ing "possum."" Hereaft- 
er we will all of us watch :nid try to verify. 



FOUNDATION, VERSUS ITS NON OK 
LIMITED USE. 



WINTKKING BEKS WITH AN EMPTY HIVE UNDER 
THE BROOD-NEST. 

"Wp COLONY that had been worked for extracted 
^Vlh honey was found, in the early partof the win- 
^^r ter of 1S8.">, to have taken up winter-quarters 
■^^ in the upper storj- of the hive; and as they 
seemed to have plenty of honey I concluded 
to let them remain there. However. 1 carefully 
lifted the upper story and i-emoved the frames 
from the lower story, that I might see how the bees 
would winter when so arranged. This was a single- 
walled hive with glass in the lower part, which gave 
an opportunity to see how matters went on. This 
colony came through in good condition, and kept 
the lead throughout the season. As the honey-sea- 
son drew on, and the bees e\inced a desire to build 
comb, the lower story was filled with frames having 
starters only of worker foundation. These frames 



were soon filled with nice worker comb, and occu- 
pied with brood. The queen being' kept busy filling 
the new combs with eggs, had' left the upper story 
for the storage of honey. So energetically did this 
colony work under the stimulus of tilling the space 
between the entrance and the upper combs, they 
were quite as far on at the first extracting as were 
other colonies that ha<l been given a full set of 
combs to begin with. 

M.VKINO BEES BUIIJ) COMB BETWEEN THEIR 
BROOD .\ND THE ENTRANCE. 

By this experiment 1 concluded that I had made 
two important discoveries — first, that bees are 
greatly stimulated and led on to the greatest de- 
gree of exertion and activity when induced to go 
into a '■ good big contract of comb-building'," and 
that they will begin sooner and work more energ:et- 
ically when building comb to fill the intervening' 
space between their brood-nest and the entrance, 
than to build comb above the brood-nest. Second, 
that when building comb beneath their brood, and 
with a view to extend that brood, they naturally in- 
cline to build less drone or store comb. That you 
may be satisfied with the desirability of this plan 
for securing nice all-worker combs, you wotild do 
well to test it by setting aside, the coming season, 
some colonies to build combs below, and others to 
build above their brood-nest. After the trial I think 
all of the fraternity would read the reports with in- 
terest. 

HOW TO GET NE-A-RliV .\I,I. WORKER COMB WITHOUT 
USING FOUND.XTION, ETC. 

it is my opinion, that a clear gain of a full set of 
combs will be found, resulting from having the 
combs built beloWtthe brood-nest, with much less 
drone-comb and a less disposition to swarm. Of 
course, in any case less drone comb will be built 
where the queen is young and prolific. As I must 
have a full set of combs built for extracting pui-- 
poses the coming season, and must have them 
worker comb, I " hedged " in my bees a little last 
summer and fall by superseding every queen I 
had over one year old. 

WHAT TO DO WITH DRONE COMB WHEN BUlI/r 
IN THE BROOD-CHAMBER. 

While this question of how to get rid of drone- 
comb building is before the " house," 1 want to re- 
late an experience I had summer before last. A 
large swarm was hived on ten L. frames, no starters 
used. At the end of one week the frames were 
pretty well filled down with comb— one-third, or 
nearly so, drone or store comb. This was all cut out, 
and, a few days later, on examining 1 found the 
frames full and but little drone combs; but what 
had been built was again removed. E.xamining a 
few days later, I found nothing but worker comb in 
the hive. The drone comb thus obtained was then 
cut up and waxed into sections, put into a case, and 
given to the swarm for completion. They were 
soon finished— the finest lot of 4ti one-pound sections 
I ever saw. Here we have an illustration of how to 
manage Independently of foundation. For any 
who may have more money than time to invest in 
the business, 1 say, buy all thefoiuidation you wish. 
I onlj- mention this to show that those who will may 
get on as well without foundation as with it. 

John A. Buchanan. 

Holliday's Cove, W. Va.. Dec. ~'T, 188ti. 

Friend B., you have struck upon some 
very important points. First, having a 
large empty space beneath the brood-combs 



52 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



for winter, on the plans recommended by 
Bingham, Doolittle, Boardman, and others ; 
second, having bees build comb between the 
brood and the entrance. This is an idea 
that was strongly advocated by Gallup and 
Adair, as much as 15 years ago. It was 
given in connection with what they called 
the "New Idea" hive. Third and last, 
cutting out drone comb from the brood-nest, 
and putting in surplus boxes. Mr. W. B. 
House made a very large crop of comb hon- 
ey by this means, some years ago. He took 
both drone and worker comb, however, as 
fast as the bees built it in the brood-cham- 
ber, cut out the pieces, and put it in surplus- 
boxes. The greatest objection to this 
course would be the trouble and time. 



A BETTEK RECORD FOR THE ITAL- 
IANS. 



AVERAGE YIELD PEH COLONY, 3H1 LBS.", LABOEST 
YIELD FROM ONE COLONY, 660 LBS. 

fN pag-e 977, Gleanings, 1886, Mr. E. France, 
after g-iving " The Record of Two Students " 
for the year just closed, concludes as follows: 
"It seems to me T hear you say, ' They must 
have been a strain of pure Italians, or some 
other fancy breed." Well, they were a pure race of 
blacks, or brown liees, as you ohouse to call them — 
those fellows that some writers say live from hand to 
mouth— poor despised blacks;. They are not so poor 
a bee after all. Who has got 49 colonics of any other 
race that has done any better (take a whoi<' apiary 
through), not pick out 49 of the bestV" Well, Mr. 
France, I have an apiary, not of 49, but of 41 colo- 
nies, that did much better than that of your stu- 
dent. They were about as pure Italians, too, as are 
to be found in this country, several of them eon- 
tainiog imported queens. Here is the record: In 
April, 1883, I took 41;colonies in rotation, without se- 
lection as to strength, from my home apiary at 
Nauvoo, 111., to a small prairie village five miles 
east of me. The spring was cold and backward, 
and the whole season unusually wet. No tim- 
ber was within three miles. 8orae fruit and a 
few black-locusts were the only floM'ers they had to 
work on before white clover;' and although the col- 
onies were in good average condition, with a great 
plenty of stores, when removed I was compelled to 
feed them the last week in May and the first two 
weeks in .June, to prevent starvation, one colony 
being almost starved before [ discovered that they 
were short. But such a mass of bees ! I never saw 
the like before, nor have I seen it since. The ten 
large Qulnby frames were.falmost a solid mass of 
brood, and the hive and surplus t)ox were overtiow- 
ing with bees. The removal seems to have stimu- 
lated them to excessive breeding. The white-clover 
honey-flow began about the middle of June, and 
lasted all through July, followed by buckwheat and 
heart'8-ease in August, and ending with Spanish 
needle, wild artichoke, goldenrod, etc., September 
30. The total yield from the 41 colonies was 11,.550 
lbs. of extracted honey, or an average of 281 lbs. 
per colony. Greatest yield of any one colony, .560 
lbs. I had no swarms— at least, none were seen. 
I followed the tiering-up plan, always being watch- 
ful that each colony had plenty of room for storing 
honey. 
T began the season with 63 surplus boxes, with 



frames full of empty comb. I ended the season 
with 95. I used full sheets of foundation built out 
in frames. My plan was, as soon as the first box 
was about half full, to raise it up and put an empty 
one under it. They continued to woi-k mainly in the 
upper box ; and when the combs wore about three- 
fourths sealed we extracted them and placed the 
box with the extracted combs below again, next to 
the brood-chamber. During the first 24 days of July, 
each 14 colonies gave us one barrel of honey (3,50 
lbs. net) every eight days. This aj)iary is located on 
the premises of Mr. William Thornbur, Powelton, 
Hancock Co., 111. Mr. Thornbur received one-fifth 
of the honey as his share, for location, etc. 

1 have had large yields from some of my other 
apiaries, but none have ever equaled this one. 1 
have had considerable experience with the Italians, 
the black (or brown), and the Cyprian bees, and I 
can truly say that T would not have either of the 
latter breeds as a g-ift, for the productiou of ex- 
tracted honey, conditioned that 1 must not Italian- 
ize them, although 1 much prefer the Cyprians to 
the blacks. 1 find but one fault with the Cyprians 
—their unconquerable crossness. Were it not for 
this I should prefer them to the Italians, as I find the 
former equal to the latter in every other respect, 
and much more prolific— one <if the best qualities of 
a profitable race of bees. Emil J. Baxter. 

Nauvoo, 111. 

Friend B., we are very much obliged to 
you for coming forward in defense of the 
Italians. Other ctrciimstances, however, 
may have had something to do with your 
enormous product. Five hundred and six- 
ty pounds from one colony, in one season, 
is one of the greatest reports ever put on 
record. The locality must be excellent, and 
the season was probably very favorable. 



DOOLITTIiB'S QUEEN - CELL PRO- 
TECTOR. 



ALSO SOMETHING 



FROM AWAY 
AFRICA. 



OFF IN SOtTTH 



§OME months ago I wrote you a few items about 
bees and honey in this vicinity, and my own 
experience in changing from vicious hybrids 
to Italians. Before the work was finished, 
Mr. G. M. Doolittle gave us the description 
of his wire-cloth cell-protector, and that " Yankee 
notion " was worth more to me than the cost of 
your journal, for it settled three colonies that had 
previously destroyed queens and cells most provok- 
ingly. So much time was lost by rearing and intro- 
ducing (jueens, when the boney-tiow was best, that 
my increase was only from i:! to •M\ colonies, and 
my honey-crop only twenty - seven fj'iillons; but it 
seems that, in at least one part of the world, that 
passes for fabulous success. I reportt^d it to a lady 
who was once a member of my household, but has 
been some years a missionary in ("ape Colony. Yoti 
may be interested in an extract from a reply re- 
ceived a few days ago: 

" What a nice lot of honey t(j gel fi-oni 13 stands! 
and that reminds me that we are reveling*' in honey 
just now. We had fine i-ains this spring, sf) the 
bees found plenty to work on, and the honey is very 
delicious. The honey-plant is evidently a variety of 
what we call caudy-tul't. 1 1 grows i n great profu- 
sion in the fields, spring! njr up after every slight 
•hower. The honey is whiter than our white-clover, 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN HEE CULTURE. 



53 



though I do not think it so fine in tiavor. The bees 
are all native stocli. and very vicious, I hear. 

"The honey is taken in the ffood old way, killing- 
two-thirds uf the bees hy .smoking: the 'sum,' and 
so stupefying- the others that they hardly recover. 
1 think nearly ail to wliom I have described our way 
of handling? bees and honey have looked upon it as 
a bin cram. I mentioned to somc^ of ray teachers 
last night the amount of honey .^■oll had taken, and 
descrilied the operation of the extractor; but they 
seemed III! lo think it Jnst an .Vmeriean yarn. If I 
had tdid theiji you had met a ;ksluist in some of your 
wanderings the\ would have believed it. I rather 
think we sliall have sometliing- to talk alioiit wlien 
we meet." 

It will reinforce this lady's reputation for veraci- 
ty, and may possibly introduce your wares to a new 
and needy region, if you will send a copy of your 
catalogue, and a specimen number of Gt^KA.v- 
INGS. to Miss 'I'. M. Campbell, Rockland Seminary, 
Cradock. Cape Colony. British South Afiiea. I send 
you stamps enougli to pay the postage, if the parcel 
does not exceed four ounces. Daviiv Stkano. 

Lincoln, Tenn.. Dee. .'W, IHK»>. 

My good friend 8.. when you want us to 
send price lists or sample eopies of (Clean- 
ings anywhere on the face of th(^ earth, do 
not, we heg of you. take the tronl)le to send 
tis stamps. We are just watching for 
chances to get (TLEANiN<is away off into the 
remotest corners of the earth, and it does 
not make any difference how many stamps 
it takes to get it there. We are very much 
pleased to get the good news fiohi your 
friend, and we take the liberty of sending 
her Gleanings for a year ; for, be it known 
to yon and all other friends of the mission- 
arv work, that it has for years been our es- 
tablished custom to send Gleanixgs free 
of charge to any or all missionaries on the 
face of the earth, so long as they care to 
read it : so, give us the names of those 
among your friends who are laboring in 
missionary tields. We want modern bee 
culture taught wherever civilization extends. 
— In regard to the queen-cell protector, some 
time ago friend Doolittle mailed us a sam- 
ple, and told us we were at liberty to make 
and sell as many as we jileased. The price 
will be :> cents each ; \o cents for 10. or SI. 00 
Iter KW. If wanted by mail, add :-! cents for 
10, or 20 Cents per lOO" for postage. .Vnd in 
order to start on the right basis, 1 think we 
will place S-l.OO to friend Doolittle's credit 
for what he has done toward giving them to 
the public. 



BEE LEGISLATION, AGAIN. 



MUS. H.\RRISON S VIKWS. 

K. EDITOR:—! am very sorry to see such a 
covetous and selfish spirit numifested 
amoiiir Itee-keepers as to favor legislation 
that would deprive any one, so disposed, 
of the pleasure of keeping bees. They 
must be looking at the question from their own 
standpoint, and not from the other side. I Avell 
remember the time when I aspired to be a t)ee- 
keeper. There were two persons engaged in the 
business quite extensively, within the city limits, 
at that time. Both of them kindly assisted me in 



every way. One came and divided my two colonies 
the first season, charging nothing for his services; 
he lent ine books, and gave me sound advloe. 
Honey at that time sold here for 30 and 35 cents 
per pound. Bj the time I was firmly established 
in the business, they wore out of it. One of them 
was a doctor, and he couldn't buy the pi-i\ilege of 
doctoring the city, and many frisky pi-actltioners 
came here and boldly hung out their signs, so he 
folded his tent like an Arab, and stole away. His 
bees were scattered around tiie city, and soon they 
had emigrated west. The other man had a large 
lumber business, which increased to such an ex- 
tent that his bees were neglected, and soon died 
out. At the present time there is no one person 
who has as many bees here as we have. 

.-V very pleasant old (iernuin, whose beaming face 
I'eminds me of friend Muth, comes here occasional- 
ly TO talk- about bees. I asked him lately if he liked 
bees. His countenance lighted up as he replied, 
"Oh, yesl I like 'em." This man is too feeble to 
do heavy farm work; has abundant means, and 
keeps a few bees for the love of it. 

.\n old lady of this city, past her threescore and 
ten, has a little ap'ary of six or eight colonies, and. 
takes a great deal of pleasure in caring fer them. 
.\n old man past fourscore has 2.5 or iWi colonies. 
Now, I can claim priority of location over these old 
people, but I don't want to take the cup of pleasure 
from their trembling- hands. Brother Root, you 
would like to purchase the privilege of keeping all 
the bees in a certain district, and also wouldn't 
you like to sell all the bee-keepers' supplies in the 
United States'/ Thomas H. Newman could have 
done a big business in Chicago, in selling supplies, 
if it hadn't been for your mill in Ohio, and tlie 
cheap labor obtained there. Was there anybody 
raising peas, lettuce, beets, and cabbages, in Medi- 
na, before you '/or selling kites or jack-knives'/ Would 
not your business be better if you could do all the 
selling in Medina or the I'nited States';" 

I attended a bee-convention at Monmouth, 111., 
where one of the members complained bitterly be- 
cause some others, living four or five miles from 
town, brought their honey there, and injured his 
market. He said, "They might take it somewhere 
else." This same man brought honey to Peoria, 
and injured munuirhet. Mrs. L. Harrison. 

Peoria, 111. 

Mrs. H., 1 fear you are a little uncharita- 
ble in your opening remarks, although I do 
feel a good deal as you do about the matter 
as you put it. I think, however, that all of 
us who know Dr. C. C. Miller know he is 
not looking at the matter from any selfish 
standpoint, but, on the contrary, is con- 
stantly considering the greatest good to the 
greatest number. Yon are mistaken, my 
friend— I do not w ant the privilege of sell- 
ing all the bee-supplles in the United 
States. A great part of our business is 
htting out supply-dealers with machinery' 
and apjtliances, and we always invite them 
to look over 01 u- works, take "dimensions of 
every thing, and we are glad to have them 
copy our plans. The saving of freight 
alone in making liives and ejection boxes is a 
very great argument in favor of having sup- 
ply-dealers located at central points all over 
oiir country. We may be thoughtless in 
some of oiir remarks and_ suggestions, my 



54 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUKE. 



Jan. 



good friend, but I am sure we are not, 
many of us, so narrow-minded as the man 
who thought his neighbors might take their 
honey somexchere else. 



THE BEE-KEEPERS' UNION. 



FRIEND HEDDON'S IDEAS UPON THE SAME. 



«FTER reading our hig-hlj- respected sister 
Harrison's talk about the Bee-Keepers' Un- 
ion, and j'our foot-notes on page 11, I, being 
the founder of the organization, or, perhaps, 
I might better say, originator of the same, 
and am now serving the second year as president of 
the same, and to-day, as ever, believe with Prof. 
Cook and many other intelligent and honest bee- 
keepers, that, if properly supported and managed, 
it will prove a great success and blessing, it may 
not displease you by my suggesting a few thoughts 
contrary to Mrs. Harrison's article. I believe that 
neither Mrs. Harrison nor yourself have looked at 
this question from the right standpoint. Ask your- 
self, first, Is bee-keeping, in the nature of things, a 
legitimate and useful business? Certainly you will 
say, " Yes." Now, admitting that we may follow it 
as a business, are we not entitled to the same rights, 
vs. the rights of others, that other lines of legiti- 
mate business are entitled to'/ A railrond cuts 
through a farm because it can not run under it nor 
afford to go around it. The odor of horse-stables 
is allowed to waft out upon the breeze, because 
it is impracticably expensive to absorb it in the 
barn, and horse-keeping is a legitimate business. 
When bees are kept so close to land not owned 
by the keeper that persons traversing that land are 
liable to be stung by the bees in defense of their 
hives, I hold that keeper responsible, because he 
can prosecute the business successfully without 
keeping such bees in such manner and in such 
places that any one need be stung by them in de- 
fense of their homes, unless the person stung is 
trespassing upon the land of the bee-keeper, in 
which case said person will be held by law and rea- 
son to abide by the consequences. I have surveyed 
the ground many times, and firmly believe that any 
rights less than those mapped out above will re- 
duce our business to an uncertain "child's play," 
alike damaging to producers and consumers, and 
tending to keep us in constant litigation. For 13 
years I kept from 16 to IHO colonies within 30 feet of 
our house, and the same distance from a neighbor's 
house, in the most thickly settled portion of the 
town, and in all that time no person, outside of the 
yard, was stung by one of my bees in defense of 
their homes. A small boy was stung in the foot by 
stepping on a bee at work while on white clover. 
This took place about 40 rods from the apiary. His 
father, a Jewish clothier, asked me if I ought not to 
remove the bees from the town. I told him that I 
might move them when he would move from his 
barn a stock of rat, mink, and skunk skins whijh 
he kept constantly in stock, and which were as con- 
stantly wafting their odor into our doors and win- 
dows, which were about 12 rods distant. He replied, 
"Oh! that's all right; 1 didn't expect you to re- 
move your bees unless you wanted to." 

You see, the reason why we are overreached in 
our natural rights is because the people attach no 
more dignity oi' importance to honey-producing 



now than when the product was produced in fence- 
corners in " skeps," and was a dripping mixture 
of bee-bread and honey. 

In ray first letter upon the sub.ieet of our Tnion, 
anticipating its possible tendency to create trouble. 
I guarded against it by particularizing that any 
member asking aid of the Union must be able to 
show that no trouble was brewing at the time he 
became a member, it being the duty of directors to 
look into this matter in every case when asking tlie 
Union for aid. 1 believe this important feature has 
been omitted from the by-laws. With this added, 
and the already healthy arrangement that the 
Union shall not bear all of the expense (and, I 
should like to add, except where the defendant is 
poor), but about two-thirds of it, I think Mr. New- 
man tells us, I see no danger from any of the bad 
results depicted by Mrs. Harrison. The Union pro- 
poseSjto defend nothing but evident rights; and its 
board of directors, after carefully examing the law 
and the facts, will surely be able judges and hon- 
est exponents of the merits of the case. I feel that 
you, friend Root, are not saying as much in ra\-orof 
our interests as simple justice warrants. 

FRIEND MILLER'S LE(ilSLATI ON. 

1 have been opposingDr. Miller's proposed " legis- 
lation for bee-keepers," through the ^4. B. ./., and J 
want to say that I agree with him fully in nearly ev- 
ery point he makes on page 17 of your last issue, ex- 
cept that I believe it can and will be brought about 
by the law of "the survival of the fittest," and in no 
other way. I know that the results of this natural 
law are sometimes not in harmony with our highest 
conception of right; but in this case 1 think they 
are, and that by it, is the best and only possible waj' 
to bring about the ends desired by friend Miller. 
Any way, he is to be congratulated for the candid, 
clear, and concise style in which he has vaiKiuished 
his opponents. To my mind, he never wrote a bet- 
ter article for our journals. We have held conven- 
tion after convention, and written essay after essay 
devoted exclusively to "getting on" in the produc- 
tion of honey, and now we begin to feel how pover- 
ty-stricken we are, regarding our Knowledge and 
works which enable us to add Hmincial success to 
that of successful producing. 1 trust that, before 
next swarming-time— in this latitude— we may hold 
a convention devoted exclusi\'el.>- to a \'e\v very im- 
portant subjects, closely relating to our f-uccess, 
but not in the line of product ion. There is much 
else to look after. 

THE HUTCHINSON I' A i\t I'H LKT. 

I have seen yours and friend Uuss' call lo friend 
Hutchinson to give us a pamphlet on the subject of 
the non-use of Idn. in biood-ehiiniliers. ^^•llich.is as 
imjjortant as it is original. Our lieaiiy thanks and 
profoundest honors are due to liicnd H. for his work 
in this direction, which has been as diligent and suc- 
cessful as novel. Who among us can write a terser. 
more vigorous, or clearer treatise on tli's orany oth- 
er apicultural subject, than friend H.'r The i.ddition 
of other subjects, with its conse(iMent enlargement 
of the pamphlet, I am sure \v(Mild be pnzcd bj- us 
all. We have none too many books ilevoted to oui' 
chosen pursuit, particularlj from such men as 
W. Z. H., who possesses in so high a degree success- 
ful, practical knowledge, and the ability to clearlj' 
Impart it to others through the medium of the press. 
I am confident I should profit by it. 

Dowagiac, Mich. ,Iamks Hkdho.n. 



18H7 



GLEANINGS IN JiEE CULTURE. 



.55 



WHAT TO DO, AND HOW TO BE HAPPY WHILE DOINC IT. 



Continued f) 
CIIAl'TEH 

Thr jmsturcs are flothed witli Itocks; the \!ille>s a 
they also sintr.— Psai,m 05: lo. 

Wliat a jrlorious piomise. fiieiicls, is the 
little verse above I and how well it comes in 
with our talks tlirouiih the previous chap- 
ters ! I Jut it we would receive these piom- 
ises we must set about it and do our part, 
even though it be the middle of .lanuary. 
and in the deyttli of winter. The question is 
sometimes ;isked. what we can do in tlie 
winter time. A young friend is just now 
visiting me. who is greatly taken up witli 
the idea of earniug a livelihood for himself, 
wife, and a l)aby fifteen months old. on his 
farm of twelve and a half acres. He has 
Just taken home with him a lot of books and 
papers to read; but from the talk 1 liave 
had with him. I am afraid lie is reading too 
much and working too little. 1 don't be- 
lieve it is best for a farmer or gaidener to 
s))end much time in reading during day- 
light, in tlie winter time. As soon as it is 
light enough to see outdoors, we ought to 
be hard at work with brain and muscle at 
something, and do our reading before day- 
light in the morning oi' during the long win- 
ter evenings; and one of tlie things to be 
done is to look after the manure in the winter 
time: and this brings me to the subject of 

PUEV-MilNG AND APPLYING .MAXUKK. 

In Chapter XIX. we talked about different 
methods of procuring or making manure at 
home on the farm, or on our ten-acre farm, 
if you choose. Let us now consider the 
matter of getting oui- manure in shape to 
apply it to the ground, and of api)lying it. 
If your manure is i»iled uj) in a heap it will 
get hot, and burn itself up; and this must. 
under no circimistances. be allowed. It 
wants forking over and stirring up : in fact, 
it wants hri'iikimj up. In all of our books on 
gardening and farming, we hear this matter 
recommeiuled over and over again. In the 
excellent little work entitled, '(iardening 
for Y'oung and (^Id." by -losepli Harris (au- 
thor of •■ Walks and Talks on the Farm," 
etc.), he goes over the matter again and 
again in his directions for producing almost 
every croi>. and says that the manure must 
be pounded up and broken up before it is 
mixed in with the soil. 1 was especially 
struck with his directions for raising a nice 
crop of celeiy. First, we are to roll ;ind 
plow and harrow, and roll and jdow and 
harrow again, until the ground is light and 



mn Ike. L'l. 
.\X\III. 

so are eovoved vvav with com; thoyslioiit lor Joy, 

fine. Then you plow furrows,- using the dou- 
ble-mold board jilow, or, if you have not one, 
go down and back with a common plow, and 
then the manure is spread in these furrows. 
For celery, it needs to be old, thoroughly 
rotted manure. Then he says, "Spread it 
evenly, knock it to pieces with a hoe or po- 
tato-hook, mixing more or less soil with it. 
and get it at any rate well broken to pieces.'' 
We have tried the plan, and it certainly 
gives good results ; but the labor of break- 
ing the manure to pieces is rather expensive. 
As soon as we commenced at it I began to 
wonder if there was not some better way. 
I have suggested, in some former chapter, 
giving it to the pigs, and inducing them to 
root it over and break it up. 

A few days ago 1 struck upon another plan 
for fining manure. \Vc brought in quite a 
(luantity and put it under the benches of the 
greenhouse, preparatory to tilling our boxes 
for transplanting celery, cabbage-plants, etc. 
The manure was good, but it was in lumps 
and chunks; and as it was rather damp it 
was quite a task to break it up with rakes 
and sieves. Our brood of chickens that were 
raised to catch green dies in the greenhouse 
got too big for the purpose: and as they 
show^ed great dexterity in scratching when- 
ever they were permitted to get on the let- 
tuce-beds. I took the hint and confined them 
with wire-cloth poultry-netting under the 
benches. .V little wheat scattered among it 
did the business. A hen and chickens can 
break up dirt or manure, probably better 
than ;tny machine ever invented. As they 
oftentimes " work for nothing and board 
themselves," why not turn their wonderful 
talents in that direction into some useful 
channel V Our poultry-journals have had a 
good deal to say, and keep talking constantly 
to us, altout providing employment for the 
fowls in winter, (iather forest-leaves, or 
provide cut stiaw : then scatter your grain 
among this and let them scratch it out. 
Now. it would cost me money to gather for- 
est-leaves at this time of the year, and it 
would cost me money, also, to provide cut 
straw; but our manure-heap under the shed 
(l)ictured in Chapter XXXI.) is right handy 
to the poultry. They had Iteen digging it 
over some, and I took down a rake, jtrovided 
myself with corn and wheat-screeniiigs. and 



56 



(:^LEANJN(;S L^' BEE Cl'LTURE. 



Jan. 



very soon had the grain scattered through 
the coarse manure. Why, it just made a 
"picnic'' among the Brahmas that had been 
standing idle, tirst on one foot and then on 
the other; and this morning I heard a cho- 
rus of cackles that pretty surely indicates 
that eggs are not far in the future, even if it 
is only the tirst week in January. Now, 
friends, instead of being annoyed by the 
scratching of the poultry, can we not turn 
this scratching into a useful channel, so that 
the more scratching they do the more we 
feel happy ? Terry tried to arrange his 
work, you remember, so that he felt liappy 
when it rained on his potatoes ; but if it did 
not rain, he felt happy because it gave him 
a chance to get in his clover. There may be 
other domestic animals that can be employed 
to break up, fine, turn over, and prevent 
from heating, our accumulations of manure- 
heaps, but I have not discovered them. 
While on the subject, I might add, that, if 
the manure from the poultry-house is placed 
on the manure-heap, and worked over in the 
way I have suggested. I think it will be the 
easiest method of applyiu'? it to our ground, 
and I think it will also do the most good. 
Now, although you may keep a very large 
flock of fowls, it is hardly probable that they 
can work all your manure up that is to be 
used on your grounds. Is there any thing 
in the way of machinery to do this work ? 
In my former chapters I have several times 
alluded to the manure-spreader, but I have 
only now got ready to consider the machine 
fully. We give a picture of the hitest im- 
provements in this line, so fai- ;)s 1 know, 
below. 



up the manure by revolving so rapidly that 
it breaks and tears manure of any descrip- 
tion, as the machine moves along. Instead 
of having a man to throw it otf in lorksful. 
without breaking it up. the machine throws 
it oft', scatters it more evenly ttian could 
possibly be done liy hand, and at the same 
time tears it to pieces and breaks it up line, 
in away that no sort of handwoik could 
possibly do. The great objection to these 
machines has been their cost, which used to 
be from $125 to .^loU. They are now. how- 
ever, reduced to al)out an even hundred, 
and that for the very best machines made. 
so far as I know. Notwithstiinding the large 
price, the manufacturers who produce the 
machine shown above had, in 1884. sold 
nearly 1000 machines in different parts of 
the United States. They furnish a list of 
parties using them, so those wlio wnnt to 
buy can ordinarily see the machines at work, 
without going a very great distance from 
home. Of course, it would iiot pay one to 
invest in such a machine unless he has a 
good many loads of manure to spread. Let 
us figure it this way: The interest on the 
money would ordinarily be 3^6.00 a year. If 
the machine is carefully housed and inoper- 
ly used, it would probably last fifteen or 
twenty years, so you might say that the 
wear and tear of the machine would be j)er- 
haps as much more as the interest; there- 
fore, unless the machine can be made to be 
worth ten or fifteen dollars a year, it would 
hardly pay to buy one. In view, however, 
of the fact that it puts all the manure on 
the ground in so much better shape than 
can be done without it, as well ;is in saving 




-MANrRE-Sl'KKADEU AT WORK, BKOADCASTING. 



Vou will notice the cylinder, with spikes 
in its circumference, something like the cyl- 
inder of a thrashing-machine. This tears 



of time, it might be best to make the i)ur~ 
chase, even if the time saved does not 
amount to more than ten or twelve dollars 



1887 



GLEANIJ^^GS 1-N BEE CULTURE. 



oT 



a year. 1 believe it takes about 20 or 30 
minutes for a good stout man to scatter a 
load of manure. A spreader will do it as 
(luick as a team can go from one end of the 
lot to the other. In fact, we have our heaps 
of manure at each end of the lot, so that we 
throw a load on at one end, drive across, 
load up again, go back, and so on. Our 
best authorities on market-gardening rec- 
ommend from tifty to one hundred loads of 
manure per acre, every season ; suppose, 
however, we say 2.). A man with 10 acres 
of land to be manured each year would have 
2.50 loads to spread. If the labor saved by 
the use of the spreader amounts to only 10 
cts. a load, we sliould have $25.00, and I 
think it would pay well, under the above 
circumstances, to purchase a spreader. In 
view, howevei'. of the better results to be ob- 
taiued, we miglit say it would pay with only 



joining farmers had from 12 to 15. There is much 
manure hauled out and put in piles that is a waste. 
C. H. MrdTM.ouoH. 
Troy, Ohio, Nov. 28, 1886. 

The point made in the above is, I think, 
an excellent one. I know that about all the 
leading authorities on agriculture are now- 
recommending that manure be not put on 
the ground until either just before the crop 
is put in, or even after the seed is put in, as 
above ; and some advise that half of the 
manure be put on at the time the crop is put 
in the ground, and the other half to be put 
between the rows when the croj) is partly 
grown. Peter Henderson emy>hatically ad- 
vises, in his recent writings, that the ma- 
nure be finely spread on the top of the 
ground, after the ground is all properly fit- 
ted, instead of being plowed under. 

The best machine for working the manure 
into the ground after it is spread by the ma- 




five 



THE ACMl:; C 

acres to be manured every season. In 



regard tn this latter point, J submit a letter 
from Olio ul' our Ohio men, that the manu- 
facturers of tile manure-spreader sent me 
some time ago : 

.V/ex.s7s. Kim^iA Burpo Mfg. Co., Syracuse, A'. 1'. :— 
I thought 1 would send you a line in regard to my 
manure-spreader. I have been using it about three 
yeai-s, hauling oiu from 200 to 300 loads per year, 
an<l have had no occasion for repairs of our own 
breaking. [ have been hauling pure cow-dung to- 
day that we could not have spread off a wagon with 
forks. I would not take $200 for mine and be with- 
out it. T can unload quicker than four men can 
load it. When I loan it out I charge $1.00 per day 
for It. A word in regard to its use on my wheat 
gi-ound. 1 sow my wheat, then go over it with the 
spreader, putting on about 1.5 loads to the acre. 
This vear I had 27 bushels to the acre, while the ad- 



ULTIVATOR. 

nure-spreader, is the Acme harrow, de- 
scribed and illustrated in Chapter XXYI. 
Where the manure is spread over the 
ground after the crop is partly up, of course 
the full-sized Acme can not be used ; but the 
manufacturers have lately brought out what 
they call the Acme cultivator, figured above. 
This works the manure in beautifully, 
and is the best cultivator I have got hold of 
for breaking the crust on the ground, work- 
ing it up fine, and leaving the ground level 
after it is passed over. We have used it 
during the past season, with the greatest 
satisfaction, between the rows of celery, un- 
til the plants were large enough to need a 
little earthing-up. A neighbor has also 
used it for cultivating corn ; and although 



58 



G1^EAN1J>JG8 IN BEECULTUKK. 



Jan. 



he has a two-horse cMltivator, he used this. 
saying it did tlie best work in the cornfield 
of any thing they ever had a horse hitched to. 
I liave said so much in favor of the ma- 
nure-spreader, I will now mention its disad- 
vantages, so far as 1 can. after having used 
it part of one season and the whole of anotli- 
er. First, it needs a good stout team to work 
it, especially if you have manure in solid 
hard chunks, or cow-manure, as mentioned 
above ; and even with a good stout team it 
is not advisable to puton as lieavy a load as the 
same team would ordinarily draw on a wagon. 
There may be some difference of opinion in 
regard to this matter, but we have tested it 
pretty tlioroughly. \Ve buy our manure all 
over the town, and buy it at so much a load; 
tlierefore it is desirable to get about as much 
as the horses can draw conveniently. ( )f 
course, we have a good team : but if we put 
on as much as the horses can di-aw. it is a 
pretty severe strain on the machinery. We 
at first tried tramping the manure down, 
but this will not answer, for two reasons : 
It gets two much weight on the machinery 
when the maniu-e is heavy, and the strain is 
much more severe on the cyliiuler that picks 
it up. On a recent visit llirough adjoining 
counties I noticed that those using manure- 
spreaders drew their manure to the fields in 
wagons, and threw it down in heaps at each 
end of the field, as I have described. The 
machine was then set so as to spread a load 
in going once across.* This necessitates, of 
course, pitching tlie manure on to the ground, 
and then frcmi the ground on to the spreader. 
1 remonstrated at this, calling it a waste of 
time : but they told me J would find it again 
in the end, and our experience has proved 
them to be correct. To have the manure 
spread nicely and rapidl.\ . it must not be 
packed in the spreader at all. Let it lie just 
as lightly as you can throw it in ; and al- 
though you can work it when i)iled above 
the sitles of the box, especially when the ma- 
nure is very light, as a rule the stopping ne- 
cessitated by so doing to run the box forward 
and pitch the maniu'e back on to the empty 
space takes more time thaii to throw in jiist 
what will spread without stopping. Better 
follow the printed directions the manufac- 
turers send out with the machines. We 
have had some repairs to pay for in conse- 
quence of trying methods of our own. Our 
friend in the letter above speaks of loaning 

♦Where two teams are accessible, one may draw 
the manure to the lot, and pitch it directly from the 
wagon to the spreader, some extra piles being- plac- 
ed In advance on the g-round, to keep the sprender 
g-oiiig- until the team g-ets hack. 



the machine to neighbors. It depends upon 
who the neighbors are. On one occasion a 
neighbor set his hired man at work with it, 
and it was run without oil until two of the 
wheels were cut so as to be worthless. It 
seems to me the Inciter way would be to liave 
the man, who is accustomed to work with 
the machine, go with it. foi- it is necessarily, 
in some respects, a rather complicated piece 
of machinery; and. as friend Terry says, it 
must be housed or it will prove to be an ex- 
pensive piece of machinei-y. 

SPREADING ASHES, LIME, PI.ASTEU, SAW- 
nrST, KTC, AVITTI A MANURE-SPKEAOEU. 

I believe it is generally agreed, that ashes 
are a benefit on almost any soil ; but lime 
and plaster may be needed only in certain 
localites; but as they are used quite exten- 
sively in some places. I presume there is no 
(luestiou as to their utility. When 1 was a 
boy, riding a horse for cultivating corn, 
even to my l)oyish eyes there was a plain 
difference in the corn that had received a 
table-spoonful of plaster scattered on the 
hill, from that which had received none, and 
it was put on certain rows and not on oth- 
I ers, so there could be no mistake about it. 
j This was on sandy soil, however. I have 
i never seen this tried on clay land. In regaid 
I to sawdnst. there seems to be a great differ- 
ence of opinion. I presume, however, the 
Hnd of sawdust has very much to do with it. 
Sawdust from hard wood, such as is found 
in many of our country sawmills, is, without 
doubt, valuable when it is old and well rot- 
ted. We fre(iuently get such sawdust in our 
vicinity as has been so long in the ice-house 
that it needs replacing. Two years ago we 
were offered a lot of this kind for hauling it 
away. We put it around some of onr 
strawberries for mulching. The plants thus 
mulched made a much better growth, and 
made larger fruit in great abundance ; but 
as the sawdust was put around the plants by 
hand, the labor of putting it on cost more 
than the benefit accruing was worth —unless, 
indeed, the benefit shall continue for a num- 
ber of years, which is not unlikely. When 
applied, the vines were covered with green 
fruit, and it was therefore necessary to hold 
up the fruit-stems and put the sawdust up 
under the foliage. The labor cost me about 
$2.00 for covering only a few rods. Now, 
had this been done with a manure-spreader 
at the proper season, the whole would not 
have cost over .50 cents. It is well to look 
out about going into any speculation that is 
going to take such an amount of expensive 
handwork as the al)o\e. I did it, piincipally 



1S87 



(;J.h:ANtN(j8 IN HEi: ciii/ruiiK. 



to satisfy myself as to tlie benellt of old I'ot- ; 
ten sawdust. On our stiff clay soils, this 
old sawdust seems to have a very beuelieial 
effect; but I presume swamp muck would 
answer just as well, and may be better, for 
both of them are decayed vejjetable matter. 
I liave been under the impression that saw- 
dust is particularly benelicial to raspberries 
and strawberries. Who has not noticed the 
exceedingly line fj;rowth and line fruit of the ; 
raspberry and strawberry, when growing | 
near decayed stumps, or old rotten logs? I 
Xow. with the manure-spreader we can put 
on just as big a load of sawdust as we have 
a mind to, and the nuu-hinc will spread it 
over the ground most beautifully, throwing 
it down between the foliage, and breaking 
lip tine every lump there mny be in it.* If 
yonr strawbeiries are put in rows the right 
distance apart, the manure-spreader can be 
run through them at almost any season of 
the year, to spread sawdust, muck, ashes, or 
even stable-mamire ; and if stable-manure 
can be thus spread among the plants, just 
before a good heavy shower, it seems to do 
more good than any other way in which I 
have applied it. The machine can be set so 
as to spread at three different rates of speed ; 
and where you wisli to imt only a ^■ery thin 
sprinkling of lime. ;ishes. or plaster, over 
your gronnd, the ijuantity you have maybe 
spread over a still larger area by having the 
box of the manure-spreader only half full or 
less. J^et any one take a load of ashes, and 
try to spread it evenly by hand over a piece 
of gn)und, and then see the manure-spread- 
er do it. and he will be satisfied of the mer- 
its of the machine. 

Perhaps some of the friends may think it 
a little strange that I should say so much in 
praise of so expensive a piece of machinery 
for the simple purpose of spreading manure, 
and nothing else, in a book that is written 
purposely to tell those out of emi)loyment 
what to d<i. To which I rejtly, that people 
who own property are very often in want of 
something to do. as well as those who have 
nothing in this world. If I can suggest to a 
farmer or gardener a way of finding work 
on his own premises, instead of besieging 
our mills and factories foi- employment, I 
think I am doing him a service ; and in no 
way that I know of can we succeed in mak- 

* ir the sawdust is spread in the spring- or fall, the 
strawberries will shoot rig-ht up throug-h it, and it 
wouldn't do any hurt if the foliage and crowns were 
e()\eri'd slightly-, sa.v half an inch or less: if, how- 
ever, it is put oil after g^rowth has started in the 
spring-, or while the plants are growing, the saw- 
dust should lie shaken off by "-athering up the 
leaves and lifting them up to the light. 



ing a man so permanently happy and satis- 
lied, as by encouraging or inducing him to 
lind employment on his own premises. Tiie 
enjoyment resulting from working the ground 
is in having good crops ; and without plenty 
of good manure. proi>erly applied to the soil, 
there can lie no satisfactory returns. Some 
years ago the matter of getting honey from 
the gooseberry and currant was discussed 
in one of oui- bee-journals. One brother 
mentioned that the (mly time he ever saw 
bees gather honey and build comb in real 
earnest from gooseberry and currant blossoms 
was when he gave his whole enrrant-patcli a 
tremendous manuring. Ilis wife iiad been 
teasing for a lot of nice currants, and, to 
please her, he just covered the whole grouiul 
with manure. The bushes, of course, made 
a corresi)Oudingly luxuriant growth, and the 
year after they not only had currants by the 
bushel, but they had tiner currants than any 
one ever saw or heard of before arounil there. 
[ Xow, it is so with almost all kinds of fruit. 
, It is not, however, the amount of maimre 
I which is put on. but it is the way it is ap- 
! plied. If you use yoiu- eyes carefully you 
I can see how it is that plants take the ma- 
nure and work it into luxuriant growth. The 
manure needs to be applicnl in such a way 
that, after a warm summei- showci-. the 
: dark-colored liipiid that comes from tiie ma- 
; nme shall go directly to the roots of the 
I plants. Xow. many of the roots are much 
I nearer the surface of tlie ground than luost 
people imagine. The roots of the strawber- 
I ry and celery are close to the surface of tiie 
I ground. Why. we know, without telling. 
I that this dark-colored manure-water, seen 
I on the surface of the ground around tlie 
I plants after a heavy shower. \\ ill surel> 
bring the rich dark-green leaves, pushing up 
and bursting forth so rapidly that they al- 
I most seem to move. The tinest growth of 
I celery I ever saw in m> life was on a little 
piece of ground close to a line fence between 
myself and a neighlior. Ilis manure was 
I on higher ground than the celery plants, 
i and after a hea\y rain the water ran down 
: from the manure-heap all over m> idants in 
such a way as to leave inky puddles for sev- 
' eral rods. The celery w'as the last put out 
of the season, and it consisted of the rem- 
nants of a l)ed which I had not intended to 
make an> use of. Before 1 knew it these 
plants had shot up so that they fell over and 
lay sprawling on the surface of the ground. 
We went at it and earthed them up in the 
most approved manner: but in a week tliey 
were sprawling around again, ^^'e banked 



60 



ULKA.NINGS 1 .\ HEK ClLTl^KK. 



Jan. 



them as high ns we could, and then set 
boards on top of the ridge, and banked them 
a foot higher. The celery was still growing 
when frost came, and the (jnalit} is so crisp 
that every bit of the plants is edible— there 
is no hard stalk about it. They are so crisp 
that, unless great care is exercised in han- 
dling it, it snaps up like pipe-stems. Now, 
then, to raise almost any kind of a plant, we 
want the ground underdrained and then 
Worked up mellow and line. Now work into 
the surface of this mellow ground a good lot 
of line manure, put on just as the manure- 
spreader does it ; then sow^ jour seeds or set 
out yoiu' plants, and put on another thin cov- 
ering of manure. If there should be a dry 
time after this last coat of manure is spread 
over the surface, there may be some of the 
manure lost by drying up— at least, some 
farmers think there is, but I do not feel sure 
of it. When a shower does come so as to 
wet the surface of the ground, there is ma- 
nure enough to make the rain water look 
dark-colored : and this dark-colored water 
around the seeds and roots of the plants is 
what brings the crop. Manure plowed un- 
der may make a crop, it is true; biit my 
opinion is, that it takes more, and does not 
act so quickly, as the plan given. A very 
little manure will color or darken a very 
large quantity of rain water. While I was 
attending the Ohio State Fair, one of my 
men discovered that a manure-heap was 
heating. He therefore turned the hose from 
the stables, near by, on the heap, and left it 
while he did something else. He let the 
water run rather longer than he intended, 1 
presume. On my arrival home, the first thing 
I did was to take a look over the grounds. 
Imagine my surprise to see the water of the 
creek darkened as if somel)ody had been 
pouring coffee into it. I followed the coffee- 
colored streak at one side of the stream un- 
til it came to the outlet of an underdrain. 
Sure enough, the dark-colored liquid was 
slowly trickling from the tiles. I followed the 
drain until 1 came to the manure-heap. and. 
digging down into it. I saw that it was wet. 
I hunted up my man. but he insisted that 



there could not have been water enough put 
on the heap to make any great waste. Xow, 
very likely one load of good manure would col- 
or a stream of w^ater for a mile; but my expe- 
rience indicates that, wlienever the water is 
colored so as to be perceptible to the eye, it 
will make plants grow. The question has 
often been asked, if the system of under- 
draining commonly in vogue does not in 
this way sometimes carr> off the strength of 
the manure. I have watched the matter close- 
ly ; and although I have seen it do it to some 
extent, after ver> heavy rains, I believe the 
loss is very small where the underdraining 
and spreading of the manure was done as it 
should be. If the underdrains are down 
fully three feet in de|>th, and your ground is 
worked up fine and soft before the manure 
is spread on the surface, this fine soft ground 
filters every thing valual)le from the water 
before it reaches the underdrains. If, how- 
ever, yoiu* manure is plowed under, so as to 
lie on the bottom of a hard ftirrow, and your 
underdrains are filled with hard lumps, of 
course the first rain carries the strength of 
the manure off to the roadside or to the out- 
let of your underdrain. This should be care- 
fully guarded against ; and the Acme har- 
row, such as I have described, and manure- 
spreader, are the things to do it. 

In regard to the expense of these ma- 
chines, you can test the matter for yourself. 
Make a bed in the garden, with a spading- 
fork and rake. Tut on the manure with the 
wheelbarrow, and rake it in by hand. Mea- 
sure the area you have worked, and see how 
much it costs per acre to do it. Xow tit an acre 
Avith modern tools, and figure again the cost 
of team, interest on money invested in tools, 
and see which is the cheapest. I do not 
mean to discourage working with fork and 
rake ; for small patches for early vegetables 
must oftentimes be got ready in this way ; 
and the extra price leceived for the crop will 
pay for so doing. But just as soon as cir- 
cumstances will permit, we should let horse- 
pow'er take the place of hand-power— not 
only in getting the ground ready, but in 
spreading and working the manure. 



(11 AFTER XXXIV 



Whosoevei' sliall u.vall liimsolt' shall l)c abased; 
Matt. 3.'i: 12. 

Thus far in our book our talk has been 
principally about " What to Do," ami but 
little has been said about the latter part of 
the title—'- How to be Happy," etc. I think 
our happiness, to a great extent, depends 



and he that shall hiitiililp liiiiiselt sliall he e.valled.— 

upon our surroundings. We are also happy 
when our plans succeed. Most of us are 
planning and working with l)usy brain. 
Even during the night time we lay out our 
work and contrive ways and means to ac- 



1887 



(;i.kamn(tS liN HKK (U i;j ri.'i-; 



61 



complish certain results. If, when we come 
to put this in practict', and the result equals 
or exceeds our expectations, we, as a rule, 
feel happy over it. I liave seen a great many 
young people made unhappy by putting their 
expectations too liigh, and I liave been 
through a good deal of this experience my- 
self. I liave always been in the habit of 
working ninreoi' less with tools. But one sad 
thing about uiy work, and one source of 
great uidiappiness. has been that 1 planned 
too much in rainbow colors. Kspecially was 
this the case when I was a boy. I would de- 
cide to build some implement or some i»iece 
of furniture ; and as I was short of means I 
concluded to do the work myself. When 
the aiticle was finished it almost invariably 
took more time and money than I had lig- 
ured on, and. with few exceptions, it did not 
work as well, nor look as well, as I had pic- 
tured it in my imagination. A good many 
times it had to be abandoned, and it was 
often laid aside, or allowed to stay where T 
last used it. an eyesore and a cause of un- 
happiness every time my eye rested upon it. 
I remember one day. when father and I were 
planting corn. I had seen a liand corn-plant- 
er, and I told him I thought I could make 
one. He objected, on the ground that my 
machines didn't work, and that T would be 
wasting nails and lumber. I told him, how- 
ever, that if it did not work 1 would i)ay for 
the lumber, and I would draw the nails all 
out and put them back in their places. Un- 
der these conditions he consented. It did 
not work, and, witli a sad heart, I pulled it 
to pieces, put the nails away, and cleared 
every thing up out of sight, as if no corn- 
planter had ever been made. It was a use- 
ful lesson to me. The next time I wanted 
to indulge my inventive faculties I remem- 
bered the corn-planter, and was saved some 
unhappiness by not going into it. Al)out 
this time I began to discover I was not a 
good mechanic— at least, that I was not a 
good cari»enter and joiner. The principal 
reason was, I never took time to do my work 
nicely, and this oftentimes occasioned fail- 
ure. Besides, where a machine succeeded 
it looked so unsightly that I was ashamed to 
have it seen. I concluded to have my line 
of work, and work at it ; and when I wanted 
to have carpenter work or blacksmith work 
done, get a carpenter or blacksmith to do it. 
I find the same disposition among many of 
the young friends wlio are at work here. A 
young man thought he could make a corn- 
marker; his employer told him he could not— 
he had not had the experience. But the boy 



had quite an opinion of his mechanical abili- 
ties, and so he went to work without per- 
mission. It took him three times as long as 
it would have taken an experienced man, 
and it kept giving out in one place and then 
another until it was quite a source of un- 
happiness all round. The young man who 
has charge of our greenhouse has become 
quite skillful in making seeds and plants 
grow, but he makes terribly poor work when 
he attempts to put up shelves or ben(;hes. I 
have had hard work to convince him that he 
is not a good carpenter; and. furthermore, 
that it would not pay him to learn to lio 
good carpenter work. 1 told him I was (luite 
satisfied that he could, by serving an aj)- 
prenticeship. learn to do nice carpenter 
work, and do it quickly ; but as he had chos- 
en to work with seeds and plants, he couM 
earn much more money l)y sticking to his 
business than to try to put up shelves and 
benches. Une of his fellow-workmen, wlio 
receives the same pay he does, would do the 
work nicely and quickly, without any show- 
ing or educating. Xow. although I most 
heartily advise havijig a shop and some car- 
penter tools on every farm, or around every 
home. 1 think it quite important to beware 
of undertaking work you can not do profita- 
bly. If a farmer or gardener has spare time 
during the winter, or during evenings, he 
may ynactice using carpenter tools ; but 
when he has something else to do in his own 
line of work, for which he can earn wages 
enough to pay a carpenter or blacksmith, 1 
would say. " By all means do it."' 

I have now given you some sources of un- 
happiness, the moral to which would l)e this : 
If you want to be happy, and enjoy your 
work, be careful about putting your expecta- 
tions too high. If you have attempted a good 
many things, and failed, let these failures 
teach you a lesson ; and the lesson is, that 
you do not overvcdr your own (i.bilitkfi. I 
have now in mind a very good i)erson, whose 
life has almost been made a failure because 
he constantly insists that he is capable of 
directing others how to do work ; but the 
truth is. he has never first proved his alnlily. 
by making a success in small things. The 
fact that his life has been a series of failures 
does not seem to have taught him humility 
at all. In contrast with his disposition I re- 
member a young man who asked me for work ; 
and when the subject of wages came up lie 
said. '■ Mr. Hoot, give me exactly what ijou 
think I am w(nth. and I shall be happy 
and satisfied." lie is now receiving a thou- 
sand dollars a year. I do not mean to say 



62 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Jan. 



that this plan will answer under all circum- ! figures too high. Make up your mind to 



stances ; but in this case it has always kept 
a very pleasant feeling between himself and 
myself. Instead of complaining that he 
does not get what he deserves, or that he 
does not get credit for all he has done, he is 
constantly striving to see liowgood a record, 
or show ing, he can make each year, and that 
record, or sliowiug. pleads for him. The 
action lakes the iilace of words. lie has 
nevei- said, " Mr. Hoot, don't you think I am 
earning a little more tlian you pay meV' But 
(lie nsnlft< of his eiforts with brain and mus- 
cle often say to me, '■ Mr. Hoot, that man 
is doing splendidly, and it begins to look as 
if he is really worth more money than he is 
receiving." 

Right in line with this talk is one of the 
greatest sources of happiness. You may 
build air- castles in your own mind, my 
young friends, but do not tell them out loud, 
aufl do not get your expectations up too 
high. The young relative of whom I spoke 
in a former chapter is going to try poultry 
on his 12' acres. lie said he believed he 
could make every hen earn him a dollar a 
yrar. I think lie is putting his expectations 
too high. I should much rathei' have him 
give an accurate statement of what he Iian 
done with hens, than to hear him tell wliat 
he is (joiny to do. lie has an excellent local- 
ity for fowls, and he can easily make a nice 
room for them in the side of a gravelly hill 
adjoining his barn and stables. One of the 
l)Oultry-journals states that it will cost 10 
cents a mojith to keep a hen, where you are 
so situated as to be obliged to buy every 
thing. If you raise it, it will cost pretty 
nearly as much ; that is, what you raise 
ought to be worth the market price. If he 
keei)s only about -30 fowls on an average, 
tliey will prol)ably get their own living on 
liis 12i acres, six months in the year. This 
will reduce the expense to (50 cts. If they 
lay 100 eggs apiece in a year, I think they 
Avill do pretty well ; and I tiiink he will do 
pretty well if lie makes his hens pay a clear 
))i()lit of .".(lets. each. If lie makes this his 
estimate, and then does still better, he will 
enjoy keeping poultry. If. liowcvf r. he fixes 
his figures at a dollar each, clear profit, and 
gets only oO cts., he may feel somewhat like 
grnmbling; and if his poultry should cost 
hini more cash right out than lie gets back 
in a year, there caiTt be very nincli happi- 
ness of any kind about it. 

Now, boys, in view of this, ddu't set your 



put in an earnest, hard day's work every 
day in tiie year, with brain and muscle, and 
then decide to thank (4od. the great Giver 
of all good, for whatever he gives you. In 
these remarks I would not think of discour- 
aging a young man from trying his hand 
with tools — especially, sirnplf tools belonging 
toalmost any trade or industry: but I woiiitl 
discourage the habit of having a great lot of 
tools about him that he can not use enough 
to pay the interest on the money; and es- 
pecially would I dissuade him from think- 
ing he is smart enough to do any thing ijutt 
aw/ mechanic can do, with his years of ex- 
perience and skill. One of the rising sins 
of Young America is a disposition to tliink 
he is smart enough to earn good wages at 
almost any calling, without learning a 
trade. .Vlmost every day, nice - looking 
youny; men are coming to me. liegging for a 
place. Sometimes I ask them if they have 
any trade, or what they have been accus- 
tomed to work at. The reply comes, almost 
every time. '' I have not woi'ked at any thing 
but odd jobs; but I guess I can do almost 
any thing you want done." We are just 
now in want of a printer ; but I have not 
asked any of these young men if they could 
set type. I am <|uite siu-e they would think 
they could, and no doubt they would go to 
work without a bit of trouble, provide<l 1 
would pay them 10 or 12 cts. an hour while 
they are learning how. and they would 
think they ought to have this, even if it took 
an expensive and skilled man to teach them, 
and even thougli they were a good deal 
more trouble than they were worth. 

Do you see where we are tending, friends? 
Thousands upon thousands are wanting 
something to do. and yet, when wanted the> 
do not know how to do it. Do you ask what 
I advise right here V I advise you to do ex- 
actly as the boy did who is now eai'iiing a 
thousand dollars a year; yes. even though 
you do not earn enough toi)ay youi- board, for 
you had better work for notliing and board 
yourself than to remain idle. If you can't 
get a chance to do even that, get sonic type, 
and go to work at home by yourself. Take 
good, well-printed liooks for your guide; and 
when you can do some nice printing, take 
a sample of it to some printing- ofiice. and 
tell them >()U have <j,'ot f.u' enoiifili to do 
woi'k like your specimen. I tliink yon w ill 
soon find a place where you can get < n ri/ 
cent i/nii an irnylh. 



To be continued Feb. 15, }<^S7. 



1887 



{TI.KANl^'UtS 1^ i3EE CLJ/nKlv 



63 



SPBEADING BROOD IN THE SPRING. 



THK UANGBHS AHI8IN(i FUO.M TIIK l'l{ ACTl ( K. 

fHE discussion at the liuliaim|)olis ('(iiivi'iition 
that intercstPd mo most was that ox-er the 
above subject. I ached to ventilate some of 
my own views on the sul).)eet, but could not 
get the floor -because I am so small in stat- 
ure, I suppose. If the editor of Gleanings will 
allow me the floor in this great informal conven- 
tion of bee-keeiKTS, my thoughts may come in g-ood 
play, as spring- will not be \-ery long' in approaching'. 
I take the g'round, that inserting a frame of hon- 
ey in the center of the brood-nest, to stimulate 
brood-raising in early spring, is generally unneces- 
sary, and often injurious. Tt is a reasonable theory, 
which I think I have proven bj' observation, that 
the instinct of a good queen is to fill about six L. 
frames as rapidly as conditions will permit. If she 
is a poor one, no amount of coaxing will make the 
matter much better. Now. what are right con- 
ditions ? They are, a sutticient rjuantity of i)roper 
stores, either in the hive or coming in, favoral)le 
weather, and healthy bees enough to take care of 
the "babies." The place to secure good food and 
healthy bees is not shade. My experience says that 
there is scarcely any thing worse for bees in spring 
than that. A flat, damp site may be perhaps as bad 
as a shady one; liut it is no worse, sshade is an ex- 
cellent harbor for dampness, and lor wet, moldy 
hives and diluted honey. The latter will breed more 
or less disease. 

Healthfulness is a more important factor than is 
generally supposed. 1 have known a form of dysen- 
tery, as it seemed, to cling to a ec.lony in a shade, or a 
flat, until along in April, and they would dwindle in 
spite of all the brood and bees 1 might give them. If 
there is any case w hen one may safely and advantage- 
ously spread the brood of a colony with from only 
two to four frames containing brood in each in earlj- 
spring, it is when the hive sits I'ight out in the sun. 
Fnhealthy conditions make Ijees puny, and expos- 
ure and hard work weai' them out. Why should thej- 
not '; Right here, it appeared to me that those wise 
heads at Indianapolis foraged all around a point of 
great importance. Se\'eral objected to spreading 
brood, because it would so often become chilled in 
the operation. Have they never thought about the 
poor bees V While the system may. with care, be 
sometimes practiced to advantage, I have reached 
the conclusion that spreading brood is unprofitable, 
not so much that it is death to the brood, as because 
it is death to the bees. 

Prof. Cook names, as one advantage of sugar- 
feeding in early spring, that it largely obviates the 
necessity of bees going out after water in unfavora- 
ble weather. Within the hive, the additional labor 
imposed upon the workers, scanty in numbers or 
puny in health, by the process of forcing (consum- 
ing and feeding, and in protecting such (luantities 
of brood), is wearing upon them. When the.\- must 
go out on those cold, cloudy days to get water from 
those irhillitig. mucky pools, many of them become 
numbed and never return. I have known a colony 
to lose in numbers very perceptibly in one week's 
time, under this kind of treatment. Our wet, back- 
ward seasons arc one of the most unfavorable con- 
ditions, and forcing rather augments than over- 
comes the evil. When weather and other essentials 



favor it, the instincts of both bees and gueen are 
to multiply. 

Hut 1 am inclined to think that, by the time about 
si.\ frames become well tilled with brood, and well 
covered with bees, that the case becomes altered. 
Heyond this number the queen is not nearly so apt 
to reach out and Hll up the outside frames. Then 
bees are hatching rapidly, ami the weather has gen- 
erally become warmer; while one can at the same 
time insert a frame of honey and have the queen 
till it with eggs, without making the same draft up- 
on the energies of the bees, as if there were only 
enough to cover four frames well instead of six. 

Whatever may be the wisdom and \alne of the 
above conclusions, I am certain that, if we woiilil 
practice stimuhition in eai-lj' spring, we ninsl |in> 
ceed very cautiously, and be sure that conditions 
are favorable. .)— (lUo. F. Koiiiii \s. '.»;!— (il. 

Mechanicsburg'. 111., Dec. 22, 18v«. 



RED RASPBERRIES AND BLACK BEKfi. 



.MILKWEED HONEY. 



ip LTHOLIGH white clover is indigenous lo i.m- 
jg^ locality, it is quite a rare thing for lie< .- i" 
V wiM'k very hard on it. Indeed, in sonic scie 
*^ sons when it blooms profusely they will not 
work on it at all. The reason for this <lisi'c- 
gard of clover is the abundance of a much Ixtier 
honey-producing plant— the wild red raspberry. 

This section has been timbered largely with hem- 
lock which has been cut off, leaving a mass of biu.^h 
ready to catch tire. Almost iinariably after these 
tracts burn over, the red raspberry springs up. 
There are hundreds of acres of this plant within 
range of our bees. Us period of bloom is identical 
with that of white clover. Hy its color and consis- 
tency, its honey can not be distinguished from the 
white clover honey, but it is fai' superior to it in 
richness and delicacy of flavor. 

Basswood is also quite abumlant here, and we oc- 
casionally obtain large croi)s of honey from it. lii- 
less, liowev-er, the weather is just right it yields little 
or no honey with us. During the last two seasons 
we have not obtained an ounce of surplus hont'y 
Irom it. Both these years the weather has lieen 
cold and rainy while it was in bloom. 

Milkweed furnishes iiuite a large quantity ol hon- 
ey, blooming just after raspberries, and just before 
basswood. ^This year my ti2 colonies gathered a little 
over a ton of its beautiful, thick, amber honey, in si.v 
or seven days. This makes an average of about H\e 
pounds per day per colony. 1 have been great l.\- 
surprised at the complaints of the little appendages 
which entangle the bees' feet. 1 have watched 
closely, and have never seen a bee entangled. 

A KEPORT PHOM IJi'iACK BEKS. 

I started last spring with 61 colonies, three of 
which were very weak, and made no surplus honey, 
but built up into strong swarms by the time the 
honey-season was over. This report is. therefore, 
actually from •')« colonies. I received tillL' lbs. of 
honey, of which 1213 is comb, the rest extracted 
About :5.')tHt lbs. of this is li-oin raspberr.v . with per- 
haps a little white clover mixed with it. about 20()il 
lbs. from milkweed, and the rest, mid or tidii lbs., from 
buckwheat, goldenrod, etc. I have 87 colonies pack- 
ed away in cliall lilvis. all in goo.l condition at the 
present writing. 

Mv bees are ail lilaeks. I ha\e ne\ er had an\ e.\- 



64 



(I J. H: a N I N (; S I N B H E C ULT UE K 



Jak. 



perience with Italians, and can not, therefore, Intel- 
lij^'futly coniparo the two races. I have never had 
any tronltle with moths, but liavc to wateh tlie bees 
very carefully to guard ag'ainst robbing'. A neigh- 
bor, about .«i.v niile.« distant, who has two apiaries 
c()ntaining' over a luindred colonies, nearly all Ital- 
ians, told nie he has obtained a little oxer ;{00(1 lbs. 
of e.viMicted honey. ti— Wn.i.is K Mil, v, til -ST. 

Sherniiin, Pa., .Ian. 4, 188T. 

MAKING HONEY VINEGAR 

SO.VIK \KIM IMI'Olil VNT Sl'GG KS'I' I () -NS I .N KK- 
(iAUO TO THK .M.\TTKU. 



'K make several barrels of vineg'ar every 
year, and sell it to the folks in town, at 
:.'.") ets. per gallon, and have had no trouble 
so far to sell all we had The demand is 
increasing- exery year, selling to some of 
(Mir nierehants" families wlio are s.lling vinegar at 
their stores, which they buy of the trade in Chica- 
go. I asked one merchant's wife why she tioiight 
my vinegar. '"Oh: "she said, "the store \inegar 
eats up my pickles." It takes two pounds of honey 
to make a gallon of \inegar, and two jears' time 
In make. We maki' the most of ours out of refuse 
hf>ney. or honey that we can not use for any other 
purpose, and would otherwise be lost oi' wasted. 
We retail a large (luantity of honey; and when the 
honey is candied there will hu considerable left 
sticking- l<j the sides of the barrels. W'e always 
wash out all the barrels we expect to use again. 
The tirst washing- that takes otl' the hone.\ , wi- put 
In the vinegar. It is clean; it is nothing- but honey 
and water. Then, again, when we are oxtracting- 
honey we have a box with a wire-cloth bottom 
whi(!h we set over a barrel tliat has the upper head 
out. Int<i this box we put what cappings we have 
to drain out the honey. In 'H hours we empty 
those cappings into a barrel that has some water 
in it, to soak out what honey remains, straining 
I hem once or twice a da.v. The barrel will hold 
what cappings we get in a week. .Vbout once a 
week we strain out the water and luit it in the 
vinegar and melt the cappings into wax, so there is 
nothing lost. I don't like to see any thing- thrown 
away that we can use. Again, there is always 
more or less honey that can be made into g-ood 
vinegar that is not just fit to sell for nice honey. 
In that way it is saved. 

To know when the water is sweet enough for 
vinegar, put in a good fresh egg, and make the 
water sweet enough to fioat the egg so there will 
be a patch of the shell out of the water about as 
bigasasilver lu-cent idece; then it is about right. 
We keep ours standing in barrels, with one head 
out, to give it air; for air it must have to make vin- 
eg-ar. Tie a scjuare yard of cheese-cloth over the 
top of the barrel, to keep out dirt and tiles, and 
other insects. Keep under cover out of the rain, 
in a warm dry airy place. We keep ours standing 
in one corner of our shop through the summer, 
and put it down in the cellar through the winter, 
and take it u|i again when spring comes. When we 
are changing either in the fall or 8i)ring, we tlnd 
some that is tit for sale. We take it into our dwell- 
ing-house cellar and put it into our retailing bar- 
rels, which we keep there for that purpose. I have 
t)een thinking of late whether it would not be a 
good plan to make up all our chea)> honey into 



vinegar; but I don't know how much it oould be 
sold for at wholesale. I must look this matter up. 
It may b«' that we can do something- in this direc- 
tion to i-elieve the market of our low-priced honey. 
Honey is getting- to be .so plentiful and cheap that 
we must turn it into every channel that will lake it. 
Platteville, Wis. E. Fk.\x<.;k. 

Friend F., your suggestions are exactly 
what we have wanted for a long time, and 
we are especially glad to have you give us 
the full details of the matter. The (luestion 
has been asked over and over again. '' How 
much honey is needed for a certain quantity 
of water ? "" Now . as honey varies so great- 
ly in density, it has been" very difficull to 
giA e any positi\ e formula ; but your i)lan 
of trying it with an egg tills the hill e.vactly : 
also in regard to the temperature of the 
place it is kept, and the amount of air to 
give it. I think every one of our readers 
can go to work and make vinegar, with such 
directions. Good cider vinegar is worth 
here from Id to 12 ets. per gallon by the 
barrel. 

FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS. 



HONEY EXHIBITS .^^T KAIKS. 

tm^ LEANINGS of Dee. 1st at hand, containing 
Y ' <'Ut of my exhibit at our county fair. 1 feel 
It^ greatly indebted to you, and thank yon for 
^^ your very able notice. Your remarks echo 
my sentiments pret^isely. in regard to the 
advancement of bee culture, and I know of no 
better place that we can come before the people 
and show and explain the rapid strides that this 
important branch of agriciiltni-e has taken, than 
at our respective county fairs. At present our 
fair officials do not notice this branch as they should, 
but it rests with us to make them as attractive as 
we possibly can, and iittnictiDHs please the mana- 
gers, and then no doubt we shall be classed and 
made permanent as attractions now are. "To ed- 
ucate the people " should be our aim at the pres- 
ent, and we can ill afford to hide our candle under 
a bushel in this advancing age. B. R. Nkwcomb. 
Pleasant Valley. N. Y., Dec. ti, 188(5. 



SE.VI^lNr. GliASS HONEV-TUMBLEKS ; KKIENU 
.J. A. ABBOTT'S PliAX. 

I notice in your last number an article on sealing 
honey-tumblers, etc. This reminds me of a plan 1 
devised and exhibited at our Loudon show a few 
years ago, and for which I was awarded a special 
prize. Instead of warming- the glass I .just gave 
the edge a rub on a stone sprinkled with sharp 
sand, which almost immediately gave it a "tooth " 
to hold the wax. The edge was then dipped in a 
mixture of equal parts of wax and rosin. I found 
this mixture much better than wax alone, as it 
stuck much tighter and never cracked. 1 prepared 
some sheets of nice thin pai)er by dipping- them 
into hot pure beeswa.v. thoiigh sometimes 1 coxcr- 
ed one side only by tloating the .•^lit.-eis on I he wax. 
When uold, these sheets were tl.ved on lop <d' the 
,iars by about the same process as .x ou often use 
to fix foundation in supers, but much less rubbing 
is required. Just passing the handle of the knife 
over once xvas suflicient. The sharp edge of the 
blade was then run round, and the air-tight and 



1887 



GJ.KANIJS'GS IN HEK CLILTURI': 



66 



natural honey-seal iujr wa8 complete. It' the jjlass 
was not roug-hent'd a littlo, Iho wax wag liable to 
leave it atter a little while, luit the wax oAj^e and 
the paper tuner icirled stftcr tlu\\- had onec met. 
It Is possitdc yoiii' concsiKtiideiit, l)i-. Mason. iini>- 
have read soiue description of tliiR plan, which I 
fancy was descrihcd in ilic lirilisli IS(i: JimriKil. 

.1. A. AllllDTT. 

Heeton, Ontario, (an . Kce. :i<.i, IHSG. 

A KKW MOKK !•< > 1 N I' K KS ON 1 XTK< )l)l(' I N(J . 

There arc a few points ationt inti-oducinj;' (incens 
that Ernest did not jiive in coiuiection witli this 
sub,iect in a late issue of (JI/Kaninos, which T 
should like to know. I. Is it l)est to introduce a 
queen, that has had a trip in the mails, iinniediate- 
\y on her arrival, or wait a f«'w hours, or tintil the 
next day? 2. Tf you wish to oxohanji'c queens in a 
hive, do you i)iit in the new one at the time of 
takitiy the old on(M)ut,or do yon prefer to leave them 
queen less awhile? If so. how long? 3. Do yon put 
the attendant bees in with the new queen always? 
A. A. Fradknkitho. 

Port Washing-ton. O., Dec. 2:1, 18KK. 

1. Put the queen, iininediately after her 
arrival, directly into the liive. In tact. F 
think it will he iniich better than to wait 
aAvhile, as yon sti.<i«icst. 

2. Vej-y treqnentl\ we tal<e out aiidcajie a 
queen, and introdncc anothtn" one in her 
place, at one and tlie same tiiae. We once 
thought it better to allow the hive to re- 
main (lueenless lad'ore caging another 
qneen ; hut hy the Feet process of intro- 
ducing we have lately found no tvont)le in 
introtlncing a (|iHHqi at once. We keep only 
Italians, and I am not sure yon could do 
this with hybrids, yyri;ins. or ('yprians. 

3. If yon tind attendant bees in a Peet 
cage, as yon i)r.>bably will in a great majori- 
ty of cases, cage llnqn and the queen to- 
gether on the comb. I do not know that it 
will make any diffcrtMicc to us whether the 
qneen is cagetl on a comli. with or without 
attendant bees.— Hinht here [ will say to 
otar readers, if an\ of \oii iiavc a desire to 
ask questions on sonn^ tonics connected 
witli our own apiarv . on winch I have not 
fully enlarged, l>c iVcc [■< write us. and yotn' 
questions will V»e answered cither in (Jleax- 
TNGS or by private letter. KiiNEsr. 

THE PKINCIPI.K OF THK AI.LK.V 'IKAI' NOT NKW. 

Alle.v's drone-trap may work very well, but it is 
not new. T do not know who invented the first 
drone-trap; but in the year IHUa were different 
drone-traps in Germany in the market. I bought 
one of them in 18»)7 from (J. Dathe, Eystrup. Ger- 
many. This trail was constructed on the same 
principle as the Alley trap. It had two ditfercnt 
chambers— the first one, in connection with the 
alighting-hole, had a series of holes large enough 
for the worker-bees, but too small for the drones. 
A prolonged canal opened into the second cham- 
ber, made of wire screen, through which no drones, 
hut worker-bees, could pass. This canal is for the 
same purpose as the wire cones of Alle.v's trap, 
but it was closed by a small piece of light cotton 
stuff which easil.y opened into the second chamber, 
but closed the entrance to th«' Hrst one. 

This wire screen could exclude the drones. l>ut 
the (jueen could not t)e e.xchided with certainty. 
The screen was not e.xact enough, and the wires 



did not stay in place all the time. About 1876 was 
the perforated zinc in use in Germany; and since 
that time (ironc-tra|>s were nuide out of perforated 
zinc. 'I'lie idea of catching a queen is not new 
either. W. Vogcl, /Ji(7;(/u< l'/(i/i(/, ISSd, [i. M), talks 
about one, but onl.^ in a sliort wa.\ . 
Selma, Texas, ilec. !$, 188tt. L. Stachki.u AtrsEX. 

A I.KTTKIt KUOM S<;OTI,ANI) ; ukatuku honkv. 

We don't have so severe winters or warm sum- 
mers as you have, neither have we such large 
yields of hoticy; hut for all that we have managed 
to raise enough to bring it to one-third the price it 
was 4 years ago. .Vt that time white-clover honey 
in 1-lb. sections brought :!0 to 'M cents; now it 
scarcel.v sells at all. 'I'Ik ri' is some iiKpiirx for 
heather honey. I d<j not know whether you Inn e 
any heather in America or not. I never saw It 
even mentioned in Gt-I'IANi .\(is. It is\ei-.\ dark in 
color, not so beautiful as clo\er honey; neitlier, to 
my taste, is it as tine. H. Aiii.ioN. 

<)vertown, Dyce, Aberdeenshire. Scotland. 



REPORT IN RHYMi:. 



I ha 



' -m ill 



11 iirder l» lix 
Oiil Miv rc'pi.rt for 1X8G. 
1 hcj;:in in tlic fall i.r '8.5 
Witli all iii\ i-i.loiiii's iiiih tivi'. 
I got all tliiii;;^ naily, 1 tiust. 
And paikrd tlniii awav in (jiiod sawdust 
All arouiicl, jusl iiji to tlio caves. 
And tillrd Ihc crates witli forest-leaves. 
So I tid them ui) viT.v strong:, 
Kor voii know the winter is quite loutr. 

So 1 Vave them an ahinidani f feed 

To kei'|i them Iroiii eoniiiiK to want or need 

I wailed till llie elm and maple hloomed. 

And other • aiiv Mou.rs, with theii- perfume. 

Were with sweetness lillint.' Ilie land. 

llelore I sel them on their summer stand. 

Whieh. after 1 did it ^v as IruU alaiiniug 

II, o'. soon tlie\f;o( r.ad\ t.ir suarmiiifr. 

Aliout the lime 1 ^^as plant iiit; mv corn 

I wrote to a hee-m.in, Thomas Horn. 

Kor a ptire-hloodeil Italian i£iieen. 

Anil reeeived as line as e\er was sei'ti. 

So I worked e\erv day liki- a man. 

But I at onei- adopted the H.-ddoii plan: 

For on having no after-swarms 1 was bent. 

1 say it will win k all ritrht and prevent: 

Kor eaeh ooloiiv inereased hu( one. 

And to take tlnir honr-> "as only fun. 

Korjust as sure as I'm alive. 

They made surplus ponnds 28'i. 

K\it I had nearly lorgotteii to tell 

I reared several quteiis to sell. 

.\nd T have now fully re:ilized 

What it is to have niy liees Italianized. 

They do not alway- appear to be so cross; 

But iust volt i-onie up and he boss. 

Thev will let you take from them their store 

Witliout stinKim.--, and tro cheerfully after mor«. 

Thus any )ieisun i:in plainly see. 

Kor honev and yenthnes^ thev are the hee 

Th.it evei\\ lover of biis should keep. 

Who wishes to piddiiie jrood honey cheap. 

1 weighed the stores of all my bees with oare. 

.\nd found they had pientv and to spare. 

On such stoles 1 think tin y "ill thrive. 

.\nd all come out in the sprintr alive. 

So, now, to you I must all confess 

To whom 1 owe so nuieh success. 

Doolittle, Heddon, Chaddock; and A. I. Boot. 

Thonich named last, dms not stand toot— 

Of Hutchinson. C. C. Miller, and all the rest, 

I can not sav who is tust. 

Hut I have read Roofs work, his .V B C 

\]\ the way from A to /,. 

.\nd Gi.ii.vxiMis is the thinvc for ine 

To study whih- « orkintr av itii the hon<-y-l>ee. 

So 1 have .all my hees packed ajjain this year. 

-Viid will end my sloiy ri^ht here. 

.So 1 will build a happy goodnight, 

Kntil Sluing- reveals my jtrospects to UkIH. 

Pearson, Ohio. E. B. Hauorkv, ."i 10. 

MOW HIS WORSHIP, THE TOAD, WAS STCNfi. 

'I'wo neighbors (brothers!, formerl.v tieighbors and 
seholiirs of Di-. Dzierzon. old beekeepers, relate 
the following, to whieh they were eye-witness: .\ 
large toad, which the.\ had often seen among their 
hives, came one afternoon out of his retreat, a 
snnill marshy place bchiiKl their tipiary. He stop- 
ped in front of a hive, catching some incoming 
tiees, when all at oii(;e he got stung on his tongue, 
which swelled up so ipiii-k I hat he could not with- 



66 



GJ.H:AMN(i,S IJS' BEE CLLTI'HK 



Jan. 



draw it, but huuK swelled out of its mouth, look- 
ing very comical. He withdrew, not to be seen 
ajfain. Vou know taxidermists sUin and stuff toads 
sometimes. Although tliey have a thick skin, the 
moment you put a little common salt on their back 
they liecome very sensitive. F. J. M. Otto. 

Sandusky, ()., Nov. H, 1886. 

KOUI! (Ol.OMES UKAD .iLRE.VU^' ; W».\T KILLKU 
THEM y 

Out of IS colonies, 4 are noiv dead, they dying 
during- this cold spell. The weather was only twice 
below zero, the first morning 1°; and the morning 
after, 9". My bees are all in single-walled hives. 
All have honey enough. We had about (i in. of snow. 
I didn't remove the snow from the entrances. 
When I discovered that they were dead I opened 
two of them. T found them clustered naturally, 
also all the cells in the cluster full of bees. It 
looked to me a.s though they were killed instantly, 
without warning or time to change position. They 
had honey in their sacks, so you see they didn't 
starve. According to Dec. 1st Glkanings they 
didn't smother on account of snow. I haven't med- 
dled with them since cool weather began. I can't 
Had an J' other l)ees dead in the neighborhood. I 
wish to know what killed them so early in the sea- 
son. T may lose all I have before spring, il some- 
body doesn't tell me what to do. F. P. Hish. 

Henton, Shelby Co., 111., Dec. 9, 1886. 

Fiieiid II.. it is very unusual for bees to 
die in tlie maimer you "describe, especially if 
they had sealed stores all round the cluster. 
The fact that you fouiid honey in their sacks, 
is not sutticient. When bees get so nearly 
out of stores that they have nothing l)ut un- 
sealed honey, and cells containing some 
honey and some pollen, they often die some- 
thing in the way you describe. There needs 
to be plenty of good sealed stores on all sides 
of the cluster, so that every inmate of the 
hive can have access to it easily. I do not 
know that I evei- saw a colony die under the 
above circumstances, unless" it was where 
the stores were evidently of so poor a quality 
that dysentery set in. It may be. however, 
that your bees gathered something ]ioison- 
ous; but I should hardly think you would 
find them dead as you describe, even then. 
I do not know how to suggest any remedy 
for such a state of affairs in the winter time. 



A NEW HONEY-PLANT. 

I inclose a package of sweet-melissa seed. See 
description of same by T. J. Burrill, in .4. B. J.. Oct. 
13, 1886, page 651. My bees, the past season, worked 
from morning till night on melissa growing by the 
side of spider-plants, only occasionally gathering 
honey from the latter. In hot dry weather they 
worked lively on melissa in preference to all other 
flowers, of which we have (juite a lart;e \ ariety. If 
my bees do not work better on spider-plants next 
season than they did this 1 shall raise no more for 
them. 

Carpenter's square, or tigwort, which grows in 
small timber near the creek, is more attractive to 
them. 

Melissa imparts a citron-like tlavur to honey, 
which our people consider delicious. 1 have grown 
melissa since 1881, but have kept bees only two 
years, commencing with one (-olony as an experi- 
ment. I increased to 15 good stands with about 5(i 



lbs. of honey to each hive, excepting three, which 
have fully 100 lbs. each. 

1 have not lost a colony yet. and I winter tlieiii In 
a cellar which is not very warm. I have had ap|ill- 
cations for seeds, from ditferent portions of the 
U. S. and Canada. 1 believe there is nothing better; 
and if it succeeds as well in every locality as here, I 
shall be amply repaid for my trouble in introducing 
it. Please give the seed a fair trial, and report to 
me in due season. A. C. Tvkkki,. 

Madison. Neb., Dec. 4, 1886. 



(I, ASS r-Eoisr,.\.Tiox. 

<icjil MiniU' mail. 

Ami man loves money. 
Hod iiKulc bees, 

.\iiil lines c'lt houev. 
(lixl iiinde the earth", 

Tlie earth raises flowers; 
We do not iirodnee tliem. 

So they are not ours. 

Thei'iudncls ,,r the mine. 

The l.-md. ivnd tile sea, 
Should all 1,1 (iod's children 

Kor everlie free 
Tti take and use as the}- may have need. 

Leaving- the rest their brothers to feed. 

The iron, the eopiiiT, 

The coal, anil the zinc. 
Are the t;ift of hisliand; 

But who. do you think. 
Would allow you to dig some. 

In case you should wish 
To make you a tire, 

.\ shovel, or dish; 

Now, Brother Miller, 

I'lay tell, if you can. 
Why for Ood's gifts 

\Vc' ]>,iy tribute to man. 
\Vh.-,t is this that we hear 

Alioul class legislation, 
( 'lUiteiitioii. and strife. 

All over this nation 

About cntdo\viis and lockouts, 

Bovi-otfs. and strikes, 
<ioul(l ami Vandi'i-bilt, 

Htisscll Sage, and the lilic' 
What makes those be calleil 

I'hc kings of the nation; 
Kcho savs what. 

If not (dass legislation; 

Michigan City, Ind., Jan. ;5, 1887. W. W. Mai.thv. 



KUOZKN BUO(jn. 



1 am satisfied that there is more than one phasi' 
of foul brood as described in the convention at 
Indianapolis. I have had brood die in the cell, and 
dry up. and it created a stench almost unbearable. 
Still, I gave those dead-brood combs to strong col- 
onies of bees, and the.v cleaned them up and all 
went along nicel.\-. No more foul bVood there. I 
am satisfied that it was not foul brood as .you 
have it, but some at the convention described it as 
foul brood in the dry state. I never saw foul brood 
in the pus form, as you gave the description at 
the Indianapolis convention, and also others. I 
have been troubled three times this way each time 
in the spring, after a hard cold winter. I claim it 
is frozen brood, and nothing else. 

MartinsvMUe. 111. W:m. St. MAiiTZ. 



HKiH VEKSL'S THE l,()W 1>|{UK Ob' HONEY. 

I have .inst read Dadant's article about the sale 
of honey, page 981. The trouble is. that the people 
who eat iKJuey do (i(>< tliid it cheap. 1 sometimes 
buy hoiie\ , MS rii.\ own hfis arc some distjiiiee in 
the eouiilr.v. I have mI\vm\s Ikui in pa., i.i a ast :id 
cents pel' III. I am inclined to think, that, il i" opie 
who like honey could get it for 10 ci iits per in. i.i- 
less, the eoiisumption wnuld be doubled or trebled. 
1 speak of Cincinnati jirices. I li\-e there. 

Thomas Hint. 

('oiiway Springs, Kan., l)e(^ ;-'l, 1886. 



1887 



GL EARNINGS IN KEK Cl/LTHKE. 



H? 




Kvery boy or girl, under 15 
years of age, who writes a 
■ this department, containing 
SOME VAI.VABLE FACT, NOT OENBRALLY 
KNOWN ON UKES OR OTHER MATTERS, 
will receive one of l);iVid Cook's excel- 
lent five - cent Sunday - school books. 
Many of these boolis cimtain the same mat- 
ter that you find in Sunday-school books 
costing from SI. 00 to Ifl.UO. If you have had 
one or more tiooks, pive us the names that we 
may not send the same twice. We have now 
in stock six different books, as follows; viz.: 
Sheer Oft, The liiant - Killer, The Roby 
Family, Rescued from Egypt, and Ten Nights in 
a Bar-Uoom. We have also Our Homes, Part I., and 
Our Homes, Part II. Besides the above books, you may have a 
photograph of our old house apiar*', taken a great many years 
ago. In it is a pictiire of myself. Blue Eyes, and Caddy, and a 
glimpse of Ernest. We have also some pretty little colored 
pictures of birds, fruits, flowers, etc., suitable for framing. 
You can have your choice of any one of the above pictiires 
or books for every letter that gives us some valuable piece of 
information. 



COXDrCTED BY ERNEST H. ROOT. 



,3 



THE boys' amateur BEE-HIVE FACTORY. 

' RELIEVE I have not told you yet much 
about Jimmie"s playmate. Sam. The 
w two boys, as you may guess, were fast 
-*■ friends. Their likes and dislikes were 
much the same. Tliey botli were of a 
mechanical turn (if mind— at least you would 
think so if you were to take a look at Mr. 
Green's barn and fences— little toy windmills 
here and there, which they had made with 
their knives. Besides these they whittled, 
out of blocks of wood, boats that they were 
wont to sail in a tub of water. Such waves 
as those boats would standi The boy wdio 
made a craft which would stand the most 
sea (tub-waves) was the best fellow. Then 
there was a great variety of other things 
which they made, such as only tlie genius of 
a boy can evolve, aided by his inseparable, 
ever-ready companion, njacl'-knife. 

Mr. (Tieen, noticing the bent of their 
minds, and desiring to encourage it as well 
as to put it to some profitable use, entered 
into a contract with old Santa Clans. The 
terms of said contract, as drawn up by the 
lover of little l)oys and girls, ran in thiswise: 

--OFFICE OF-- 

SANTA CLAUS. 
-#PRESENTS:rFO»YS:^(SIGIRLS.#^ 

Terms ...ic. I, r.,u. oy^ o^^^ J _ .T^^ ^. |Q^ |3gg_ 

oFor 111 c .^ u 1 1 1 of' $6. 30, t V.' cc i cc ^, ol av3 re c I'c 
^cfiuci ill Hic iiio£iiinc| oj^^'^Toc. 23, I Cil. ^ll., 
ctt Itie tii^pocli uc bolMc.^ o|-'cacfi oF tl'ic bou.^ 
5>aniitcl <^)toc n ciii^ ^^ciiiic^ o^Jjoilmi, a cftc-^t 
cj'' to..-<l^, .^ai^ »:t'ic.>l' to coiiiciiii ci joiiipfctc 
ci.>>oi tiuo III oF t^c be^t tool.N. 

(5)iqiteb) ^v.Tiita *2faii^. 



Old Santa, even if he is old, you see writes 
plainly enougli, even yet, for boys and girls 
to read. .Jimmie's parents were too poor to 
enter into any such contract witli Santa 
("laus in favor of their son. Sam's father, 
however, tliougiit he could afford a chest for 
his neighbor's son. both as a reward for reg- 
ular attendance at Sunday-school, and be- 
cause Jimmic Avas a boon companion of his 
own son. 

I need hardly add, that the contract was 
duly fulfilled at the day and hour, and that 
the boys were re.ioiced— •' Just what we 
wanted." tliey said. 

" "Where shall we have our shop?" said 
they, on Christmas morning when they had 
got together. " Oh! I know," said Sam ; 
'' our old barn- loft will be just the thing." 

Thither the boys repaired, lugging along 
their chests of tools. The loft had been 
used for the storage of stray pieces of lum- 
ber, stove-pipes, boots, etc. On 'their arri- 
val they found cobwebs and a general litter. 
Spurred by the thought of what a grand 
place this" would be for a shop, the boys 
soon had it cleaned up, — rubbish thrown oiit, 
and the pieces of boards packedneatlyaway. 

When Jimmie was putting the last board 
upon the pile in the corner, he exclaimed, 

" M> I whafs yer pa goin' to do with all 
them boards':' Did lie say you might have 
>mV" 

'• He hasn't said any thing about them yet. 
They wei-e some that wei'e left from the 
corn-cril), and we put them up here about a 
year ago. Fll go and see if we can have 
them." 

So saying, Sam clambered down the ladder 
just in time to see his father, who was just 
starting for town. 

•■ Say, pa, did you have any particular use 
for those boards in the barn-loft?" 

" I declare, I had forgotten about those 
boards. If Santa Clans did not say so, T be- 
lieve he intended that they should be the 
property of you boys," said Mr. Green, with 
a twinkle in his eyes that Sam understood. 
Sam needed no further hint, but hastened 
back to the loft. 

'' Did yer pa say we might have 'em'?" 

" He did not say so in just so manv words, 
but—" 

"•Good!" exclaimed Jimmie, who took in 
the situation. •Won't we just have a picnic? 
We'll make carts and windmills— big ones I 
mean: l)y cracky! yes. and bee-hives!'' 

During the early part of the afternoon, 
with .Mr. (Jreen's assistance, the boys made 
a work-bench. When it was finished it was 
discovered that they had no vise. 

I tell you. boys, said Mr. (ireen. at the 
Home of the IIoney-Hees, Medina, Ohio, 
they sell a very pretty little implement of 
this description for only 15 cents. Hut how 
can you get the money to purchase each of 
you a vise? I liave a pile of wood which you 
can put in the wood-shed, nights and morn- 
ings, after school. If you will pile it all 
nicely in the shed I will advance you the 
money now. and you can send for the vises 
to-day. 

' Let's do it now. and have the job off our 
hands." said Jimmie. 

"We shall hardly have time," said Sam. 



68 



GLJ^ANiNGS IN KKK CI LTUKE. 



Jan. 



"■Oh, yesi both of us can do it if we work a 
little after dark. It's only ;-! o"cl((ck."" 

Sam looked at the pile of wood with some 
misgivings. He " never did like piling up 
wood."" 

When, liowever, Jimmie commenced to 
load up with an armful. Sam followed his 
example. Ere long the ]>ile diminished very 
appreciably. When it came supper time, 
the boys were Ixith loath to give up the ,iob. 
They thought it " just fun." Sam could not 
tell just why he enjoyed it. After supper 
the boys worked more energetically than 
ever, meavitime talking and planning what 
things they would make and do, whetlier 
they could make bee-hives, etc. As it grew 
dark soon, they worked by — the lightOf a 
lantern which Sam"s sister "had thoughtfully 
hung up. When the work w as done, noth- 
ing would do but those boys must send for 
the vises before the> went to bed. Sam's 
mother produced writing-materials ; stamps 
were inclosed, and the order sent. 

To be continued. 



]m\ifiiM li^nm-B^X. 



' A cliiel's amang ye takin' notes; 
An' faith, he'll prentit. " 



THE KiTE, AND HOW IT I'LIEH. 

The kite you sent, we think !i beauty. It came 
safely. Mr. Maoo j)iit it toKethet- Tor me, and 
helped me to sail it. It went \ip like a thing- ol 

lilt^. COHA Uli-VNTHAUI). 

Ml. Hope. Morris Co., N. .1., Nov. :«!, )«8ti. 



Hl\ KS MADE BV HOUSK-PO WEH. 

I am a little girl. Pa had ii swarms this spring-, 
urul they increased to 15 this summer. He g-ot 
ahout riM lbs. of honey. Pa has a shop where be 
saws his lumber out. and makes his bee-hixes. He 
runs the machinery with the horse. 

Lizzie J. Dottekker. 

Newtown .Mills, Forest Co., Pa., Dee. 14, IHSti. 

A HIVE WITH OI.ASS OX THE BACK, ANI> WHAT THE 
SUN DID. 

My father g-ave me a hive of bees, if I would watch 
/ks bees, and hive them xvhen they came out. There 
was a piece of g-lass on the back of my hive, and the 
sun shone throug-h and melted two of the combs 
down. Papa took the honey out, and the bees built 
it up again. Next year 1 will put the hive in the 
shade. IJen.i. F. Stout. 



A QUEENS HEAD THE WRONU W.W IN THE CELI^. 

My pa had 45 stands of bees, and I have one. Pa 
did not ^et much honey last season. The bees are 
in good condition for winter. Fa and I were look- 
ing- at the bees, and we found some queen cells, 
and pa did not want them, so I pulled off one of 
them, and the queen's head was turned the wrong- 
way. , KUOENE Wii.ias. 

•lonah, Texas, Nov. 3(5, 1886. 

AN ITALIAN QUEEN EIVE YEARS OLD. 

Pa has between .50 and 60 colonies of bees. They 
have been dojng very well this summer. He had 
an Italian queen which was five years old. Last 
spring she died. T read Gleanings, and find it 



very interesting. We keep the Brown Leghorn 
chickens. We find they are good layers. I have 
a pet pigeon named Charley Boy. 
Cold Spring, Ky. Lillib Ldrkek. 

EDWARD'S SWARM OF BEES. 

One day I was going out to work, and 1 saw a 
swarm of bees. They were on a maple-tree, and 
father gave it to me. He said if I would take care 
of It I could have all the honey that they would 
make. I got about a quart of honey. It was a 
small swarm, and that is why 1 did not get much 
honey. I have them in the cellar now. I am going 
to try to do better next year. Edward Stout. 

Urightcm, Iowa. Dec. 37, 1886. 

SAWINO OFF A LIMB ON WHKH WAS CLUSTER- 
ED A SWARM OF BEES ; RESULTS. 

1 am a bo.\ II .\ ears old. My pa keeps bees. As 
he w((r-ks in Vienna I have to tend to the bees. We 
live on a farm. The bees nearly stung me to death 
last bummei'. The bees swarmed and settled in the 
top of an apple-ti-ee. and I climbed the tree and saw- 
ed'otf the limb, and the bees gfit after me and ran 
me through ilie <'<;rnftfli| I lia\.' lots of fun skat- 
ing. Fr<ED Uellemey. 

Vienna, 111.. Dec .-.'.s, l.sSti. 

Yours is not the lirst instance we have 
had of the unpleasant results of sawing oflf 
a limb lu>lding a swarm of bees. Always 
be careful about jarring the limb while saw- 
ing; and when tiie limb is nearly off, let it 
down easily with a pitch-fork, or, better 
still if you ("111. leacli it with your hands. 



COliD WATER FOR STINOS, ETC. 

My pa's bees are in tin- cellai-. He built a stone 
wall around his bee-eellai- last summer, and made 
a cement tlooi-. 1 wish I could come and see Hulter. 
and blow the whistle too. Ma reads the letters to 
me, and I want to hear some more about Jimmy and 
Ted. When I step on a bee, 1 put my foot in water. 
One day last summer a bee stung- me in my face; 
and when I told ma I was stung she said. "Well, 
run and i)ut your foot in water;" and then 1 told 
her it was my face. ' • Charlie Palmer. 

Hart, Oceana Co., Mich.. Nov. 39. 1886. 

Yes, if you come to Metlina we will give 
you a chance to l)low that big whistle. — Cold 
water for stings, 1 know , makes the place 
affected feel better, but I am not sure but 
that you would get along about as fast if 
you did nothing.— 1 haven't seen Ted for 
some little time. I suspect that Jimmie, al- 
though I haven't heard him say, does not 
care to have Ted tag him into' their new 
sho]!. 

SWAR.Ml.NG, .\ND WHAT THE BOYS DID. 

One (lay when my brother came in from the field 
for dinner we were sitting- on the well-bed, and my 
brother walked around toward the bees, and he hal- 
looed out, " Oh I the bees are swarming I I was 
bareheaded, and my father was working in the tile- 
factory. 1 jumped up and ran all the way to the 
tile-factory and told my father. 1 started right 
back and ran all the way, and my father came, and 
then they began to settle in the garden on the peas 
and on the ground. Father took the smoker and 
drove them into the hive which he had set close by. 
It was very hot, and we cut some bushes and laid 
them on the hive to keep the sun off, and they 
stayed in the hive. Willie Hunt, age 12. 

Dodson, Montgomery Co.. C, Dec. 21, 1886. 



1S87 



GLEAM IN G8 IN BKE CULTURE. 



69 



A LITTI.E GIHL TEI^LS HOW SHE PEKFOKMEI) THE 

FEAT OF TAkiNO A SWAUM FlKtM THE 

•' TOI'EST " BKANCH OK A TKHE. 

In spring my father had 19 colonics, ami increas- 
ed to W. He sold in\v this fall, 'nioy arc all in 
good condition. He has them niostl.\ in chafl' 
hives. We sold i)\ er HOO Ihs. of honey. I help pa 
souK'tinies when the bees swarm, and when he 
takes the lionoj- from them. I hived hut one 
swarm this summer, and that was on Sunday, when 
pa wasn't at home. The swarm scot on the " top- 
est" stem of the highest tree. 1 did not know what 
Ut do. I called my sistei'. 'I'lu-re was a wagon 
standing below. 1 clindied np the tree and sawed 
iiU' the stem. The bees all fell on the tongue of the 
wagon. After I got down the tn<! we stood the ] 
hive beside the tongue and brushed the bees in the ! 
hive. We got them ill nicely, but I got. stung, and i 
my sister too. 1 was stung •• pretty " many times, j 
but not as many as my sistcM-. Her face swelled so ! 
hai-d that she didn't see an.\ more in one eye. ' 

DiNA Bn'.MEH, age i;{. 

Koanoke, 111.. Dee. :J3. IBHti. i 

Yoii certaiiil) performed tiiiite a feat in 
netting !i swanii from the lushest tree. I 
wonder liow many boys conld liave done it. 
\'on deserve a chromo for tiiat ; and if your 
lather didn't give you that swarm 1 think 
lie ought to have done so. I will tell one of 
the clerks to i>i('k otit a large panel chromo | 
and send it. 

THE HEK, AND WHAT IT IS. 

The bee is a very busy creature. 'I'here are two \ 
kinds of bees— the black and Italians. They put ] 
the l)ees in hives, !im<1 when the hives get so full of 
bees they will swarm, and sometimes they will 
swarm twice a year. We had a hive of liees, and 
other bees came and took all theii- honey. 1 and 
papa saw a bee in a tree, and I goi stung on my ! 
lip. It swelled up one inch. The bees make honey ' 
in summer, and they live on honey in winter. 
Some folks have two dozen hives of bees. The bee 
honej- is good. When I was down at my 
gi'andma's I got as sick as a dog on honej'. The 
bee has a stinger. I ought to know, for 1 got stung 
with them. 1 don't know how many times 1 got 
stung. I conld not tell or count how many times. 
The bee has si.\ legs and two wings. The bee has 
two eyes. I df)n't know what the colors are of the 
e>es. Its back is yellow; not all tlie back either. 
\t the end of the stinger it is black. 1 don't know 
where they carr>- the honey. Chestku Ti'Rner. 
Brookviile, Ohio. 

Yotir notes on the bee are not all of them 
correct, but I suppose enough so for all 
]>ractical i>urposes for the little folks. It 
would be hard to tell just what is the color 
of a bees eye. Throngli a microscope they 
look a.s clear as ciystal. but without any 
microscope they look brown. Perhaps you 
know that those big eyrs arc compound. 
For a fuller talk to the "little folks on this 
subject, 1 would refer vou to p. 42. in the 
year 18So. 

THE EOM.V or STAMMNCJ IN THE WAV OK EI.VINfJ 
BEES. 

Papa has 12 colonies Of bees. In the winter time 
he puts on an outside shell, much larger than the 
hive, and tills the cavity between that and the hive 
with sawdust or dry chaff. 

1 will tell you something that happened once 



which seemed fuiuiy to me, but 1 presume it did 
not seem so to pajja at the time. There was a storm 
came up, and the bees hurried home, angry as could 
be at being interrupted at their work. Papa hap- 
pened to be standing in their way, and they all 
rushed up on him and stung him badly. 
Frankfort. Mich. Loha M.vhih-e, age 11. 

It is not wise to stand in front of the en- 
trance, or where you would be liable to 
obstruct the llight of the bees. A coming 
storm will start the bees home in great 
di'oves, but I hardly think the bees you 
speak of were angry because the storm 
interrupted them, but because your papa 
stood right in the way. When I am in a 
great hurry to get on the train it makes me 
clear out of ])atience to have some great big 
heedless man block the only passage to the 
car- steps. 

\V()J<KIN() WITH HEES».\ETE1{ D.\KK, UV MEANS 
OF A I).\KK-I.-\.NTERN. 

Tell Krnest to try one of those dark-lanterna for 
working with bees after night. They are the best. 
I hold one foi' pa when he works with his bees after 
night, and the bees don't fly after It. 1 1 is so 
bright it hurts their eyes. I help pa find the 
queens. He has IIH) stands of bees. We have two 
carp-ponds. The little tlsh will eat out of my 
hand. 1 ha\o two nice big cats that catch the mice 
in the bee-yard for pa. Annie M. Haines. 

Moons, ().. .Ian. .5, 188«. 

"W'liy, Annie, you haxc given ns (|iiite a 
valuable item as to the value of a dark-lan- 
tern. I can imagine nothing nicer, when 
working with bees after dark, than to have 
a bright little girl " shoot "" the rays of light 
from the bull's-eye lantern right on the 
combs, or wherever else it may be needed. 
1 will try it the coming season, and try to 
report on it. 1 will teil the clerks to send 
yon a panel chromo. 

THE KEAKS AND THE HONEV. 

I inclose a piece of poetry which I copied from 
one of papa's books. "A Grammar of Six Ditferent 
Languages." I think we had better not do as the 
bears did. 

As two .vdiiiit,' licMrs 111 wanton iiiociil. 
Korlh is.siiiiiy- tinni ii iieiK-hlioring wood. 
Canir wliciT 111!' MLdii.-itrious bees li:id stor,.d 
III .Trtl'nl rclls tlirii- lusriou.s hoard. 

I riT,iiiv..(l ilic.v Nflzrd Willi oa^ei- hnsif , 
I.M\ui ioii.s iin thilr liidi icpiisf. 
\hiriiii-d .-il llii<, I he little erew 

Vhoul tlieiv..|ir~. vliidii-tivf ti..« . 
Tin- hciists. iiiMlili' to sustain 
Tile mil <|imI I'oiiili.'it. iiuit the plain 
Hall Idiiid with ra;;r. .inrl mad with iiaui. 
riieir Mat ive .slirlti r the\ regain. 
There sit. and now disereeter grow n. 
Too late their r.isliniss they bemoan: 
.Villi this by dear evperieiiee pain. 
Thai plens'iive's ever boiipht with pain. 
So when the trolden baits of vice 
Are plaeeil before onr lonfrinp eves. 
With tir.edv hast,- wo snateh our fill 
Uld swallow down tile latent ill. 
Hilt w hell e\|ieriellei' opes our ives 
Awa.i- the f.ineied pleasure flies. 
It Hies— but oh I too late «e find 

II leaves a r«'nl stinu behind. 

Sonora, Ohio. Bertha .Jones, age 11. 

Thank you. Bertha; your little selecti<niof 
poetry is real good. There are too many of 
us — yes. and little boys and girls, who be- 
have ourselves very much like the two young 
bears. But we folks don't always itrotit by 
our experience, bitter and full of stings 
though it may be. 



70 



(iJ.EANiNGs i.\ iii-;K (•( i;rrkK. 



Jajj. 



T0B^CC0 06MMN- 



SOMETHING FROM THE ,ST. I.OUIS -lOUKNAL OF 
AORICULTURE ON THE TOBACCO QTESTION. 

FRIEND ROOT:-l don't know whether I am 
taking- a liberty in thus familiarly address- 
ing- you; but the good turns you have un- 
consciously done me in furnishing- in Glean- 
1N(5S the bee-lore 1 have found so necessary 
to my purposes h'lve certainly constituted you my 
friend. I write a brief line to couiniend your good 
work in flg-hting- the use of tobacco. I was very 
much struck with the facts related in the Dec. l.')th 
No., by T. U. Terry (the picture of whom, by the 
way, is a g-ood one, though a little too solemn-look- 
ing-); certainly the considerations ottered by Mr. 
Terry oug-ht to bo sufficient to induce every 
mmried man, if not everti man, to give up the to- 
bacco habit. But, unfort\jnately, to g-ive up the 
confirmed use of tobacco is a most ditticult thing to 
do. It is true, that I had the nerve to do so, some 
thirteen years ago, when I found that the use of 
it was exceeding-i.\- disagreeable to my then sweet- 
heai-t, now my wife. Hut 1 think it must have 
been easier for me to do than for most people. I 
have known men to make honest endeavors to g-ive 
up tobacco, and suffer so much that they conclud- 
ed that the use of it was the lesser evil. 

Now, since this is the truth, that the tobacco hab- 
it once formed is one that is exceedingly ditticult to 
break, ought we not all to make a g-reater effort 
l>y individual precept as well as example to dis- 
courage the use of it by children? Mr. Terry's sug- 
gestion, to have a national law, is hardly feasible 
however desirable. There is but little disposition 
to enact sumptuary laws, whether relating- to to- 
bacco or whisk}- ;T)Ut if every father of boys did 
all he could personally to prevent the tobacco hab- 
it being formed by his sons before they become of 
age, it is hardly likely that, on arriving- at years of 
discretion, they -would begin it. As for myself, 
1 have tried to impress upon my big boy that it is 
a wretchedly poor specimen of manhood that re- 
(luires to be bolstered up by either smoking or 
chewing. That, of course. Is the temptation to 
boys. The boy's greatest ambition is to be a man, 
and appear manly. In his ignorance he is apt to 
mistake for manly things the swagger and loud- 
ness and disgusting habits of roughs and bullies, 
especially if any of these habits are indorsed by 
the example of his own father. Let us all do what 
we can to teach boys that the best and most cour- 
ageous manliness is that which is founded on 
virtue, not on vice. 

The case of fatal poisoning- by tobacco, mention- 
ed by Mr. Terry, is terrible, but no such extreme 
case ought to be necessary to make every man 
who has a decent consideration lor others to leave 
off a disgusting practice. As disgusting as is to 
me the nicotine-laden breath of men with whom I 
have onl>' business relations, how much more have 
I thougtit would mine be to my wife and my little 
daughter, when they offer the kisses of att'ection 
from their clean, sweet lips! There has been no 
time in my more than twelve years of married life 
when I thought the solace ottered by tobacco 
could be worth the one-hundreth part of such evi- 
dences of affection; and since 1 should very surely 
refuse to kiss my wife or daughter if she used 
tobacco, I should find no justification for expecting- 



any thing else from them if I did. As a fighter 
against tobacco and whisky, you may count me 
a niembei' of your band alwa.\ s. 
St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 2(1, 188(). (iEO. B. Morton. 

Many thanks, lirotlu^r, for your hearty 
(•()(')l)erati()n in tliis work that lies before 
lis; anil may we h ijie to tiiul every now 
and then a simihir stirring' exhortation in 
yonr own journal. And, by the way, why 
caiTt yon and other brothers of the press 
start in vour own journals something like 
thisV 

"Any reader of the Jok ma I of Agriculture 
who will give up tobacco because of what 
has appeared in tlu^se pages in regard to the 
matter, may have the jourmd one j'ear free, 
he to give us ii written jtromise to pay ns 
for the journal whenever he shall yield to 
the temptation, and touch tobacco again in 
an> form."" 

Tlie letters from those who give it up are 
to be published as f;ist as received, for the 
encouragenu'ut of (tthers. The objection 
has been made. Iliai Ihis is iiiring people to 
do right; but the am i:iil in tjuestion is so 
small it is usuall.\ takeu uu)re as a piece of 
pleasantry, and ii ,;eems to have the effect 
of api^ealiug in just tlie right way to get a 
good many to get up and shake themselves, 
and start out in sometliing they have for 
years known ought to be done. As the 
resolution ami iiromise come out in a i)ul)- 
lic journal, it is pretty well pulilished and 
niuierstood in au> neighborhood, and few 
men will care lo be seen using tobacco aft- 
er tiiey have in this public way announced 
the determiuatiou to give i.t up. It is like 
giving testimony in i)rayer-meeting' — it 
sti'engtlicus and encourages others all along 
the line. 

I ha\e stopped smoking, and will promise you 
not to do so again. If you will send me one of 
j'our smokers, and 1 commence using the weed 
again, I will send you the price of it. 

Phila., Pa., Oct. 18, 18s6. .los. B. Creaoer. 



I see in Gleanings that you said anyone who 
(luits the use of tobacco would receive a smoker. 
Please send me one; and if I use tobacco again I 
will pay you for the same. Mattie Soheiern. 

Wayland. Mich., Oct. II, 18SH. 



C1-E.\RS HIS CONSCIENCE. 

I have broken my pledge. I quit using tobacco 
on bees, but still smoke once in a while. When T 
came to rake up mj- conscience I found that I owe 
you ')() cts. lor the smoker you sent, although It 
was worn out long ago. Vou sent it with other 
goods. .) T. Fletcher.' 

Clarion, Pa. 

HAS USED the WEED AI,I. HIS LIKE. 

1 have been using tobacco in various forms all 
my life initil the past si.v months. 1 have now 
abandoned the weed altogether. Seeing your offer 
in Gleanings, 1 write to know if 1 am entitled to 
a smoker. I am very willing to pay the price of 
the smoker should I ever use tobacco again. I 
have .5 stands of bees. K. B. Johnson. 

Manatee, Fla., Nov. 18, 1886. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN iJEE CULTUKE. 



71 



dn^ JlefiEg. 



And if any man will sue thee at the law, and talie 
away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And 
whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with 
him twain. — Matt. 5: 40, 41. 

^ AST iSuiulay afternoon I found another 
1^ added to my class in our county jail. 
^J He was a stout, ruddy-faced young 
^^ man perhaps twenty years of age. His 
face flushed when I spoke to him, and 
I saw that he was quite bashful ; but in a 
little time we got to talking like old friends. 
Robert's story was something like this : He 
came from England about two years ago, 
and had been traveling about here and there, 
trying to find work wherever it was to be 
found. His last job was on the railroad ; 
and on account of reducing the number of 
hands in winter, he was thrown out of work, 
and had been vainly trying to find something 
to do in one of our neighboring towns. A 
few evenings ago, the man with whom he 
boards came home somewhat intoxicated. 
He seemed to be in a quarrelsome, fault- 
finding mood, and, among other things, he 
inquired of his wife where Robert was. She 
told him Robert had gone somewhere to help 
somebody deliver some goods. He then in- 
quired if Robert had found any work yet ; 
and when told he had not, he broke out with 
something like the following : 

" Well, he is a lazy, good-for-nothing shift- 
less fellow. He certainly could get work if 
he half tried.'' 

More remarks followed, not very compli- 
mentary to Robert. Now, the truth was, 
Robert had come home unknown to the 
folks, and was at that time in bed ; but as 
only a thin board partition separated him 
from the family, he heard every word that 
had been spoken, and up he jumped and 
confronted the man who was speaking ill of 
him behind his back. I presume some hard 
and loud words ensued ; and finally the in- 
toxicated man drew a pistol. At this, Rob- 
ert put his hands on the man's shoulder and 
pushed him away. This gave an opportuni- 
ty of making a plea of assault and battery, 
and the boarding-house keeper went for a 
constable. The constable at once told him 
he was intoxicated, and refused to make 
any arrest. The man then went to another 
officer of the law, who was not quite so par- 
ticular, and Robert was arrested, and called 
upon to pay a fine of $6.40. Robert had not 
any money, so he could not pay it, and that 
is why I found him in jail that Sunday after- 
noon. You may perhaps notice that the 
above statement is Robert's story for it. I 
have not heard the other side at all, and, in 
fact, we do not care any thing about the 
Other side just now. When I find these boys 
in jail, I endeavor to get the full facts in the 
case, so far as I can, from their own lips, 
and then I endeavor to show them that, ac- 
cording to Bible teaching, they are con- 
demned by their own words. Robert claim- 
ed, as alcQOst all do who get into jail, that 
he was entirely innocent, and had done 
nothing. Wheii I had questioned him fully 
on all the points of the case, I began talking 
with him somewhat as follows : 
'' Robert, why did you not stay in bed, 



since you had once retired in good order, 
and thus have saved all this trouble and ex- 
pense?" 

" Why, Mr. Root, do you suppose a man is 
going to keep still in bed when he hears 
somebody calling him a good-for-nothing 
shiftless fellow, and going on in that way be- 
hind his back?" 

" To be sure, I do expect a man to do just 
that very thing, Robert." 

By this time my fingers were on the Bible, 
and I opened to the fifth chapter of Mat- 
thew, and read : 

But I say unto you, Love your enemies; bless 
them that curse you, and do good to them that hate 
you. 

Again I read : 

But whosoever shall smite thee on the right cheek, 
turn to him the other also. 

Robert previously said that he was a mem- 
ber of the Church of p]ngland before he 
came over to America , and therefore 1 ex- 
pected to have him at least respect these 
words of the Savior, that seemed so espe- 
cially calculated to help us to keep from get- 
ting" into quarrels or dissensions. To my 
surprise, however, he promptly rejected all 
such teachings, saying, '" If that is Bible. I 
don't want any of it around me." 

I appealed to one of the other inmates, 
with whom I had had many long talks, and 
I expected, of course, he would say that the 
best thing Robert could have done was to 
have kept still and let it go. I turned to 
him. "■ Mr. Brant, if you lieard somebody 
talking about you in the way Robert has 
mentioned, after you had retired for the 
night, would you not have kept still and let 
it all pass?" 

'' To be sure, I would not^ Mr. Root. I 
would get up and teach him manners." 

'• Even if it resulted in bringing you to 
jail?" suggested I. 

" Yes, even if it brought me to jail. I 
don't allow any man to abuse me when I am 
around to hear it." 

I labored with them long and earnestly. I 
even went so far as to tell them I feared 
they would be in jail all their lives ; but 
they decided they would take the jail, rather 
than submit to being " run over." as they 
termed it. Finally, however, I did succeed 
in getting them to admit, that, if a man could 
submit to be snubbed and abused, without 
saying a word back, or doing any thing, it 
would probably save trouble in the general 
machinery of human life. 

" But, "Robert,"" said I, " after the deci- 
sion had been made, that you were to pay 
Si). 40 for laying your hands on a man before 
he touched you, why did you not pay it and 
have it done with?"' 

"■ Why, Mr. Tioot, I have already told you 
that I hadn't any money. You know I have 
not had any work all winter.'" 

'" But, it is a sad thing to get into Jail, and 
have it hanging over you all your life after- 
ward. Had you not an overcoat or watch, 
or something you could leave with some 
friend in order to keep you from going to 
jail?"" 

He finally admitted that he had a watch, 
and that it was worth $6.40 a good many 
times over ; but when crowded, he replied,— 



72 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUKE. 



Jan. 



" But, Mr. Root, / was not guilty. There 
was no assault and battery about it, and I 
won't pay it, and tliat is the long and the 
short of it." 

I looked at my Bible quickly and read the 
following : 

If any man will sue thee at the law, and take 
away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also; and 
whosoever shall compel thee to go with him a mile, 
g-o with him twain. 

Robert said, as before, that he did not pro- 
pose to come down to any sucli course of 
action. He fairly and squarely, when press- 
ed, rejected the words of the Savior. This, 
in fact, was exactly what I wished him to 
do ; or, in other words, I wished to have 
him confess that the reason why he was 
brought to jail was because he rejected 
Christ; and in rejecting Christ he had re- 
jected and defied the laws of our land. 

In presenting the subject to others as I 
have presented it to you, dear friends, I 
have been pained and startled to hear so 
many decide that Robert had done right — 
that is, if the facts were exactly as he stated 
them. 1 am afraid people are thoughtless, 
many times, in deliberately deciding to re- 
fuse to obey our laws. When I told the story 
at the noon service, and submitted the ques- 
tion to those gathered there, those who an- 
swered first, every one of them, thought that 
Robert did right in refusing to pay the fine 
imposed upon him. After a little more 
thought an-d reflection, finally several sug- 
gested that it was better to pay the fine than 
to go to jail, even though the fine was unjust, 
and the party innocent. 

We now come to the point of considering 
the laws of our land. No doubt they are im- 
perfect, and, many times, through false rep- 
resentations of evil men, the fines imposed 
are unjust ; shall we therefore refuse to abide 
by the decision of the law ? God forbid ! 
Perhaps I have, at different times in my life, 
counseled disobedience to the law; but I am 
beginning to think I made a mistake. Are 
we not, dear friends, in danger of arraying 
ourselves with rebels and anarchists when 
we thoughtlessly counsel disobedience to the 
laws we have ? I told the boys 1 would have 
paid the fine, even if I had had nothing to 
do with the matter whatever, but that I 
would have done it under protest, and so in- 
formed the officers, and declare I would have 
redress, if it were possible to do so ; but that, 
for the sake of preserving the majesty of the 
law, I would 'submit to whatever it might 
decree. I think, dear friends, this is safe 
and sound doctrine. 

I did not tell Robert at the time, that T felt 
quite certain, if his life had been just what 
it ought to be, he would not have been fined 
nor taken to jail, but I asked him if he had 
been in the habit of attending church while 
here in America. He admitted that he had 
not very much. I asked him if it was not 
true that he was sometimes in the habit of 
drinking intoxicants, as well as the man he 
boarded with. He admitted that he was in 
the habit of drinking beer ; and although I 
may be mistaken, his face seemed to indicate 
that he was given, at least somewhat, to such 
habits. 

Now I want to say to the young friends 
who may be reading this, that there is very 



little danger that any of them will ever get 
into trouble such as I have described, if they 
are in the habit of associating with Christian 
people, attending church, Sunday-school, 
and the yoimg people's prayer-meetings, 
wherever they happen to be located, and de- 
porting themselves in a decent and respecta- 
ble way, such as young Christians are almost 
sure to do. When 1 asked Robert if he could 
not get $6.40 to save him from jail, he said 
he had no friends at all. It seems to me a 
young man is at fault in having no friends, 
even if he has lived only one winter in a cer- 
tain locality. In our town there are good 
men and women — yes, young men and young 
ladies, who make it their business to look up 
strangers, and invite them to our meetings, 
and who try to call them in wisdom's ways. 
The trouble is, I fear, that those who com- 
plain that they have iio friends are seeking 
ways of darkness rather than light. 

Now a word to those who are not in jail 
and not in trouble ; that is, not any such 
trouble as Robert has found. Yes, and I 
think I may ask for a word to professors of 
religion, and those who are members of our 
churches. Have you faithfully followed the 
words the Savior gave us in our opening 
text, in your own walks and life ':* If an en- 
emy should undertake to sue us at the law, 
and take away a coat, what would be our at- 
titude':* How many of us are there who 
would be willing to give the cloak also, for 
the sake of peace, unless, indeed, our atten- 
tion had been called to it by these words V 
Of course, I do not refer, nor do I think our 
Savior meant to have reference to highway 
robbers, such as I spoke to you about in our 
last issue ; but these w^ords were spoken to a 
class of people who were for the most part, 
at least, friends and neighbors — those who 
had permanent places of abode, and were 
considered respectable citizens. Why should 
such go to law? Why should we have diffi- 
culties and hard feelings with our friends 
and neighbors ? Why s]iould we waste time 
and money enough on some little unimpor- 
tant matter to have bought a dozen coats, be- 
fore the thought even occurred to us of let- 
ting the cloak go too, for the sake of peace ? 
If we are compelled to go a mile out of our 
way to do somebody a service, are we not 
more apt to grumble than we are to show a 
readiness to go two miles '? The Sfivior's in- 
junctions seem to be to the effect that, if we 
are to be his followers, it is our duty to do a 
little more than just what we agree to do, or 
a little more than what we are in duty and 
justice bound to do. Sometimes I am told 
that a man would never get along in the 
world if he should undertake to get a living 
in that way; but such replies have always 
made me feel sad. Those who have read 
Gleanings a good many years, especially 
those real good friends who have been send- 
ing me such good kind cheering words dur- 
ing the past few weeks, know that 1 have 
tested these teachings just a little. Occa- 
sionally, when the spirit seems to be on me, 
I have done a little more than I was asked to 
do. I have given smokers to those who have 
stopped using tobacco, etc. Now, of course, 
you know I do not say this boastingly ; but 
I mention it because i wish to prove to you 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



73 



that a man will not get poor in following 
Christ's teachings. I have been many times 
surprised myself to see how ([uickly these 
things swing around and shape themselves. 
The one who follows Chrisfs teachings, and 
who tries to do it in the real spirit in which 
Christ gave it, seems to have strange streaks 
of luck, as it were. It hits people a little un- 
expectedly ; and by some strange law that 
is past divining by our feeble intellects, the 
evil spirit is driven away— the enemy is dis- 
armed, and hostilities are at an end. You 
just try it some time when you get into a 
discussion in regard to a small matter about 
the justice of a thing. When you see your 
opponent is honest, but mistaken, good- 
naturedly give up to him, or give him twice 
what he asks, if necessary, for peace and 
hai'mony. If he insists on your going a mile 
out of your way, say, "Why, yes, my friend, 
come to think of it, I will go two miles. I do 
it gladly, too, because it is according to the 
Savior's teachings.'' A certain class may 
laugh at you, and call you a fool. They 
may tell you that, if you undertake to go 
through life following out that plan, you will 
get into the poorhouse, and such like talk. 
But I tell you, yoii will not do any thing of 
the kind. There is a text in the fortieth 
chapter of Isaiah, that hits the point. It 
reads thus : 

But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew 
their strength; they shall mount up with wings as 
eag-les; they shall run, and not be weary; and they 
shall walk and not faint. 



&n^ 0WN ^?inw. 



CONDUCTED BY ERNEST 



POSITIONS AVHEN AT WORK OVER HIVES. 

a ID you, dear reader, ever have the back- 
ache when at work over the hives, 
lifting heavy combs, in a position some- 
what cramped ? Did you not some- 
times indulge in a good stretch of the 
body to its fullest height ? I have wished 
once or twice that the hives were on stilts, 
so that I could work at the hives when 
standing erect. If I remember correctly, W. 
Z. Hutchinson, when 1 visited him, did have 
his nucleus hives elevated. Our readers will 
also remember that some years ago we illus- 
trated Dr. O. M. Blanton's apiary. A nota- 
ble feature about it was that his hives stood 
on stilts. I believe, however, the majority 
of the bee-keepers prefer to have their hives 
on the ground, for reasons vvhich I will not 
take space to enumerate here. 

I sometimes examine, or " go through," 
1-50 colonies per day. To accomplish the 
work as easily as possible, and at the same 
time relieve myself of the tedium of one pos- 
ture when at work over the hive, I have re- 
course to a frequent change of position. The 
one I usually prefer is the one illustrated on 
page 31, last issue. Perhaps you think that 
such a seat as a liive-cover would hardly be 
stable enough. .Just as much, and more so, 
than the ordinary milk-stool. You will see, 
by referring back to the cut, that it permits 
of an erect posture of the back. When it is 
desirable to get at or lift out a frame on the 



outside of the hive, an inclination of the 
body, together with the hive-cover, puts the 
operator within easy reach of said frame. 
As far as possible, I aim to avoid any curv- 
ing of the back, or the stooping-over of the 
shoulders. The inclination of the hive-cover 
one way or the other, as you will see, regu- 
lates the distance to any desired frame with- 
out the necessity of bending the back. A 
regular tool-box, or stool of four legs, will 
not permit this rocking motion, as you will 
notice. 

When I feel as if I should like a change of 
posture I kneel in the soft grass (if not wet), 
my knees almost touching the side of the 
hive. After I have taken out a frame I drop 
back on my heels, if 1 desire to examine the 
frame for any length of time. About half 
the hives in bur apiary are chalf hives. I 
can work over these best in a standing pos- 
ture. As the chalf hive is two stories high, 
it is rather inconvenient to work with it 
while sitting or kneeling. However, I do 
sometimes sit on the edge of a chaff-hive 
cover ; but as the rims of the latter are made 
of only I stuff, I generally stand. 

Perhaps some one of my readers will say, 
'' I can't afford to sit down when at work 
among my bees." I reply, that it depends 
upon what kind of work in the apiary you 
are doing. If you are running for honey, 
then I think I can agree with you for the 
most part ; but if your apiary is' devoted to 
queen-rearing, as is ours, then it becomes 
necessary to spend some little time over a 
hive ; as, for instance, hunting for a virgin 
queen, cutting out choice queen-cells, etc. 
In any event, we ought to avoid curving the 
back "any more than is necessary, whether 
sitting or standing. I believe the instruc- 
tion of the writing-teacher to his pupil, to 
" hold the body erect," is equally applicable 
to the bee-keeper engaged in rearing queens. 

HOAV TO HANDLE FRAMES. 

To look at one side and then the other of a 
comb, becomes almost a necessity in queen- 
rearing. To revolve by the corners a frame 
full of honey, requires some little strength of 
the wrists— that is, if the top-bar as the 
axis of revolution remain horizontal. By 
turning the top-bar to the perpendicular, the 
frame may then be easily revolved. I throw 
out this hint for the benefit of beginners. 
The veteran bee-keeper will in all probabil- 
ity have acquired the knack intuitively from 
his long experience. The engraving on page 
31 shows the operator in the act of revolving 
the frame. He is hunting for a queen which 
had been introduced a few days before. 
Having loosened the cage, wherein the queen 
was confined before the bees gnawed to her, 
he has thrown it upon the ground, which 
striking with some little force has jarred out 
a few bees that always collect inside. The 
bees thus shaken uj) take wing and return to 
the hive. Desirous of noting how well 
the queen has laid, he is in the act of revolv- 
ing the frame, as I have before described, 
that he may see whether the queen has filled 
the other side of the comb with eggs also. 

OUR OWN APIARY AT THIS DATE. 

At this writing we have had a week or ten 
days of steady cold weather, the mercury 



74 



GLEAN i:NG8 IN BEE CULTUKE. 



Jan. 



dropping frequently to zero, and several 
times six or eight degrees below. If this 
weather continues much longer I am fearful 
of the results among our bees. As I stated 
in Nov. 1st Gleanings. I did not then en- 
tertain a very hopeful view of the situation 
— foul brood having reduced our bees. If we 
had colonies instead of nuclei, I should have 
no serious apprehensions, even if the weath- 
er did continue to be cold. 



FROM 68 TO 96, AND 2400 LBS. OF HONEY. 

T COMMENCED the season with 68 stands; in- 
m creased to 96, and took 2400 lbs. of comb honey, 
]jl nearly all white, which is a trifle over 35 lbs. 
■*■ per colony. This encourages me, as I see 
Doolittle did no better than I. They are all 
packed on their summer stands, with nearly one- 
half under the snow, out of sight, where T shall 
let them remain, as I know from experience that 
they are all right, for they drift under in the same 
way each winter, and always come out as bright 
as a dollar. M. T. Williamson. 
Covert, N. Y. 

A GOOD REPORT FROM ONE OF THE PIONEERS. 

I have sold over 11,000 lbs. of box honey from 80 
hives last spring. Gain R. Smith. 

Victor, N. Y., Nov. 29, 1886. 



108 GALLONS OP HONEY FROM 20 COLONIES. 

I have 20 stands of bees, all in good condition. I 
did very well last summer. This summer I secured 
108 gallons of extracted honey. Albert Carter. 

CarroUton, Mo., Dec. 11, 1886. 



AVERAGE OF 190 LBS. PER COLONY. 

My bees gave me an average, this season, of 190 
lbs. each, spring count; had no increase; the best 
season for honey I ever had, and I could have done 
better had I been prepared for the honey-flow. 

Carbondale, Pa. J. Rutherford. 

600 LBS. FROM 15 COLONIES. 

I have had a pretty good harvest of honey— about 
600 lbs., in pound boxes, from 15 hives. I took 98 
lbs. from one swarm, and it swarmed 3 times this 
summer. I increased them to 40 swarms. Inclos- 
ed find one dollar for Gleanings. I have found 
that the monej' expended for it has been a profita- 
ble investment. Jacob Richard. 

Elmwood, 111., Jan. 4, 1887. 

HYBRIDS AHEAD. 

I began the season with 8 colonies, increased to 
21, and took 945 lbs. of comb honey. My bees are 
mostly hybrids, and they gather almost 2 lbs. of 
honey to the Italians one. I have one hive of the 
yellowest bees I ever saw, and they gather almost 
nothing in the sections, although they will fill a 
brood-frame quicker than any other bees I have. 

Stark, Mich., Dec. 1.5, 1886. Benj. Passage, 8-21. 



FROM ONE TO FIVE, AND OVER 3.50 LBS. OF 
HONEY. 

My first swarm was pure Italians, purchased 
July 17, 1885. They gathered enough for winter 
stores, and I wintered them in a chaff hive of my 
own make after your pattern. They came out in 
fine condition In the spring. This season I increas- 



ed them from one to five, by dividing, and one 
natural swarm, which came out late in September. 
The surplus stores amounted to from 3.50 to 400 lbs., 
besides leaving 10 full frames of honey in the low- 
er stories, and 8 lbs. in the upper story, all in chaff 
hives. Frank Ferris. 

Mt. Clemens, Mich. 

FROM 125 TO 208, AND 13,000 LBS. OF COMB 
HONEY. 

My report for 1886 is as follows: I began the sea- 
son with 125 colonies in fair condition; increased by 
natural swarming to 208, and have taken in nil, 
13,000 lbs. of comb honey, all in 1 and 2 lb. sections. 
The past season has been one of the best I have 
known in my 14 years' experience in the business. 

Cambridge, 111. J. V. Caldwell, 125—208. 



AN AVERAGE OF OVER 200 LBS. PER COLONY, 
AND BLACK BEES TOO. 

I commenced bee-keeping last spring. I bought 
50 swarms, one of which deserted when let out of 
the hive, after being taken ofl:' of the cars, leaving 
me 49 when the honey season opened. I com- 
menced extracting May 29, and stopped July 6, 
after extracting 9839 lbs. of honey, which was 
mostly from white clover. I increased to 81 
swarms. The average per swarm was 200?^ lbs. 
When they went into winter quarters they had 30 
lbs. apiece. My bees are all blacks. They are in 
quadruple chafi' hives. About the first of Novem- 
ber I moved them about a mile. I had three 
teams, and two extra men, besides myself and horse, 
and it was all that six of us could do to lift them on 
the wagon. We moved them in half a day. They 
had a good fly the 11th and 12th of th.s month. 

Brodhead, Wis., Dec. 20, 1886. P. H. Fellows. 



ENCOURAGING WORDS FOR ALSIKE AND BUCK- 
WHEAT. 

I commenced the season with 60 colonies, spring 
count; increased to 100 colonies; got 2000 lbs. of 
honey in one-pound sections, and 500 lbs. of ex- 
tracted, about half white and half dark. I worked 
some bees for my neighbors. I brought home my 
share of the increase, 15 colonies, making me 115 
colonies to winter; .50 are packed in dry sawdust in 
chaff hives on summer stands; 65 are in the cellar. 
All are heavy with natural stores. The season 
commenced very early, but clover did not last long, 
on account of dry weather. Basswood did not 
bloom at all. 

ALSIKE. 

I had 16 acres of alsike clover. Bees worked on it 
early and late until the drought. It makes very 
nice hay for all kinds of farm stock. I sowed 
16 acres this year, mixed with timothy. I sowed 
the silverhull buckwheat so as to fill up the gaps 
between other bloom as much as possible. 1 sowed 
one acre in August. Bees worked on it the most I 
ever saw" bees on buckwheat. We cut it in the 
afternoon, and the next morning uncle Tom Frost 
had killed every thing so that the bees did not work 
any more. We drew the buckwheat into the barn, 
and thrashed it, and had 25V2 bushels. This was 
getting three crops from the same ground in one 
season, as we cut about two tons of hay off before 
we plowed it for buckwheat. We think we got as 
many pounds of honey as we had of buckwheat 
from that ground. Taking the season together, 
it was very poor tor honey, W. T. Roe, 

Candro, N. Y. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEh: CULTURE. 



75 



Gleanincs in Bee Cdlture, 

Published Semi- Monthly . 

u?L.. I- I^OOT, 

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 

MEDINA, O. 

TERMS: $1.00 PER YEAR, POSTPAID. 

for Clnbting Bates, See First Page of Beading Matter. 



Unto every one that hath shall be Riven, and he shall have 
abundance; but from him that hath not shall be taken away 
even that which he hath.— Matt. 25; 29. 



New names and renewals are coming in at a rap- 
id rate. Thanks, friends, for your l«ind suppoi't. 



FLAT-BOTTOMED FOUNDATION. 

We have just succeeded in malting' some beauti- 
ful flat-bottomed foundation send for; samples and 
prices. In weight, we believe it comes as near the 
natural foundation made by the bees as any thing 
we ever turned out. Mr. T. F. Bingham said he 
preferred the flat-bottomed foundation for sections. 



CLOSED-TOP SECTIONS. 

At the Ohio Convention, when an opinion was 
called for, not one of the members present favored 
the use of closed-top sections, because it would not 
permit tiering up. Our readers will please take 
note, that this confirms the opinions expressed 
lately in the answers of our prominent apiarists, 
to the question-box department in a late issue of 
The A.B.J. 

FOUL BROOD, AND FALSE ALARM IN REGARD TO IT. 

On page 10 of our last issue, friend Broers pro- 
tests against a statement made in a former issue by 
one of our contributors, that foul brood was in 
the neighborhood. From a letter just received 
from friend McCamant. it seems the whole matter 
was only a hearsay. Their bees died, it is true, but 
probably from starvation, as friend B. suggests, 
and they guessed it must have been foul brood. 



will see that' some one does give you the proper 
attention. Wc have many visitors to our place 
every season, Ijut we never have had too many. 



HAVING A SPACE BELOW THE BROOD-COMBS FOR 
WINTERING. 

In my remarks at the foot of friend Doolittle's ar- 
ticle, page 976, Dec. 1.5, I omitted to mention that 
Mr. H. R. Boardman, East Townsend, O., has for 
years been a vehement advocate of this idea. Our 
readers will perhaps recollect him when I mention 
that T gave his portrait as "the man who winters 
bees without loss;" and, if lam correct, he has 
continued to winter his bees almost without the 
loss of a colony, year after year, although he counts 
his stocks by the hundreds. 



VISITING THE HOME OF THE HONEY-BEES DUR- 
ING THE BUSY SEASON. 

A NUMBER at the Ohio Convention expressed to 
us their desire to visit, at some future date, the 
Rome of the Honey-Bees, but that they would pre- 
fer to come and see us when we are in " full blast," 
and that, if they came during this time, they feared 
they would be unwelcome. To be sure, you would 
be welcome, dear friends. Come at anytime; and 
if we are too busy to show you about ourselves, we 



GOING WEST. 

Mrs. Jennie Gulp, before leaving the conven- 
tion, informed us that she would probably not be 
able to attend anothtr.^Ohio State Convention; that 
she proposed selling^her farm, apiary and fixtures, 
with a view of going west with her boys. She stat- 
ed, that, after selling, she proljably would not do 
much with bees. As the work in the apiary has 
now gone beyond her strength, and as she is not 
obliged to work for a living, she has so decided. 
It is with some degree of regret that we give this 
intelligence to the friends; but we hope that, when 
she is located in her new field, we may again hear 
from her through the columns of Gleanings. 



MANUFACTURING COMB HONEY. 

The people who stick to the falsehood about 
manufactured comb honey have finally found a 
place in Chicago where a man could be seen seal- 
ing up the combs with a hot iron. C They never saw 
him making the combs out of paraffine, but he was 
simply sealing them up. Our enterprising friends 
of the A. B. J., when notified, made haste to see 
the sight. QWhat; do you suppose they found? A 
Chinaman near a window, ironing collars and cuffs 
with a flat-iron! Did j'ou ever? Ernest suggests 
that I have foi-gotten to state that the innocent- 
looking laundryman had a cake of heeswax by his 
side, with which to polish his flat-iron. 



SENDING DELEGATES TO THE OHIO STATE BEE- 
KEEPERS' CONVENTION. 

A MOTION was carried at the Ohio State Conven- 
tion, mentioned in another column, that we in\Tte, 
through the columns of Gleanings, the county and 
district bee-keepers' 'conventions to appoint and 
send delegates to the State Convention to be held 
at Columbus, about a year from date. The object 
of this is to put the county and district associations 
into direct communication with the State associa- 
tion. We therefore eai-nestly request that the sec- 
retaries will see that this matter is brought proper- 
ly before their respective bodies, and that the mem- 
bers may act upon it. We give you notice thus 
early, that all arrangements may be completed in 
time. 

bee-keepers' price lists. 
Our facilities lor turning out first-class price 
lists and general job work were never 'more com- 
plete than now. If you have any thing in this line, 
write us for prices "and samples. Remember, we 
have a very large stock of wood cuts, especially for 
price-list work. The following have been printed 
at this office: A 22-page price list, apiarian imple- 
ments and bees and queens, for P .L.Viallon, Bayou 
Gou la. La; a 4-page large-size list of bee-keepers' 
supplies for J. D. Rusk, Milwaukee, Oregon. The 
following have been sent to this office: 

The first comes from C. M. Goodspeed, Thorn Hill. Onondaga 
Co., N. v., Specialty, the leading papers and magazines; also 
Italian bees and queens' raspberry and strawberrj' plants, al- 
sike clover, poultry, etc. 

A VERY neat 36-page circular has been sent us by .Tames Hed- 
don, giving nice drawings of his new shallow hive, and much 
impoHant and valuable matter on various subjects. He also 
offers honey in attractive packages at very low prices. 

A .'i4-page circular comes to hand from C. F. Muth &Son. 
Specialties, honey and apiarian supplies. 

From E. T. Flanigan, Belleville, III., an 8 page list of bees, 
hives, fdn., small fruit, etc. 

From G. W. Stanley. AVyoming. N. Y.. a 12-page list. 



76 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUBE. 



JAN. 



gPECIjqii ]^0TICEg. 



DISCOUNTS UNTIL FEBRUARY 1. 

Remember, we allow 4 per cent discount on all 
purchases of whatever nature, made between now 
and the first of February. 

SIMPLICITY HIVES. 

We have been making some changes in our table 
of prices; and while it does not affect the price of a 
complete hive, we have been compelled to advance 
the price of bodies only, without rims or covers. 
Our boys have just made the discovery that we 
have been selling bodies only, for less than cost. 



MAPLE SYRUP. 

In view of the crop soon to come, we offer the re- 
mainder of the lot mentioned on page 1002, Dec. 15 
issue, at 80 cts. per gallon, or 90 cts. with package in- 
cluded to ship it in. The new crop will be in mar- 
ket probably about March 1. 



COPPER BATH-TUBS. 

We have found the manufacturers of the copper 
bath-tubs, referred to on page 884, Gleanings for 
Dec. 1, and are prepared to furnish a tub of 10-oz. 
copper, 5, 5'/2, or 6 ft. long, at an even $12.00, f. o. b. 
in New York. The regular price is *13.75. They 
are made in a neat wooden bo.x, ready for use, and 
they can be set in the corner of your bath-room. 
They are furnished with a brass plug in the bottom, 
to let the water off. 



THE ABBOTT HONEY-KNIFE. 

We have just had a very pleasant visit from Mr. 
T. F. Bingham himself, resulting in an arrange- 
ment (paying him a royalty) in regard to the honey- 
knife, whereby we can sell them as we proposed, 
and have it satisfactory to all parties. We are sat- 
isfied, after having carefully examined the steel in 
friend Bingham's honey-knife, and in friend Ab- 
bott's foreign copy of it, that the Bingham honey- 
knife is greatly superior in the quality of steel. 
The Abbott knife, however, is a very good one for 
the money. 

reduction IN THE PRICE OF HONEY-EXTRACTORS. 

[n view of the close prices on almost all staples, 
we have reduced the price of our Langstroth honey- 
extractors to $6.00 instead of $7.00; and all sizes 
from No. 1 to No. Swill be $6.00. All numbers above 
5 have been correspondingly reduced. Send for new 
price list. We have also "made an important re- 
duction in circular-saw mandrels. Our $10.00 man- 
drel for holding a gang of 9 saws is now reduced to 
$7.50; the $6.50 mandrel to $5.00; the $4.00 mandrel 
to $3.50; and the $2.50 mandrel to $2.25. Our man- 
drels were never better made than now, and are the 
same we are using every day in our wood-working 
department. 

PERFORATED ZINC TO DEALERS. 

As perforated zinc is proving itself a necessity to 
the best results in securing large crops of honey, 
and as the perforations in the zinc of our make are 
just right, according to the opinion of the Michigan 
Bee Convention, we have determined to offer deal- 
ers who advertise our zinc in their catalogues, a 
special discount. Our prices are as follows: 1 
sheet, 28X96 in. {18% sq. ft.), $1.50; 2 or more sheets, 
5 per cent off; 10 or more sheets, 10 per cent off; 
less than a sheet, 10 cts. per sq. ft. Ten honey- 
boards, 14X19!8 for Simplicity or chaff hive, $1.50; 
100 or more, 10 per cent off'; less than 10, 16 cts. each. 
These honey-boards have a margin of unperforated 
zinc all round, and have proven easier to remove 
from the hive than those with a tin binding. Zinc 
strips, % in. wide and 18 or 19U in. long, with one 
row of holes, to be used in the slatted wood-and- 
zinc honey-board, $1.00 per 100; 1000 or more, 10 per 
cent off. To dealers who advertise our zinc we will 
give a discount of 25 per cent, the same as we do on 
extractors and metal corners. Write for prices on 
odd sizes of honej'-boards. For 14 in. and under in 
width, and 19J>« in. and under in length, in lots of 20 
or more, the price will be the same as the regular 
boards; but over those measurements the price will 
be much higher, on account of waste. 



HIVES IN THE FLAT. 

We have revised our prices of Simplicity and 
Portico hives in the flat. There is little if any 
change in the prices of hives taken as a whole; but 
where bodies or covers are taken alone there is a 
marked change. We have also given prominence 
to "Ten crates," as we call them, in the hope that 
you will save yourself and us much trouble by 
ordering regular packages instead of an odd num- 
ber of hives. We have these regular packages all 
put up ahead; and when you send us an order we 
can very often get it off with more dispatch if you 
order regular packages than if you order odd num- 
bers of hives. Please read the following on page 18 
of our price list, instead of the tables of prices of 
hives in the flat given there. The cuts referred to 
in the following, you will find on pages 17 and 18 of 
our price list. If you have lost or mislaid your 
pi-ice list, drop us a postal and we will send you an- 
other. 

SIMPLICITY HIVES IN THE FLAT (KNOCKED DOWN). 

Also Portico Hives and a combination of the two. 

See cuts on this and the preceding page. Hives 
in the flat consist of the material all shaped, ready 
to nail together. These include metal rabbets for 
the frames to rest on, but nothing else— no frames, 
sections, or inside furniture of any kind included 
at these prices. For brood-frames, see page 14. For 
sections and wide frames for holding the same, see 
page 25; comb fdn., page 8, and enamel-cloth sheets, 
page 10. 

The Simp, hives are packed in what we call "Ten 
crates;" i. e., 10 Simp, bodies, 5 covers, and 5 bot- 
toms, are packed in a crate. This makes five 2-story 
Simp, hives; but the bottoms and covers are made 
just alike, and interchangeable, except that the 
cover is a better board than the bottom, or has a 
sheet of tin on it to prevent its leaking. Thus you 
can use the bottoms for covers, making 10 one- 
story hives by supplying home-made bottoms. 

The bottom is used the same side up as the cover, 
and stands on four half-bricks. The entrance is 
made by sliding the hive forward a little on the bot- 
tom-hoard. The alighting-board shown on page 3 
is a valuable addition. With it the entrance can be 
contracted or enlarged as necessity demands, in 
different seasons of the year. Some prefer to 
make their own bottoms, and want 10 all good cov- 
ers in their "Ten crates," and no bottoms. Others, 
again, prefer the '/i-story cover shown on the Por- 
tico hive on this page. 

Again, there are people that will have a hive with 
the old-fashioned Langstroth portico, and a perma- 
nent bottom-board, which the Simplicity hive has 
not. There are some very good reasons for such 
a preference, where hives are to be moved much; 
as into the cellar and out, or when they are to be 
shipped and sold. For these reasons and others, we 
make and keep in stock the Portico hive shown 
above. Some want the Portico hive for the lower 
story and a Simp, upper story with flat cover, like 
the one shown above. Others want Y^-dejiXh bodies 
for tiering up. Others, still, want their hives made 
of better lumber than that we ordinarily use, 
which is No. 2 stock boards. We desire to meet 
all these wants; and as a help to you as well as oui'- 
selves, we have devised the following table, giving 
the price of each piece in lots of 10. 

Ten bodies must be taken to get the 10-rate, but 5 
covers and 5 bottoms entitle you to 10-rate on each. 
You may order any combination that suits your 
taste and purpose, calling the articles wanted by 
the names given in sm.\ll caps, and giving the 
price. 

TABLE OF PRICES. 

Those who oi-der less than 10 must add one-flfth 
to these prices to pay the extra expense of packing. 

Price of 10 in flat. 

SIMPLICITY BOTTOM-BO.\RDS - - - - - $1 00 

" " WITH ALIGHTING-BOARD - - 1 50 

SIMPLICITY COVBRS - - - - - - 2 00 

J^-STORV COVERS - • - - - - - 2 50 

K-DEPTH BODIES ■ - - - - - 2 00 

SIMP. BODY, NO. 2 STOCK BOARDS - - - - 3 00 

•■ •' 1 " '■ - . - 4 00 

PORTICO HIVES, with permanent bottom, no fover - - 4 00 

" " without the bottom ■ - - - 3 60 

TEN CRATE NO. 1, Contains 10 Simp, bodies, 5 Simp, bottoms, 
and 5 Simp, covers, malcing five 2-story hives, in flat. . .H 50 

TEN CRATE NO. 2, contains 10 Simp, bodies and 10 Simp cov- 
ers, no bottoms. Price of crate 6 00 

TEN CRATE NO. 3, contains 10 Simp, bodies and 10 J^-story 
covers, no bottoms. Price of crate 5 60 

TEN CRATE NO. 4, contains 10 Portico hives, with perma- 
nent bottom-board and ten }<j-story covers 6 50 

By combining ten crate No . 2 ^nd 10 Portico hives, no cov- 
ers, at $4.00, you get ten Portico hives with Simp, up- 
per story • W 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



77 



We can make any other combination you desire, 
in the same way, because all are made interchange- 
able. 

■r8 ten crates detluct per ct. 
■ 10 •' " '• 7 " " 

•20 '• •• '• 8 '• " 

, 5^ .. ., .. 3 .. .. 

For 100 ten crates you may litiliict 10 per cent. 

Please order in regular pkgs. of 10 for even if you 
don't need the extra ones at the time, you soon will. 

COVERS. 
There are some very great advantiyes in having a cover llat 
on lop. and plain aiul simple, made ol a sinyie lioaril. like the 
Simplicity cover. It can l>c used intcrcliantrealiiy as a boltoni- 
board; it permits the hives t.i he iiiled np like scpiare biixes id 
merchandise; they can be sliippid at less rates, because there 
are no projections'and corners to be kieicked otr. etc. The di.s- 
ad vantages are tliat it is too sh allow U>i- w interint,'. without an 
upper story, or for a tier of surplus boxes; it u-ives little or no 
chance for ventilation; it can not be r;iised with one hand easi- 
ly. As one cover can nut well please everybody, and combine 
all these advantages, we furnish the one shown above. This 
cover is made with the thin roof-boaids screwed against the 
under side of the ri(l!j;c-bi):ii-d, and the holes thus left in the 
gable ends are covered with wiie clotli, ;inil serve as ventila- 
tors. It is of sutticient <hptli to cover a .■r;ite of 28 1-lb. section 
boxes, or a good-sized chatf cushion for wintering, and can 
easily be raised w ilh one hand by the ridge-board, because, ex- 
cept this ridge board, it is all made of K-inch stuff. 



CHEAP! CHEAPER! CHEAPEST! 
BEE-HIVES 

ONE-PIECE SECTIONS, CKATES, SHIP- 
PING - CASES, FDN., EXTRACTORS, 
UNCAPPING-KNIVES, BEE-FEED- 
ERS, WIRE NAILiS, AN1> 
ITIETAL CORNERS. 
Please send your Ordcig Early Before the Rush Comes. 

243 4d B. J. MILLER 8c CO., 

Send for Price List. Nappanee, lud. 

FREE. A Niagara vine free to all who purchase 
vines to the am't of f2.(J0, up to March 1st. Cata- 
logue of grapevines free. 
24-l-2-3-4d L. L. Esenhower & Co., Reading, Pa. 

BE^ SU RE 

To send a postal card lor our illustrated catalogue of 

APIARIAN KLr'S-'Sl! SUPPLIES 

tains illustrations and descriptions of every thing 
new and desirable in an apiary, 

AT THE liOWEST PRICES. 



XTJL.XjXJi^3<T QTlTEEIsTS Ji^l>TT> BEES. 

J. C. SAYLES, 

2 tfd Hartford, Washington Co., W^is. 

DADANT'S FOUNDATION PACTOEY, WHOLESALE AND 
RETATT/. See advertisemenl in another column. 



DADANT'S 

FOUNDATION 

is asserted by hundreds of practical and disinterest- 
ed bee-keepers to be the cleanest, brightest, quick- 
est accepted by bees, least apt to sag, most regular 
in color, evenest, and neatest, of any that is made. 

It is kept for sale by Messrs. T. G. Newman & 
Son, Chicago, 111.; C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, O.; Jas. 
Heddon, Dowagiac, Mich.; Dougherty & Wiley, 
Indianapolis, Ind.; B. .I.Miller & Co.. Nappanee, 
Ind,; Chas. H. Green, Berlin, Wis.; Chas. Hertel, 
Jr., Frecburg, 111. ; Ezra Baer, Di.\on, Lee Co., 111. ; E. 
S. Armstrong, Jerseyville, Illinois; Arthur Todd, 
1910 Germantown Ave., Phil'a, Pa.; E. Kretchmer, 
Coburg, Iowa; P. L. Viallon, Bayou Goula, La., 
M.J. Dickason, Hiawatha, Kansas: J. W. Porter, 
Charlottesville, Albemarle Co., Va. ; E. R. Newcomb, 
Pleasant Valley, Dutchess Co., N. Y. ; D. A. Fuller, 
Cherry Valley, 111.; J. B. Mason & Sons, Mechanic 
Falls, Maine; G. L. Tinker, New Phikideli)hia, O., 
J. M. Shuck, Des Moines, la.; Aspinwall & Tread- 
well, Barrytown, N. Y. ; Bai-ton, Forsgai-d & Barnes, 
Waco, McLennan Co., Te.xas, W. E. Clark, Oriskany, 
N. Y., G. B. Lewis & Co., Watertown, Wis., and 
numerous other dealers. 

Write for sampleK free, and price list of supplies, 
accompanied with 150 Conipllnientary and unso- 
licited testimoyiials, from as many bee-keepers, in 
1883. (T'r guarantee every inch of emr foundation eqiiaJ 
to xainplr i)i every respect. 

CHAS. DADANT & SON, 
3btfd Hamilton, Hancock Co., Illinois. 

IX PAYS 

To Order Goods Early. 

Send in your name and get our new catalogue of 
HIVES, SMOKEES, SECTIONS, COMB FOUNDATION, Sc, and 
see our discounts on goods for January, 188T. I tell 
you, it pays to order early. Address 
24-l-2-3d R. B. LEAHY, Higginsville, Mo. 

WRITE TO JOHN CALLAM & CO., 

LUMBER DEALERS, KENTON, OHIO, 

— FOI! PRICES ON — 

BEE-HIVES, SECTIONS, 

Ant) General Supplies for Bee-keepers 

New Factory. Low Prices. Good Work. 
24-lldb 



HOW TO RAISE COMB HONEY. 

Price oc. You need this pamphlet, and my free 
bee and supiilv circular. 18tfdb 

OLIVER FOSTER, Mt. Vernon, Liun Co., Iowa. 



A PIAR I ANi S UPPLIE S 



MANUFACTURED BY 



W, T, FALCONER 



JAMESTOWN, N, Y 



Are unsurpassed for QUAEiITV and fine WORK.^.VNSHIP. A specialty made of all styles of the 
SOIPliICITY HIVE. The "FALCON" CH.IFF HIVE with Movable Upper Story Continues to 
Receive the Highest Recommendations as Regards its Superior Advantages for Wintering and Handling- 
Bees at all Seasons. Also manufacturer of 



ii 



FALCON" BRAND FOUNDATION- 



Will pav highest price offered in Glennings from month to month for Beeswar delivered at depot here. 

DEALER IN A FUIiIi LIKJE OF BEE-KEEFERS' SUFFLXES. 

Four per cent discount in January. ""^^^ '''*\VAYo''gi e^fok iss? free. 



78 



gLeakings In bee culture. 



Jan. 



EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT. 



Notices will be inserted under this head at one-half our 
usual rates. All ad's intended for this department must not 
exceed 6 lines, and you must say you want your ad. in this de- 
partment, or we will not be responsible for any error. You 
can have the notice as many lines as you please; but all over 
five lines will cost you according to our regular rates. Of 
course, this department is intended only for bona-fide ex- 
changes. 

WANTED. — To exchange for good horses 
and mules, 200 colonies of bees in Simplicity 
frames; also 40 acres of land adjoining the city. 
20tfdb Anthony Opp, Helena, Phillips Co., Ark. 



1HAVE about 5 lbs. of spider-plant seed. I will 
exchange the same for different kinds of flower- 
seed or plants of any sort that are useful and or- 
namental. J. W. Ross. 
23-24-l-2d Phair, Brazoria Co., Texas. 



WANTED.— A foundation-mill, or offers, for a 
flrst-class incubator — been used three seasons. 
33tfdb D. S. Hall, So. Cabot, Vt. 



WANTED.— To exchange nursery stock of all 
kinds (evergreens a specialty) for pure Italian 
bees, queeus, 2 or 3 frame nuclei, fdn., apiary sup- 
plies of all kinds, seedling basswood-trees, a trio of 
White Leghorn fowls, alsike clover seed. When 
making inquiries, please give price of your goods. 
My price list free on application. R. A. Lewis, 
Cherokee, Iowa. 



WANTED to exchange or sell, a Given fdn. press, 
3 tanks, and M doz. dipping-boards. 
Itfdb J. Swallow, 2816 Mo. Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 



WANTED to exchange, S. B. Leghorns and S. S. 
Hamburg cocks for comb foundation. 
l-2d L. C. Calvert, Poplar Flat, Lewis Co., Ky. 



WANTED.— To exchange a " Big Giant" Chopper, 
nearly new, for bees or apiarian supplies, a 
foundation mill, or an incubator, or any full-blooded 
stock of any kind. John Kerr, 2d 

Greensburg, Westmoreland Co., Pa. 



WANTED.— To exchange McLoughlin type-writer, 
almost new, for a good wax-extractor, or of- 
fers. W. S. POUDER, 
2d ^ Groesbeck, Ohio. 



WANTED.— Barnes scroll and circular saw; a 
honey-extractor, or offers, for a Challenge or 
an American incubator. Both in good condition 
(200 eggs), and used but one season. We shall here- 
after use a larger one. Illinois, Indiana, Pennsyl- 
vania, or Ohio exchanges preferred. Address 
2d J. J. ruLTZ,'"Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 



WANTED.— To exchange a good Excelsior ex- 
tractor, uncapping-can, honey-knife, a lot of 
Simplicity hives, brood-frames, etc., for comb honey 
at 5c per lb., delivered here. Address 2d 

A. M. Morrill, Box 473, Ft. Scott, Kansas. 



WANTED.— To exchange for a self-inking print- 
ing-press (not less than 10X12-inch chase), or 
offers, one German-silver B-flat cornet, used but 
little, one novelty printing-press, 614 x 10 inch, and a 
lot of Simplicity bee-hives. Address 2-3d 

Cyrus McQueen, Baltic, Ohio. 

WANTED.— To exchange chaff hives or surplus 
crates for bees next spring. Illustrated price 
list on application. Geo. E. Hilton, 

2-3-4-.'J-6d Fremont, Mich. 

WANTED.— To exchange a double-barrel breech- 
loading shotgun, cost $.5.5.00, used two years, 
for a Barnes foot-power saw. Must be in good or- 
der as new. C. E. Price, 
2d Smithtown Branch, Suffolk Co., N. Y. 



WANTED.— To exchange one farm wagon, new 
Dand complete, made Fby the Harrison Wagon- 
Works, Grand Rapids, Mich., for bees. Address 

P"JoHN Cadwallader, North Indianapolis, Ind. 
2-3-4d 

WANTED.— To exchange pure Italian bees for 
supplies or chaff hives in flat. Make offers. 
For particulars, address S. F. Reed, 
2- tfd N. Dorchester, N.:H. 



WANTED.— To exchange for queens in July or 
Vl Aug., 60 two-qt. and 30 one-qt. raised-top tin 
P&ils. C. B. Thwing, Evanston, 111. 2d 



ALSIKE seed for 30 days, at $6.50 per bushel, pure 
and clean. C. M. Ooodspeed, Thorn Hill, N. T. 

MddonW 

— ISST — 

CIECULAE 

NOW READY. 

ADDRESS JAMES HEDDON, 
la DQWACIIAC, MICH. 

PDI|Dfll)TE(S I) THE WEST 

FOE THE MANUFACTUEE AND SALE OF 

Bee-Keepers' Supplies. 

CHAFF AND SIMPLICITY HIVES FURNISHED 
AT A GREAT REDUCTION IN PRICE. 

Nice Sections and Foundation, Specialties. A full 
line of Supplies always on hand. Write for our new 
Price List. Cash paid for Beeswax. 33tfdb 

A. F. Stauffer & Co., Sterling, III. 
FIRST IN THE FIELD!! 

The Invertible Bee-Hive 

Invertible Frames, 

INVERTIBLE SURPLUS - CASES, 

top, bottom, and 
Entrance Feeders. 

Catalogues Free. Address 

J. M. Shuck, Des Moines, Iowa. 

4 -3db 

ON 30 DAYS' TROALo 

T H I S N E W 

lELASTIO TRUSS 

'Has a I'ad ditterent from ajl 
others, is cup shape, with Self- 
adjusting Ball in center,adaptj , 
itself to all pesitions of the 
body while the ball in the cup 

* presses back the intes- 
tines just as a person 

does with the finger. With lightpressure tlieHei 
nia is held securely *iy and nifrht, and a radical cure 
certain. It is easv, durable and cheap. Sent by mail. Cir- 
culars free. ■ EtiGLESTON TRCS9 CO., Chicago, Ul. 

DADAKT'S FOU^SATIOK FACtOB7, WHOLESALE and SETAIL. 
See advertisement in another column. 3tfbd 




1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUKE. 



8;^ 



Contents of this Number. 



Advertisintj, Hints on 91 

Alsike for the South 99 

Alslke for Pasture 103 

Alsike, Value of 85 

Apiary near Water 103 

Bee, Appeal to 101 

Benson's Letter 107 

Chapni.xn I'lant 104 

Chirk Siiioktr, Cleaning 110 

Comb Without Filn 97 

Couiniittoe oil Estimates... 90 

Convention at Albany 108 

Conventional Columbus... 87 

Doolittle at Work 101 

Kditorials Ill 

Feeders, Doolittle's 94 

Feeders, To Use 95 

Foundation or Not 99 

Foundation and Fo)il BroodlOl 

Foundation, Non-use 93 

Heads of Grain 99 

Hard Maple and Honey ..102 

Honey from Willow 96 

Honey as a .Staple 91 

Honey-cupboard 101 

Honey sack, to Empty 99 

Honey, Extracted 96 

Honey, Profits on 100 

Honey, Cost of 102 

Honey, Peddling 93 

Israel's Report 90 

Kind Words 113 



Martin's Exhibit 88 

Martin's Chromo 112 

Milk Paint 102 

Missouri 101 

Moth, Removing 103 

Notes and Queries J03 

Our Own Ajnar.y 110 

Paint. Milk 102 

Queens, Delivery of 100 

Queens, Introducing 103 

Reports Discouraging 101 

Sabbath, Plea for 100 

Saws, ISarius 103. 104 

Sections, Width of 8,5 

Seed to Plant 112 

Separators, Omitting 103 

Solar Wax-Extractor 90 

Special Notices 112 

Stamps, Licking 103 

Subsc. for Gleanings Ill 

Sunlight and Moths 103 

Super, Miller's T 85 

Sweet Clover a Tree 102 

Teasels 92 

Thomas Horn Ill 

Ventilator.s 110 

Warming Houses 97 

Willows 96 

Wint'g. Tenement Plan 103 

Wire for Separators 104 

Who Shall be Greatest Ill 

Wheat or Oat Chaff 110 



A^WHITE^GRAPEYINE4-FREE*T0^ALL. 

For this month only. Send 10c. to pay postage. 
Catalogue free. L. L. ESENHOWER & CO., 

3-4d. Reading, Pa. 



COMB FOUNDATION. 

Dunham Brood Fdn., 40c. per lb. ; extra thin Van- 
dervort Fdn., 4.5c. per lb. Wax made into fdn. for 10 
and 20c. per lb. lo;{. discount on all orders received 
before the 15th of April. 



3-tfdb 



Sil2^PZ.SS FREE. 

F. W. HOLMES, Coopersville, Mich. 



Send for my new and enlarged Price List for 1887, 
now ready, of 

APIAEIAIT SUPPLIES, 

ITALIAN BEES AND QUEENS. 

All untested queens warranted purely mated. Al- 
so three varieties of 

HIGH-CLASS POULTRY. 

3d. C. M. DIXON, Parrish, 111. 

1 am now ready to take orders for 

Basswood and Hard-Maple Trees 

AND RASPBERRY-PLANTS. 

Please write lor prices. Address H. WIRTH, 
3-5d. Borodino, Onon. Co., N. Y. 

-A complete apiary of 140 colo- 
onies of fine premium bees in a 
iiever-failiug locality. A bargain, if called for soon. 
My bees and queens were awarded first premium at 
the late St. Louis Fair, St. Louis, Mo. Address at 
once, L. Werner, Edwardsville, 111. M 

1^ 1 < M < KEEPERS' GUIDE, Memoranda, and lUus- 
^^XdXd trated catalogue, for 188T, FREE. Reduc- 



FOR SALE. 



ed prices. 



Address JOS. NYSEWANDEE, Des Moines, Iowa. 
3tfdb 



For Sale, 



exchange for Western land, 90 
colonies of bees and apiarian fix- 
tures, siUHcicnt to increase colonies to 100 double 
hives— Simplicity hives. An excellent opportunity 
for a live apiarian. Plenty of white clover and bass- 
wood, besides abundance of fruit-bloom. Inventory 
sent on application. Must be sold soon. 
3d Address S. W. LAKIN. Eureka, 111. 

DASAKT'S FOUHIIATIOK FACT0B7, WHOLESALE andSETAIL. 
See advertisement in another column . 3tfbd 



200 COLONIES OF 

GiioiGG Italian & lii Bbcs 

FOR SALE AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. 

Also a full line of Bee-keepers' Supplies. COITtB 
FOUNDATION from cboice >«elect yellowr 
beeswax a specialty, at very low rates, both 
wholesale and retail. 

Do not fail to send for my 37th Annual Catalogue 
before purchasing. 

3tfdb ^''"^'^ WM. W. GARY, 

COLERAINE, MASS. 

Mention this paper when writing. 

MAKE YOUR 

-iPRICE LIST STICK.i- 

Common circulars are often thrown away with 
only a passing thought, and soon forgotten. But 
our beautiful, instructive, amusing 

-|hCHR0M04^CARD#- 

Will stick. When the articles upon it are explain- 
ed, the story will be repeated many times. Bees, 
flowers, children, implements, brilliantly 

PRINTED IN EIGHT COLORS. 

Give it to a customer for honey or supplies, and 
you will not be forgotten. 

Sample package, 10 cts. One sample and price 
list of cards, queens, foundation, and other things 
useful, sent free. Address J. H. MARTIN, 
3-8db. Hartford, Wash Co., N. Y. 

FOUR-PIECE ONE-POUND DOVETAILED 

SECTI03:TS, 

Smoothed on one side, made of white basswood, 

*2.2.5 per 1000. Sample free. M. A. LOHR, 

3d. Vermontvllle, Eaton Co., Mich. 



SAMPLES FREE. 

OF MY ONE-PIECE 

V-Groove Basswood. Section. 

They are splendid, and I sell them for from $2.50 
to $.3.75 per 1000. I keep a full line of supplies, which 
I sell at bottom prices. Address EZRA BAER, 
3tfd Dixon, Lee Co., 111. 

In this Glorious Eve of the 19th 
Century, the watchword is 

«<"EUER.ONWARD.">o 

I BELIEVE 

-HcNO BEE-HIVE3}e^ 

Now before the public contains as many practical 
points for the profitable production of honej* as 

Shirley's ContractilDle Hive. 

It admits of the use of from 1 to 10 frames, without 
extra fixtures. The most complete reversible 
frames, etc. Price S2.1X). Satisfaction guaranteed, 
or money refunded. For further information, ad- 
dress W. H. SHIRLEY, 
3-4-.5-6-7-8d. Mill Grove, Allegan Co., Mich. 



84 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



J*EB. 



pe^EY C@MMN. 



CITY MARKETS. 

New York.— Honey.— Since Christmas the comb- 
honey market has been very inactive, and sales 
slow; but it has shown more life the past week. 
Stock of comb on this market is large, and prices 
rule accordingly. We quote as follows: 

White, 1-lb. sections, 10® 12; white, 3-lb. sections, 
9@10: off grades l@3c per lb. less. Buckwheat, 1-lb. 
sections, 8@8V4 ; same in 2-lb. sections, l&'ili; Cal- 
ifornia extracted, 5@5i4. Buckwheat, extracted, 

4®4»/4. MCCaUL & HiLDRETH BROS., 

Jan. 21. 34 Hudson St., Cor. Duane St., New York. 



Philadelphia. — Honey.— Dull and neglected. 
Fancy white clover, in glass sections, 13c; same, 
fair to good, 1-lb. and 3-lb., fair to fancy, 10@11. 
Buckwheat, 8@10 as to quality, etc. 

Bees loai;.— Good demand, and firm. White choice, 
S7@28; yellow choice, 23(5)24 ; yellow dark, 20@22. 

Jan. 22, 1887. Pancoast & Griffiths, 

242 South Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Cincinnati.— Honey.— There is no change worthy 
of note since our last. Demand is slow for comb 
honey and extracted honey in square glass jars, 
since Christmas; but our sales to manufacturers 
are very satisfactory for the last two weeks. We 
quote choice comb honey, 12@15c in a jobbing way. 
Occasional concessions have to be made, however, 
to effect sales. Extracted honey, 4@7 on arrival, 
according to quality. 

Beeswax is in good jobbing demand, and brings 
20@22c for good to choice on arrival. 

Jan. 22, 1887. Chas. F. Muth & Son, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Chicago. — Ho?i6y.— Honey sells slowly in a single- 
case way from the commission merchants' hands. 
Choice to fancy white, one-pound sections 12rt'j]3c 
Good in one-pound sections - - - 10@llc 
Dark in " " - . - . 7(r/ 8c 

Extracted, white clover, - . . . gc 

" dark, 4@5c 

Beeswax, 23@25. R. A. Burnett, 

Jan. 21. 1887. 161 So Water St., Chicago, III. 



Detroit.— Honey.— The supply of comb honey 
still continues large, with no change in prices since 
last quotations. Considerable old honey will be 
carried over until another season. Beeswax, firm 
at 23c. M.H.Hunt, 

Jan. 23, 1887. Bell Branch, Mich. 

St. Louis.— Honey.— There has been no improve- 
ment in the honey market since our last report. 
Chice white-clover honey in 1-lb. sections, ]2@13. 
Good fair stock, 10(a>ll. Extracted, tin cans, 5(gi6c ; 
bbls., 4®4;i. California comb in sections, 10(5ill. 
White sage, extracted, i^W^Vi- In cans and bbls., 
4@4Hc. 

Beeswax. — In good demand; as it runs, 21(S.22c. 
Selected yellow, 24(5i2.5. W. B. Westcott & Co., 

Jan. 22, 1887. 108 and 110 Market St. 



Milwaukee.— Honey.— Honey is in good supply, 
and the demand is not very active. I think that 
lower values will necessarily be accepted, to sell. 
Present quotations are, for white 1-lb. sections, 
12@12y3; white 2-lb. sections, 11@12. Dark not 
wanted. Extracted, white, in bbls. and kegs, 6@6'/2 ; 
extracted, white, in small packages, 7@8; dark in 
barrels and kegs, .5@6',4. Beeswax.— 2rtc. 

Jan. 19, 1887. A. V. Bishop, 

142 W. Water Street. 

New York.— HoTiej/.— There seems to be a slight 
improvement in our honey market, and we notice a 
better demand for the past two weeks. The finer 
grades of white comb honey are getting scarce, yet 
we have a large stock of the lower grades of white 
and buckwheat on hand, and in jobbing lots we are 
obliged to shade prices in order to make sales. Cal- 
ifornia extracted is in good demand at .")@.5J4C. 

Beeswax.— Light receipts and limited demand 
21@23, according to quality. 

Jan. 22, 1887. Thurber, Whyland & Co., 

Reade and Hudson Sts., New York. 



Cleveland. — Honey. — There is no material 
change in the market. Sales are very slow, demand 
light, but prices unchanged. Best white 1-lb. sell at 
13; dark 1-lb., 10. Best white, 2-lbs., 11®12. Extract- 
ed is dull at 6c. Beeswax, 3.'5c. A. C. Kendel, 

Jan. 21, 1887. 116 Ontario St., Cleveland, O. 

Kansas City.— Honey.— The demand is light, and 
stocks of all grades are large. 

1-lb. white clover, 12 

1-lb. dark 8@10 

2-lb. white clover, 10@11 

2-lb. dark, - - 7@9 

Extracted, white clover, 6; dark, 4@5; white sage, 
5(5i.5'/2 ; amber, 4;4@5. Beeswax, 20@23. 

Jan. 23, 1887. Clemons, Cloon & Co., 

Cor. Fourth and Walnut Sts., Kansas City, Mo. 

For Sale.— 2000 lbs. best clover honey in Boot's 
" raised-covcr pails." One set, SOVj lbs., 12.50; 1 set, 
122 lbs.. $9.35. Boxed, they ship same as bbls. 

Oliver Foster, Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 



For Sale.— 1 bbl. of 5.50 lbs. net, and 5 kegs of 115 
lbs. net each, all of which is No. 1 white-clover 
hoaey, well ripened. Will take 6i-4c per lb. for bbl. 
and 7c for kegs. Sample sent for 2-cent stamp. 
R. J. Barber, 818 E. Washington St., 

Bloomington, 111. 

For Sale.— I have 10 bbls. of choice clover honey 
on hand yet; will take tic at depot here. 

H. W. Funk, Box 11.56, Bloomington, 111. 



For Sale —1.50 lbs. of goldenrod honey at 13c per 
lb., and the purchaser to pay Root's price for cases. 
I will deliver it on board cars at Grand Junction, 
Mich. C. H. Martin, Lee, Allegan Co., Mich. 



For Sale. -Eight 48-lb. crates of white-clover 
comb honey, in 1-lb. sections. Crates and all de- 
livered at depot tor an even $5.00 apiece. 

G. S. Pox, Mitchellville, Polk Co., Iowa. 

For Sale.— 2500 lbs. of buckwheat honey, for 5i4c 
per lb. It is in V2 bbls. J. H. Martin, 

Hartford, N. Y. 

For Sale.— Three new oaken eight-iron-hooped 
barrels of white-clover honey, at 7^20 per lb., de- 
livered on board of cars here. Weight of each, 
.590 lbs. Gross weight of barrel, 60 lbs. Net, about 
530 lbs. Honej' is solid candied, and very fine and 
white. A. L. Klar, Pana, Christian Co., 111. 



Boston.— Honey.— Honey la selling a little slow, 
and no change in price. Blakb & Ripley, 

Jan. 21, 1887. .57 Chatham St., Boston, Mass. 



CHEAP ENOUGH! 

JUST THINK OF IT! 

Jl Complete 2 -Story Langs troth Hive 
in the Flat, for 80 cts. 

We have a large stock of the above that has sold 
heretofore for $1.25 per hive. In order to reduce 
the stock we will sell them for 80 cts. per hive. They 
take the L. frame, 9iaX17?8, and are made of No. 1 
pine. Write for delivered prices. 

Jtenit'iiiher, we are offei'ing great inducements to 
dealers and large consumers on our one-piece sec- 
tions. Price list of supplies free. 



3tfd 



SM/TH <S SM/m 

KENTON, OHIO. 



AUTOMATIC HONEY-EXTRACTOR. 

The only self-reversing honey-extractor known. 

The Automatic took all of the honors, and had a 
lively sale, at Albany, during the convention just 
held! Send in your orders early, before the rush of 
spring trade. Send for new cii'cular and list of tes- 
timonials from those who have used the machine. 

Address at once, C.W.STANLEY, 

3d Wyoming, N. Y. 




Vol. XV. 



FEB. 1, 1887. 



No. 3. 



TERMS : $1.00 Per ANNUM, IN ADVANCK-,] J? i}+ riJ-.! -J n'L n rl i Tl 1 ^ T '^ 

10 or more, 75 cts. each. Single mim- 
ber, 5 cts. Additions to clubs may be 
made at club rates. Above are all 
be sent to one postoffick. 



PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLT BT 

\A.L ROOT. MEDINA, OHIO. 



f Clubs to different postofBces. not less 
than 90 cts. each. Sent postpaid, in the 

.1 U. S. and Caiiadas. To all other coun- 

1 tries of the Universal Postal Union, 18 
cts. per year extra. To all countries 

L NOT Of the U. P. U., 12 cts. per year extra. 



DK. MILLER'S "T" SUPER, AND ITS USE. 



DISCU.^SED BY TWO OF OUK LARQK HONKY- 
PRODUCER8. 

R. EDITOR:— I inclose herewith a letter from 
one of the veterans, M. M. Baldridge. I 
think so interesting a letter should be giv- 
en to the fraternity at large, and for their 
benefit I will also append my reply. 

C. C. MlI^LER. 

Friend Miller:— The "spirit" moves me to 
write you a few lines about your " Year Among the 
Bees." I have read the book through recently, and 
some parts of it two or more times. Many things 
you say interest me exceedingly; and let me sa3' 
hci-e, but not by way of flattery, that you have writ- 
ten a very good work on bees. I have also read with 
especial interest what you say about the J. super. 
1 have made them since 1883, but not exactly as de- 
scribed by you. 1 use uo iron pieces nor loose J. 
tins. I siniply saw through each side-piece 3 times, 
and then insert the wide edge of the tins, and drive 
two =8 wire nails through both sides of each end. 
This holds the tins ill place at all times. But you 
have the upright edge of tins only '4 inch deep, and 
find =8 Uut deep, as it holds the separator too high. I 
have not used the super enough to know how that 
is; but others tell me that the separator needs to be 
on\y 'Z^'i inches wide, when of tin, for the iKi-inch 
section; that is, a sheet of tin, 14 by 20, will make 5 
separators, quite wide enough for the pound sec- 
tion; therefore for the nailed section I get the tins 
out 1 inch wide, and have the upright part % inch 
high, as the top and bottom pieces of the section are 
% inch thick. This gives an open space of i4 inch 
at both top and bottom. 

I also notice, that, with the J_ super, you prefer 
wood separators to any other material. Now, I wish 
you to tell me where you get the wood separators 
you use; what is their exact width, also thickness, 
for 16 sections, and what do they cost per 1000 ? 

THE WIDTH OF SECTIONS. 

I see also that you prefer two widths for sections. 



I rather think I should prefer one width (IJi inch), 
and use separators between all, as I have no troulile 
to make bees go to work in them at will when in 
right condition. I like the slatted honey-board very 
much. I can, however, keep the queen, or brood 
and bee-bread, out of the sections, even when none 
is used. But how to do it is the " secret," and is 
known only to a few. 

REPORT. 

I have been up in Wisconsin the past season, keep- 
ing bees on shares, and i-eturned only a few weeks 
ago. I had 178 hives in May to begin with— 150 good 
ones, but the rest were weak. I closed the season 
with 230 good ones and 11,000 9>s. of honey— 8(t00 ft)s. 
being in the comb, in Muth's sections, holding IVJ 
lbs. each. These VA-fb. sections were on hand when 
1 went up there, in May last, and so I used them; 
but hereafter 1 shall use nothing but 1-lb. sections. 
Our hives in Wisconsin had 3 boxes each, holding 
10 sections each, with no honey-board. We took 10 
full boxes from some hives, and should have taken 
1.') to 20 thousand pounds of comb honey from all, if T 
had found things there as represented. 

THE VALUE OF ALSIKE. 

1 had a deal of honey from alsike. The present 
owners of the bees sowed 90 acres of alsike, in Sep- 
tember, by my directions, and I rather think they 
will have "lots" of honey next year. Alsike is the 
best honey-plant, all things considered, I know of; 
and when folks learn how to raise it properly they 
will quit fooling with other plants. Marvin has a 
"heap" of alsike growing a few miles west of this 
city, all secured by following my directions. There 
should be a thousand acres— yes, 10,000 acres— of it 
in the U. S. where there is but one now. 1 saw Mar- 
vin a few days ago. He says he would have had but 
little honey this year had it not been for alsike. 

By the by, as you must have seen Betsinger's 
wire-cloth separators at Indianapolis, what do you 
think of the idea, when expense and all things are 
duly considered? Why would it it not be a good idea 
to have one-fourth-inch holes made through the 
wood separators, the same as open bottoms for 



86 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURK. 



Feb. 



chairs ? Still, this may be ot little consequence, as 
1 can/orce all the honey up stairs at will, anyway. 
With the Muth box it would be too much bother to 
use separators. I can g-et very good combs without 
separators; still, I think it will pay me to use them 
hereafter. Again, I have by no means given up the 
idea that moving bees in car lots from South to 
North, in the spring, and back again in the tall, is a 
paying project; nor shall I abandon the idea until 
the matter has been properly tried. No one has 
ever yet tried the plan properly. I have now 1.50 
hives at Yazoo City, Miss., which I intend to have 
filled with bees next spring. In May I shall move 
them up here somewhere for the white-honey crop. 
The latter part of July I shall take them to Wiscon- 
sin, where there is plenty to do on buckwheat and 
goldenrod during August and September. By this 
means I should secure 3 good honey crops in one 
season. What T shall do with the bees at the close 
of the season in October I do not know yet. 

My hives at Yazoo City have two stories, with 10 
frames in each— only 7 inches deep inside of frames. 
When ready for box honey I use but one set of 
frames, and use the top sets for new swarms or ex- 
tracting. The hives were got up expressly for ship- 
ping bees from South to North and back again each 
year, so you see T have had plenty of faith in the 
project, and still have. The cost of getting a car- 
load of bees from Yazoo City or New Orleans to 
Chicago is about SlOO; and as 200 stocks in 7-inch 
hives can be safely brought up in one car, the cost, 
you see, is only 50 cts. per colony, or S51.00 both 
ways, there being no danger of any loss down South 
during winter; and the bees being able to double 
their number of colonies, or to gather a good crop 
of honey before May. I can see no good reason why 
they should not, while South, pay the entire expense 
of shipping both ways. 

George Grimm has left our ranks. He writes me 
that the bee-business does not pay well enough to 
suit him, and is practicing law, having a good busi- 
ness. T am told that he was elected to the Legisla- 
tui-e this month. M. M. Bai.dkidge. 

St. Charles, Ills., Nov. liS. 1S86. 

DR. MIDLER'S REPIjY T(J MH. BALDRIDGE. 

Your plan of making J. supers has advantages 
and disadvantages. It is no more work than my way, 
possibly less; it has the convenience of having the 
tins always in the right place in the supers, without 
the trouble of placing them ever3' time and having 
them slip out of place, sometimes when putting sec- 
tions In the super. The loose tins on the other hand, 
as I use them, admit of taking out the whole super 
full of sections CO Hio.'^sr, and I can hardly imagine 
any way by which the sections can so easily be taken 
out with the fixed tins. Moreover, in putting the 
sections in the supers with loose tins, the tins ad- 
just themselves to their places; and when the whole 
super is filled, the tins can not fail to be in exactly 
the right place. ]f the tins are fixed, it will require 
very exact workmanship to make the spaces be- 
tween the tins exactly the same in every case. 

You say, " Others tell me that the separator needs 
to be only %% inches wide, when of tin, for the 4J4,- 
inch section." I hardly believe it can make any dif- 
ference as to width, whether the separator be of 
wood or of tin. In actual practice, I have found ex- 
actly the same difficulty with each, when too nar- 
row. Whoever found 2i?4 inches sufficient, can hard- 
ly have a very extended experience, or else must 
have had such careful management that separators 
might have been dispensed with altogether. Now, 
we know that some succeed quite well without sep- 
arators ; and in case where two sections are built 
perfectly true without a separator between them, 
I think the intervention of a separator M'ould make 
no difference, whether 2 or 4 inches wide. What I 
want a separator for is to force the bees, under any 
and all circumstances, to build the combs in sections 
so true that there will not be the least difficulty in 
packing. With the separator coming within Vi inch 
of the top or bottom of the section, this is accom- 



plished; but an eighth of an inch more than this 
gives different results. You see, that ]» inch differ- 
ence makes just one-third more open space than if 
'/2 inch is allowed, for the wood of the section occu- 
pies ^8 inch, leaving ^g-inch open space. When this 
?8-inch open space is allowed, you can count on an 
unpleasant number of sections being built so as to 
project under the separator wherever a section has 
progressed much in advance of its neighbor, or in 
any case when work is going on very slowly. If the 
little projection were all, it would be a matter of 
less consequence; but this projection is pretty sure 
to be attached to the separator, and, when detach- 
ed, the section " bleeds," and this has occurred with 
me. equally with wood or tin. So, for the 4^4X4^4 
sections I want S'j-inch separators, so placed as to 
make the space alike at top and bottom. Wood sep- 
arators of this width I get of poplar wood from the 
Berlin Fruit-Box Co. 

I think, if you look again, you will not find that I 
prefer two widths lor sections. On page 43 I say, 
" I have used a mixed arrangement with some de- 
gree of satisfaction," but I have more satisfaction 
in using only one kind. 

I do not use the slatted honey-board to keep the 
queen out of sections, as I had no trouble in that 
direction before I used the slatted honey-board. 
Its great value is in preventing the bees from build- 
ing bridges of comb between the brood-frames and 
the sections. 

I believe alsike to be a valuable plant; but I have 
qwit fooling with it, because I have found too great 
difficulty in getting a good stand. Probably better 
knowledge on my part would secure better results. 
Jt is open to the objection, that, with ordinary treat- 
ment, it blooms at the same time as white clover. 
Still, I am glad to see that some of the farmers about 
me are beginning to " fool " with it, and I shall be 
glad if they are more successful with it than I have 
been. 

Without having tried them, the Betsinger sepa- 
rators strike me as a good thing, if not too expen- 
sive. I do not know what it costs to get them up. 
If the material is not so expensive as to prohibit their 
use, by manufacturing in large quantities he could 
make them so as to sell for less than any one else 
could get them up in small quantities, and still 
make a nice sum. 

Your South-and-North project will be looked upon 
with much interest; and if you make a success of it 
I think you may claim to be the pioneer among the 
successful ones, for I take it that others will follow 
if you succeed. C. C. Miller. 

Marengo, 111. 

In regard to the widtli of separators, I 
think I am prepared to say, from actual ex- 
periment, that 21 inches "will not answer 
for the Simplicity section. As 14 inches is 
the common width of tin plates, we are in 
the habit of dividing this 14 inches into 4 
parts, giving a separator 81 inches in width. 
Now, it is possible that something a little 
narrower would be safe, and it may be well 
to go over this matter again, especially if we 
are going to use the exceedingly expensive 
material, wire cloth. Friend Betsinger said, 
at the Albany Convention, that 8 cents per 
square foot was as low as it could be fur- 
nished ; and, if I am correct, he charges the 
same, whether a large or small quantity is 
used. The same kind of wire cloth has been 
in our price list for some time, for use in 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



87 



carp ponds, drying fruit, etc.; and we find 
the price he has fixed is about as low as it 
can be figured. It is possible, however, 
that, if the manufacturers could be given a 
very large order, to be worked at their lei- 
sure, a little better figure might be obtained. 
We will ascertain in regard to the miitter. 



THE OHIO STATE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 



HELD AT COLUMBUS, O., JAN. 11, 12, 13, 1887. 



fHE meeting was a very interesting one, con- 
sidering the small attendance, which was 
owing to the neglect of one of the officers 
in not giving proper announcement before- 
hand. 

FIRST DAY. 

On account of the small number present, an in- 
formal meeting was held. 

SECOND DAY— MORNING SESSION. 

Convention called to order with Dr. H. Besse in 
the chair. Minutes of previous meeting were read 
and approved. Treasurer's report i-eceived. The elec- 
tion of officers, being next in order, resulted as 
follows: Pres., Ernest R. Root, of Medina, Medina 
Co. ; Sec. and Treas., Frank A. Eaton, of Bluffton, 
Allen Co. Other matters of business having been 
disposed of, by request of the association Pres. 
Root gave a talk on foul brood as it appeared in 
the " Home of the Honey-Bees." In brief, the ad- 
dress was as follows: The disease first broke out 
about the first of last July. He was not cei-tain as 
to how it originated, but thought it was started by 
robber bees gaining access to a few kegs of honey 
which had been purchased some time before. The 
incipiency of the disease was difficult to describe. 
A few afl:'ected cells appear in its early stages, and 
the larvae have a light coffee color; as the disease 
advances, the larva changes to a darker coffee col- 
or, like the coffee-berry, and finally dries up in one 
side of the cell. If a toothpick be inserted into an 
affected cell in its first stages, the diseased matter 
will adhere, forming a sort of string. The speaker 
stated, that during the past , season they had had 
sixty cases. Each, as soon as discovered, was 
treated as follows: All the combs of the affected 
hives, after the bees were shaken off into a clean 
new hive, were consigned to the boiler- furnace. 
He thought it cheaper to give the bees a set of new 
clean frames filled with foundation, than to ex- 
tract the old diseased combs, render out the wax, 
and boil the frames for use again. The diseased 
hives were then scalded out with steam. He was 
not sure hut that the disease might appear again 
the coming year, but in no colonies so treated did 
the disease reappear. 

After the speaker closed. Dr. Besse said he did 
not think it necessary to go to the great waste or 
expense of burning up the frames, combs, and 
honey. Why not extract the honey, render the 
wax, and boil the frames, and in that way save 
that which would otherwise be wasted? 

Pres. Root thought there would be a good deal of 
risk attending such a practice— that robbers might 
gain access to the diseased honey and wax, while 
80 working. 

In this connection the advisability of purchasing 
honey to feed, instead of sugar, was opened for 
discussion. It was argued, that, as the former 



might contain the germs of foul brood, it were 
better to feed sugar. 

Mr. Goodrich.— Feed your own honey that you 
know is all right. 

Secretary.— Suppose you haven't any honey to 
feed? 

Dr. Besse.— Purchase your honey, and boil it. 
If 213° will kill the germs, I can see no danger. 

Mr. Cole.— I think the practice of buying sugar to 
feed, is damaging to our trade. When people see 
you buying sugar they won't believe but that you 
intend putting it upon the market again in the 
form of honey. 

After further discussion, in which the members 
of the convention were divided in their opinions, 
the convention adjourned till 1 p. m. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The convention was called to order, with Pres. 
Root in the chair. A list of questions was handed 
in by S. R. Morris, and discussed in the following 
order: 

1. How should a house be constructed to keep 
honey best, both in winter and summer? 

Dr. Besse.— I keep it best in a dry house that does 
not reach either extreme of hot or cold. 

Secretary.— Keep it in a honey-house that gets 
quite warm in summer and fall, then remove to 
some room in the house where the temperature 
does not go down to freezing. 

E. Cole. —Do not keep it— sell it. 

2. Is comb honey injured or made unsalable by 
freezing? 

After some discussion it was generally agreed 
that the quality .was not injured by freezing, but 
the combs are cracked by freezing, and thawing 
would cause the honey to drip. 

3. Which is the best mode to control or prevent 
Swarming? 

J. W. Newlove.— I use single-tier crates, and give 
the bees plenty of room by tiering up. Put a crate 
upon the hive about ten days before the honey- 
flow starts. When the bees are thoroughly at 
work, and have filled the sections about half, raise 
the crate and put under it an empty one, and so on, 
gi\ing plenty lof room. 1 recommend this plan 
to my customers who are farmers. I find by this 
plan that bees seldom swarm. 

Secretary.— It is an easy matter to control 
swarming when running for extracted honey, as 
a liberal use of the extractor will greatly control ; 
but the difficuIty;conie8 in when working for comb 
honey. I have practiced, very successfully, ex- 
tracting from the side combs^in brood-chamber, 
placing them in the center. If the colony is very 
populous, remove one comb, placing an empty 
frame with but a starter in the center, thereby 
giving the queen plenty of room, at the same time 
putting on one tier of sections, then tiering up as 
fast as the honey-flow will warrant. 

4. Will the drone progeny of an Italian queen 
be pure Italian, provided she mated with a hybrid 
drone? 

No one present had any occasion to doubt the 
well-founded principles of | Dzierzon and other 
writersion thistsubject. 

5. Which is most profitable- to give a newjs'warm 
full frames of foundation, or>lonly starters? 

Dr. Besse.— I use starters only, 
Pres. Root gave W. Z. Hutchinson's plan. 
J. G. Ricketts said that Mrs. Jennie Culp used 
full sheets, and much preferred them. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Feb. 



MORNING SESSION— THIRD DAY. 

After the convention was called to order by the 
President, C. B. Jones g-ave a very interesting ad- 
dress on the production of fine comb honey. His 
address was, in brief as follows: I do not want a 
colony too strong- with bees. I prefer 6 or 7 frames 
only. Don't put the sections on too early; wait un- 
til white clover is fairly started; give starters only, 
in sections, placing the sections the same way as 
the frames. I recommend removing the sections 
early. I do not aim to secure the most honey, but 
the best looking and most salable. 

N. Hutches.— Does it pay to feed back partly filled 
sections, to finish others with ? 

It was not considered profitable. 

Pres. Root gave a detailed description of the Hed- 
don hive, its management, and its good and bad 
features. There was considerable discussion on the 
same, the majority not favoring it. 

Mrs. Gulp expressed herself somewhat as follows: 
I do not think it profitable to change an apiary of 
40 or 60 colonies for any new improvements in 
hives, discarding old ones. 

To show what could be done with the old L. hives 
and fixtures, she gave an Interesting account of her 
management of an apiary, how she handled an 
apiary of 40 colonies without help. She uses a mod- 
ification of the L. hive, and keeps her queens' wings 
clipped. Her report for the past season was 5600 
lbs. of comb honey, for which she received 18 cts. 
per H). ; 2400 ft>s. of extracted, at 15 cts. Her bees are 
hybrids. She prefers them for honey to any others. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

After the convention was called to order, the sub- 
ject of honey adulteration was opened for discussion. 

Mr. Nathan Hutches. — A young man of polished 
manners— a college graduate, as he said— informed 
me that he had seen, in the city of New York, comb 
honey manufactured; that he had seen them make 
the comb, fill it with the abominable stuff, and cap 
it over with thin wax by means of a " rocking con- 
cern." 

President.— Didn't the fellow see them fastening 
foundation into wired frames with a foundation- 
fastener ? 

Mr. Hutches.— No, sir. He appeared to be a 
straightforward sort of fellow. He said he had no 
object one way or the other in stating these facts. 
Mr. Earle Cllckinger heard the same storj'. 

When the latter gentleman, a honey commission- 
merchant, was called upon, he verified what the 
previous speaker had said. He stated that he be- 
lieved that the young man who had given these 
facts was still in the city. Upon motion of the con- 
vention, Mr. Hutches was instructed to call upon 
the fellow at his place of business, bring him to ihe 
convention rooms, and let him tell his story. After 
a lapse of.a short time, Mr. H. returned and report- 
ed to the convention that the college fellow had 
"gone west." The convention then instructed Mr. 
H., that, if he ever saw the polished young man 
again, to inform him of A. I. Root's offer of $1000 to 
any one who should prove that comb honey could 
be manufactured. 

C. E. Jones.— I think that comb honey is often 
taken for adulterated when it is made of honey-dew, 
or some kind not usually gathered. 

After further discussing this matter, the follow- 
ing question was propounded: Does the queen de- 
termine the>ex of her progeny at will ? 

Mr. Miller.^I have been taught, that the sex of 



the bee is determined by compression, owing to the 
size of the cell. 

C. B. Jones.— I think she has the free power of de- 
terming the sex. 

Secretary.— I have seen the queen lay eggs In 
queen-cells only slightly started; also in foundation 
that was-not drawn out more than ^g of an inch. 
How does the compression theory account for this ? 

Mr. J. L. Mock gave a new use of wide frames for 
division-boards. Nail thin boards on each side, fill- 
ing the space with dry sawdust, forest-leaves, or 
some light material. They are good for winter or 
summer use. 

As many were desirous of getting off. on the after- 
noon train, the convention proceeded to matters of 
business. It was moved and seconded that a com- 
mittee of one be appointed to prepare a question- 
box for next meeting. The chair appointed S. R. 
Morris. The committee on exhibits reported as fol- 
lows: Frank A. Eaton, section case and skeleton 
honey-board combined, adapted to the tierlng-up 
system, and removing sections with ease. Mr. Earl 
Cllckinger exhibited a section crate, a case of fine 
comb honey; jars of extracted honey; Bingham 
smoker and honey-knife and Eaton feeder. J. W. 
Newlove, combined shipping and honey crate; also 
well adapted for tiering up. 

Bluffton, Ohio. Frank A. Eaton, Sec. 



HONEY EXHIBITS AT FAIKS. 



THE advantages OF ADVERTISING IT THAT WAY. 



MNOWING that you like to see novel things 
In bee culture, I herewith send you a photo 
of my exhibit at our county fair. The 
boxes in front show for themselves what 
they are— honey-cakes and Todd's honey- 
candles, with an observatory hive on the left. On 
the right is a log cabin, made entirely of different 
styles of honey cans and pails, with sections of 
comb honey for windows and doors. The roof is 
covered with strips of foundation, and the appro- 
priate name of " Home. Sweet Home." over the 
door. 

The next structure bears upon the banner the 
title," Beeswax Pavilion," after the Grecian models. 
This is a hexagonal framework of wood, covered 
entirely with foundation. The narrow spirals up- 
on the columns are of colored wax, one coluinii 
covered with green spiral, the next with red; the 
bands of foundation around the upper part were 
also of different colors, all surmounted with a Hag- 
staff and a banner. In the center of the pavilion 
was a small pyramid of beeswax surmounteil witii 
a bouquet of wax flowers. 

The next object is an exhibit of comb Imiiey, in 
the form of a double arch, each section glassed. In 
the center was also a pile of comb hciu^v. This 
double arch was finished out with a fine bouquet of 
natural flowers, scarcely discernible in the picture. 
On the left of the comb honey is a jiyramid of ex- 
tracted honey in tin and glass cans. 

This exhibit attracted a great deal of alttMilioii. 
and called forth expressions of "Isn't it beauti- 
ful?" from scores, and I was kept quite busy ans- 
wering questions, and giving information general- 
ly. This exhibit was shown at three county fairs- 
Warren, Saratoga, and Washington. At Ballston, 
Saratoga Co., we had a fine display. Mr. Tarent 



!z! m 




90 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



was upon my right with four observatory hives, 
and a quantity of honey and implements. Mr. 
Smith was on my left, with three observatory 
hives, also honey, etc. Such displays, with the dis- 
tribution of circulars and cards, and sale of honey, 
does much to instruct people. 

I find, that if honey is sold cheap enough any 
quantity can be sold. A very nice package that 
goes ofif quite rapidly is a 5-lb. pail for 50 cts. Leaf- 
lets and cards are good things to distribute. I send 
herewith The Facts, that I am circulating. 

My crop of honey this season is about 10,000 lbs. 
—7000 clover, 3000 dark. A good share of the clover, 
which is of excellent quality, will be disposed of in 
the home market, and earlier in the season than I 
ever sold before, and at much better prices than I 
can g-et when sending on commission. 

Hartford, N. Y. J. H. Martin. 

The above makes a very beautiful exhibit, 
friend M.; but may I venture the suggestion, 
that there may be an extreme in going to 
more expense in time and money than is 
warrantable V Where one has a large crop 
of honey to sell, however, and deals in sup- 
plies largely, the advertisement it furnishes 
may make it a good investment, and perhaps 
yoiir exhibit has been the means of selling 
your large crop of honey so early in the sea- 
son. Your " Facts about Honey" are so good 
I should be glad to give place to them, did 
space permit. I think I may say to our 
readers, however, that you will be glad to 
mail them to any one on application. 



THAT ESTIMATING COMMITTEE. 



FIXING THE PRICE OF HONEY. 



T DO not think that a honey-producers' association 
^ will ever be able to control the price of honey. 
'Il It may be able to advance prices a cent or two, 
"*■ or prevent lower prices, in the large centers; 
but producers will ever be harrassed by low 
prices. A few years ago, when wire nails were in- 
troduced they were quite expensive, and the manu- 
facturers made large profits. Competition was light. 
Soon other firms commenced making them, and bet- 
ter methods of manufacture were necessary. To-day 
large factories, with expensive and ingenious ma- 
chinery, employing hundreds of men, with division 
of labor brought down to perfection, make them at 
a profit of a very small fraction of a cent a pound. 
Does any one think they will ever be made at a larg- 
er profit to the makers ? Only a scarcity of iron can 
advance their price. So only a scarcity of nectar 
will appreciably advance the price of honey. Dar- 
win's " survival of the fittest" comes inhere. He 
who can produce honey the cheapest is the fittest. 
He who sells too cheaply will go down, as will he 
who produces at too much cost. 

An estimating committee can only estimate the 
yield. I do not believe they can fix the price; how- 
ever, they can estimate that too. But the bee-keeper, 
knowing the estimated yield, can " fix " the price of 
his own honey. However, let us have an estimating 
committee, composed of two or more of the largest 
honey-producers in each State of the Union, where 
honey is produced; and let us have some sort of an 
association for the purpose. J. H. Labrabee. 

Larrabee's Pt., Vt. 

Very good, friend L. But there is another 



thing to be done still, although the estimat- 
ing committee may not be the ones to do it ; 
and that is, to introduce the honey to every- 
body, and make them understand the very 
low price at which it is now offered to the 
consumer. The point you make, that he 
who sells too cheaply, as well as he who 
produces at too much cost, must fail amid 
the brisk competition that is coming, is 
worthy of consideration. 



FROM 113 COLONIES, 13,000 LBS. OF 
HONEY, SPRING COUNT, 



AN INTERESTING LETTER FROM OUR OLD 
FRIEND J. P. ISRAEL. 

]^* EES have done tolerably well this season. I 
pi sold over 19,000 lbs. of comb honey, and had 
^^ several cases of extracted. We had 113 col- 
■*^ onies to start with in the spring. We wound 
up the season with 375 stands. If we get 
through the dry season with 335, and reach the 
black-sage bloom with that number, T shall be sat- 
isfied. My brother and I have dissolved, but I ad- 
vised him not to move his half of the bees away un- 
til that bloom comes. 

OIL FOR IGNITING FUEL IN SMOKERS. 

I see you have a new kink, using oil for smokers. 
It is not new, by aay means. I have used dry 
horse-manure and oil for 4' 2 years. I blew up my 
smoker the other day— too much oil. I have often 
had it jump and kick, but this time it fairly blew 
up— blew out of my hand, turned a summersault, 
and split wide open in the bottom. 

THE SOLAR WAX-EXTRACTOR IN USE FOR 35 
YEARS. 

I see by the Oct. 15th No. that you say the credit 
of the invention of the solar wax-e.\tractor belongs 
to O. O. Poppleton. I can prove that it has been 
used in San Diego and Sacramento Counties, this 
State, for 35 years. I can likewise prove that there 
is now, on the next farm below me, an extractor 
which has been in use on that farm for 15 years. 
It is made as complete and perfect as any of the 
present day. It is 10 feet long, 3 feet wide at top, 
and tapering to nothing at the bottom. These ex- 
tractors are, and have been, used entirely for melt- 
ing comb honey, and thus separating the honey 
and the wax. It was the only way they had to 
make "strained" honey. Many large apiarists 
have them 16 feet long, 4 to 6 feet wide, and cover- 
ed with hinged sash, made on purpose for them. 
Only one thickness of glass is \ised. 

The only way here to keep combs is to put them 
in the top stories of the hives; then you may calcu- 
late on losing from one-fourth to one-third of them. 
They dump these combs, frames and all, into the 
solar extractor. The next morning (or that eve- 
ning) they can take out their frames, perfectly 
clean. For these two purposes the solar wax-ex- 
tractor has been used in California for many years. 
I used it for another purpose, and tried to say so, 
but you did not appear to seethe point. I take a 
large flat pan and fill it with the wax thus obtain- 
ed, or even old dirty comb. Set it high up next to 
the glass. Put in a pan, the shape you want your 
wax for market; have a spout in the upper pan; let 
it drip into the lower one. There your wax is, 
ready for market. J. P. Israel, 

Encinitos, San Diego Co., Cal., Dec. 14, 1886. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



91 



ADVERTISING W^HAT YOU HAVE 
FOB SALE. 



nOKS IT PAY .■' 



AND SOME OKNERAI. HINTS TO AD- 
VERTISERS. 



TN the office, I believe it is generally con- 
M sidered that the advertising clerk has 
W one of tlie most difficult and responsible 
^ places of any of the girls in that room. 
It seems that, in spite of any precaution 
we have been enabled to take, there is almost ' 
continually some degree of dissatisfaction. 
The most comes, however, from taking out 
an advertisement, or from leaving it out, 
when our customer wanted it in. In view 
of this I have told the clerk to be sure to 
have the mistake come by getting in an ad- 
vertisement when it was not wanted, rather 
than to leave it out when it was wanted. 
Advertisers, like many other people, are 
sometimes in a great hurry, and they hurry 
off the notice at the last moment, as it were, 
omitting or forgetting to say how many 
times the notice is to be inserted, the length 
of space they wish to have it cover, and fre- 
quently do not say whether they want it in i 
every issue, or only the issues of the hrst of 
the month. Let us take an illustration, for 
instance. Tlie following is the contents of , 
a postal card : 

Please put undei" the department, " Queens for i 
sale," we have for sale 6 very good tested Italian i 
queens, 1 Hybrid, at $1.00 each, or $6.00 for the 7. 
Hybrids, 3"c. Send S1.02 to return your money if 
queens are sold before your order comes. 

Model Bee-Hive Co. 

W. Phira., Pa., Aug-. 23, 1886. 

You will notice in the above, that our 
friend does not say a word about what issue 
he wislies it to appear in, nor does he say 
how many times. Under the circumstances, 
on receipt of such an order the advertising 
clerk sends back by first mail a printed letter i 
which reads as follows : 

Friend 

Your favor of inclosing $ re- 
ceived with an advertisement, which we will insert in 

7mmhers, as you request, or until otherwise ordered. 
As you do not mention the amount of space, or the 
numlicr of lines you wish it to occupy, or give any in- 
>iti-ucti<m as to display lines, we will set it ujj so as to 
make such an appearance as we thi7ili it ought to 
present. We will send hills after each insei-tion, for 
the space occupied. If the above is not satisfactoi-y, 
pleMse reply hy return mail, on inclosed card, giving us 
coi-rect instructions. According to our advertising 
rates, given helow, we will credit you with the discount 
at the expiration of the time you wish it to run. 

Yours respectfully, A. I. ROOT, Per 

You will notice, that, in with this printed 
letter, we inclose a postal card directed to 
ourselves, so that our customer may take a 
pencil out of his pocket and tell us what to 
do, even while he stands in the postoffice, if 
he chooses. We prefer to pay for these pos- 
tal cards, and to pay the postage on the let- 
ter we send them in, so that our bee-friends 
may have no excuse for failing to inform us 
immediately, if our proposal is not satisfac- 
tory. We do this, because it is so very dif- 
ficult a matter to get people to write and tell 



us what they do want. Now, after we have 
done this, our advertising clerk has instruc- 
tions to insert the advertisement until we 
get some kind of notice from the advertiser, 
saying that he does not wish it continued 
any longer. It seems to me, that almost any 
sensible man will say, if there is any thing 
wrong it (;ertainly is liot our fault. A good 
many troubles have come up, notwithstand- 
ing these precautions. Quite a number of 
pretty good men— that is, we have always 
considered them to be sucli— have.(aefused to 
pay their advertising bills, giving, as a rea- 
son, that they ordered the advertisement 
stopped. Now, after we have very kindly 
explained to them that their letter ordering 
it stopped did not reach us until the journal 
had gone to press, they still object. In one 
or two cases where advertisements have been 
ordered out, the order was written within 
three days of the last of the month ; and yet 
the advertiser claimed he was under no ob- 
ligation to pay. 

Now, in regard to the postal card we have 
given above. The advertising clerk inserted 
the advertisement four times, at a cost of a 
dollar each insertion, before we got a word 
from the Model Bee-hive Co. Then he 
claimed it was ordered in for only one inser- 
tion, in the first place. He writes in regard 
to it as follows : 

We wrote to you, saying to put said advt. in Sept. 
No. of Gleanings. We left home shortly after the 
first of Sept., and just returned home last night, 
and, to our surprise, you had continued said advt. 
(on examining Gleanings), and sent two or three 
postals, stating amount due you. We wanted said 
advt. only in Sept. No. If we had wanted it in any 
other numbers we would have told you so. 

Model Bee-Hive Co. 

West Phll'a., Pa., Oct. 27, 1886. 

As we have published every letter and fig- 
ure on his order, one can readily see that our 
friend is greatly mistaken ; and the adver- 
tising clerk and book-keeper, without bring- 
ing tiie matter to me, wrote him that they 
could return Ids order if he wished, to show 
him that he didn't say a word about putting 
it in the September issue ; therefore that we 
should expect him to pay for his neglect in 
not notifying us. On my return from the 
Albany Convention, the card below was 
handed me, which was sent us, I presume, 
in answer to a statement in regard to the 
remaining $3.00. 

We wrote you some time ago, Oct. 27, thinking 
that you were charging us for running our advt. 
which we did not oi-der. If you will look up our let- 
ter, which will tell you all about it, we do not care to 
repeat it here. However, of all the advertising we 
ever did in Gleanings, it never paid us ^i of our 
advertising money back. Make a note of this, and 
publish it in GiiEANiNGS, as you never say any 
thing about those that write you about advertising 
not paying— only those that say that their advts. 
paid. Come out with both sides of it, and oblige 
Respectfully, Model Bee-Hive Co. 

West Phll'a., Pa., .Tan. 14, 1887. 

I read it over in a little surprise, and ask- 
ed for the whole of the correspondence in the 
matter. Now, the advertising clerk, the 
book-keeper, and. in fact, almost everybody, 
would say that our friends of the Model Bee- 



92 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTLRfc:. 



Feb. 



hive Co. are entirely at fault. If they per- 
mitted the advertisement to run through 
neglect, or even through absence from home, 
there was no one at fault at all except them- 
selves, therefore they should pay the bill. 
Very likely tlie above course Avould be jus- 
tice ; but you know, dear friends, I have been 
talking to >ou a good deal, not only for 
months, but even years back, in regard to 
doing a little more tlian justice by our fellow- 
men. " If a man compel thee to go with him 
a mile, go with him twain." T lead a little 
more carefully the letter of protest made by 
our friend when he received a bill for $4.00 
for advertising, and in it I found the follow- 
ing: 

The queens were offered for $HJKJ, and you send 
bill in for $4.U()! Not much profit. Besides, the 
queens remain unsold. 1 did not geto/ie offer; we did 
certainly not expect t<j advertise them to their full 
value, or else we might as well have sold you the 
queens for tivu dollars. Besides, it looks bad to ad- 
vertise 6' queens -^ times. It does not look as if we 
were sellinji- queens fast. I think common sense or 
judgment would have told you, or any one else, that 
we could not offer queens so low. and then spend- 
ing' all the amount for advertising them, to sell 
them. MODEr. FJee-Hive Co. 

West Phil'a., Pa., Oct. S7, 1886. 

Now, there may be differences of opinion 
here. A good many will say, " Although it 
does look very bad to pay out $4.00 for adver- 
tising $6.00 worth of queens, it was eutirely 
the fault of the advertiser for not saying liow 
many times he wished the advertisement put 
in.'' It was mainly his fault. I agree; but I 
think, dear friends, he is right in saying that 
common sense or ordinary good judgment 
ought to have decided that no man in his 
senses would wish to pay $4.00 for the chance 
of selling $6.00 worth of goods. Who is at 
fault, then ? The editor of Gleanings ? 
You may say, "The editor of Gleanings, 
with his multitude of cares, can not go into 
every little matter like this, without break- 
ing himself down, mentally and physically."' 
The advertising clerk is also burdened with 
so many cares and so much business that it 
is pretty hard for iier to stop to inquire 
whether a man knows what lie is talking 
about or not, when he sends in an advertise- 
ment. To avoid similar cases I have asked 
F]rnest to examine every advertisement, and 
be sure that it makes good sense before it is 
allowed to go into print, and I think he has 
done his work pretty faithfully. In review- 
ing the above advertisement of late, he 
would say at once that it was all straight and 
consisteiit. If somebody had asked him, 
however, if it was probable that this man 
wished such an advertisement continued, he 
would at once have decided not ; but he is 
already pretty severely burdened with a mul- 
titude of cares in his work on Gleanings. 
The proof-reader made sure it read accord- 
ing to copy, and that ended his part of it. 

Let us now consider the latter half of com- 
munication No. 8. He says, in substance, 
that the advertisements he has put in Glean- 
ings never brought him athirdoi the money 
he paid to have them inserted. This is a 
pretty bad showing for Gleanings, dear 
friends. 1 am well aware, that a good many 



advertisements do not pay the friends who 
send them. Quite a number have refused to 
pay for advertising, on the ground that it did 
not do them any good, and I have been ask- 
ed to excuse them from paying an advertis- 
ing bill because the advertisement profited 
them nothing. I have refused to excuse, on 
the ground that it was no fault of mine. 
Sometimes, it is true, I am asked if I think a 
certain advertisement will pay ; and I re- 
member that I have, a good many times, re- 
plied back that I felt pretty sure that it 
woidd not pay. Yes, I have sometimes writ- 
ten to friends who wanted certain things ad- 
vertised, that I felt sure it would not pay. 
even before my opinion was asked. I have 
been pretty roundly abused once or twice for 
making similar suggestions. Knowing the 
supply of queens there was in the market in 
September, I could have told the Model Bee- 
hive Co. beforehand, that their advertisement 
would protiably do them no good — had my 
opinion been asked. Now the question be- 
gins to assume something of this shape — 
" Am I my brother's keeper '?" To which I 
reply, '• Yes, sir. 1. for one. am my brother's 
keeper." I want (iod to hold me responsible, 
not only for my brother's spiritual welfare, 
but for his financial welfare ; and my de- 
cision is, that, under the circumstances, we 
ought not to ask pay for the three last inser- 
tions. If my mental strength does not per- 
mit me to take a brotherly review of all the 
advertisements sent in to us, it is mj; busi- 
ness to employ somebody who can intelli- 
gently advise our bee-friends in regard to in- 
serting advertisements. And the moral to 
this whole long story is, to ask you all,* in 
sending in advertisements, //' you feel inclin- 
ed, to ask our opinion in regard to the ad- 
visabilit.N of inserting said advertisement. 
We will advise the best we know how, and 
without charge. This advice. 1 presume, 
will cut down part of our advertising patron- 
age, but I shall be glad to cut it down, be- 
cause I know that agoodh part of it has not 
been profitable to our hard-working and 
close-scraping bee-friends, many of them. 
After having given this advice, you are to 
act as you see proper, and we can" not be re- 
sponsible for tlie profitableness of the trans- 
action any further. 



TEASELS, AGAIN. 



SOME (;<>OU ONES FROM THE PACIFIC CO.\ST. 



§INCE the appearance of a series of articles on 
the teasel-plant and its culture in one of our 
local papers, and two or three short articles 
in Gi.,EANiNGS from which extracts were 
made by the N. Y. Tribune and other leading 
papers, it has been ascertained that teasels of good 
quality are grown in Oregon. That fact alone has 
set our dealers at work, and the result is, that sev- 
eral carloads have already been shipped here and 
held at our railroad station for inspection and i-e- 
shipment to factories. That they are of good size 
and good quality, there is no mistake; and, for 



*0f course, the veterans in advertising, who have 
had sufficient experience to know whether it is im- 
portant for them to advertise or not, and how much, 
would hnrdly care for my opinion in the matter. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



93 



aught I could see. &re fully equal to our own grow- 
ing-. I intend, when I write on any subject, to be 
accurate, and keep myself posted; but it was this 
very writing- that unearthed the existence of that 
French colony away out on^the Pacific coast, quiet- 
ly growing their teasels and supplying their neigh- 
boring mills. 11 the quality is good in Oregon and 
here, I believe there are many other places, when 
found, that will prove to be adapted to the growing 
of this crop. I had also supposed that the expense 
of shipping and then reshipping would be too great 
to warrant any one in raising them if they were 
far from a market. What I mean by a market is 
a middle-man, or dealer. 

Now, you will ask me why the grower can not 
ship direct to the factories. We will suppose that 
the first factoiy that saw fit to order of you made 
a specialty of woolen blankets. Of course, for 
that coarse work they would want "kings," and 
you would not have enough in your whole crop, of 
the right size to fill their first order; and your next 
sale would be as likely to be kings as any thing. 
Without carrying this comparison further, you can 
seethat.inordertodealdirect, one must carry a stock 
of a good many thousand dollars' worth; and, fur- 
ther, the handling, sorting, and packing, is a trade of 
itself. But if our dealers at present prices (6 cts. 
per lb.) can pay freight from Oregon, and then 
compete with us, I think some of my good bee- 
friends haii better look into the matter. 

T will answer any question through Gleanings 
that its editor may see fit to ask, but I can not un- 
dertake to answer by private letter. 

Thorn Hill, Onon. Co., N. Y. C. M. Goodspeed. 



THE NON-USE OF FOUNDATION. 



I.'KPOKT tROM W. Z. HUTCHINSON'S OWN 
NEIGHBORHOOD. 



tPrER reading the articles on the non-use of 
foundation which have appeared from time 
to time in the bee-papers, I think the " oth- 
er side " should have the benefit of the 
following: 

Mr. W. Z. Hutchinson has a neighbor, Mr. C. D. 
Doane, living about two miles distant. In the 
spring of 1886, Mr. Doane purchased 350 of Mr. 
Hutchinson's discarded combs. That season Mr. 
Doane produced 6.500 lbs. of honey from 50 colonies, 
spring count— an average of 130 lbs. per colony. If 
1 am not mistaken, Mr. Hutchinson had 6700 lbs. of 
honey from .5.5 colonies, spring count — an average 
of 121 9-11 pounds per colony. At the close of the 
Season, Mr. Doane's bees had an average amount 
of .SO lbs. of honey— natural stores— to winter upon, 
while Mr. Hutchinson's bees had to be fed sugar 
syrup. Mr. Doane attributes his larger honey 
product to the combs purchased from Mr. Hutch- 
inson. Mr. Doane's bees increased to 125 colonies. 
Mr. Hutchinson's increase 1 do not know. 1 think 
the amount of increase would be likely to affect 
the general result somewhat. 

I have Mr. Doane's figures from that gentleman 
himself, but am not so fortunate with those of Mr. 
Hutchinson, but I think them correct. 

Flint, Mich., Jan. 17, 1S87. M. S. West. 

We are very much obliged indeed, friend 
W., for your "communication, for it proves 
this if nothing more : That friend Hutchin- 
son has an exceedingly good locality— or, at 



least, it has proved so during the season 
that is past. If Mr. Doane increased .50 col- 
onies to 125, and secured over 130 lbs. per 
colony, he certainly did exceedingly well. 



PEDDLING HONEY. 



FRIEND COLTON RELATES HIS EXPERIENCE. 

XIl is very pleasant and agreeable to me to read 
/^ the reports of those who have been successful 
^l in marketing their honey. I have not yet read 
■*■ a report of a failure in peddling honey. This 
strikes me as somewhat remarkable, as my 
experience has been quite different from that of 
those who have reported their success in Glean- 
ings. Evidently, those who found peddling honey 
a poor business thought their report would not tend 
to the " encouragement of bee culture." There is a 
short time after our busiest time with the bees is 
over, and before cold weather has caught us, that 
we can profitably market honey as peddlers. We 
can then draw It off from a barrel without the 
necessity of charging our customers for a tin pail 
or jar, which, when added to a small purchase, 
raises the price above the price of comb honey. 
If you peddle near home you can call for your 
pails after the honey is used ; but peddling near 
home will not suit the grocerymen who are selling 
your honey. 

A bee-keeper from a town near me told me he 
had disposed of about 7000 lbs. of extracted honey 
by peddling it out at 9 and even 8 cts. per pound. 
He had canvassed, I think he said, nearly every 
town within one hundred miles of home. In many 
towns, bee-keepers are trying to keep the price of 
honey up to something above the cost of produc- 
tion ; and when the honey-peddler strikes a town 
where he can undersell those engaged in the pro- 
duction of honey, his sales are apt to be quite sat- 
isfactory. Somehow I can't get very happy and 
enthusiastic over the honey-peddling scheme. Few 
beekeepers will make themselves so notoriously 
honest, and their honey so perfect, as to be above 
suspicion for any great distance from home. 
Brother Root, we do not all have the faculty and 
experience in advertising that you have, even if 
we controlled a publication like Gleanings, which 
circulates to a certain extent through all our States 
and Territories. I rigged out a wagon for peddling, 
and spent about a week at the business. I aver- 
aged a sale of about fifty pounds per day. When I 
could not sell a pail, 1 dug out, of a large can, gran- 
ulated honey, but, of course, found this tedious, 
as cold weather was gradually setting in. I intend 
to rig up a sleigh of some kind and continue the 
fight, even if it takes all winter, and I have no 
doubt it will. There is no other way left for me to 
dispose of my crop of honey. I tried, in the latter 
part of last winter, to get something out- of what 
honey I could not sell at home, by sending it to St. 
Louis, to be sold by a commission merchant. I re- 
alized for the honey, after deducting cost of pails, 
freight, and all charges, a trifle over two cents per 
pound. Said honey was weD-ripened clover and 
basswood, but a portion was produced the year 
before, and kept over, as I could not get rid of it. 
I got honey in all of the stores near home I could, 
and they offered it at ten cents per pound. I hope 
you will publish this, and some one who has had 
more experience than myself in peddling honey 



94 



GLEAICTNGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



will show where I have erred in my conclusions on 
this plan of peddling honey. The point is, can we 
increase the consumption of honey more by ped- 
dling than by leaving it at the groceries? I do not 
wish the mistake made, that, because we get a fair 
sale by peddling honey at a price lower than our 
brother bee-keepers who are already selling low 
enough, that this policy will be wise in the long 
run. Our rivals in the business will be compelled 
to come down also; and when the price gets so low 
that you can not undersell, peddling will fail to 
relieve us of the problem of disposing of our hon- 
ey. J. B. COLTON. 

Waverly, la. 



WILL HONEY EVEK BECOME A 
STAPLE? 



SHALL. WE ORGANIZE TO KEEP UP PRICES ? 



T HAVE disposed of much the largest share of 
/a? my fifth and largest crop of honey; and al- 
]ll though I have not been in the business nearly 
"*■ so long as Heddon or Dadant, I have neverthe- 
less followed it long enough, and at just the 
right time, to suffer from the most sweeping de- 
cline in prices that any natural product has per- 
haps ever known. 

The year 1883 was a good one in this locality, and 
honey wholesaled at 20 and 35 cts. per lb. 1 do not 
like to tell what I have obtained for the bulk of my 
comb honey this year. Every year since the first 
one, I have been laboring to develop a market at 
aud near home, and I think I have obtained a pretty 
fair idea how nearly honey is likely to become a 
great staple. T am certain of two things; viz., that 
honey will never become a universal staple, and 
that lower prices do greatly increase consumption. 
I can give items of experience which go far to dem- 
onstrate these propositions. It is a matter of con- 
tinual surprise and wonder to me that the majority 
of folks do not like honey. Not one out of ten 
whom I tackle on the subject cares any thing for 
it. I eat over half the honey used in our house; 
and I find among many of my best customers, that 
about one of the family is all who takes it. I have 
pretty much learned whom it is worth while to 
approach around home. 

Springfield takes the largest share of my honey. 

I tried an experiment this year, which has taught 
me much of the lesson I have been steadily learn- 
ing for four years. With a large crop, overstocked 
markets, and low prices ; with more honey than mon- 
ey, I resolved to try how near I could make the for- 
mer take the place of the latter. I had some building 
to do, and I canvassed the city with a view to trad- 
ing honey for materials, so far as I could. I would 
patronize him who would patronize me. I found 
just one lumber-dealer in the place who would 
ti'ade that way. He would have— how much do you 
suppose? Three pounds! After visiting half a 
dozen paint-shops I found one man who would 
do somewhat better. He ordered enough to pay 
for paints and brush. I canvassed the hardware- 
stores, without avail. Dry-goods stores and shoe- 
stores were tried unsuccessfully. I sold lOH lbs. to 
one hatter. Almost the unvarying note was, " We 
do not like honey." It looks like small business at 
the start, and it turned out so small that I shall not 
work very much in that line. 

As I had a few apples and potatoes to sell, I re- 



solved to try the women at their homes. I had had 
some experience in selling fruit and vegetables 
some years before, and I had learned that that was 
the way to make trucking profitable. Women like 
to have living necessaries brought to their doors. 
There were fruit and vegetable wagons on every 
street, while I, almost alone, ofi'ered honey. Yet I 
could make six sales of either one of the other 
products to one of honey. They never interfered 
with a honey sale either. In the light of my expe- 
rience, how Mr. France succeeds so well in ped- 
dling honey is a riddle to me. Yet I say, that lower 
prices will greatly increase consumption. The vol- 
ume of business has vastly grown around here, and 
I believe it will continue to grow. That this 
growth is largely due to the fact that the business 
has been worked up, is no doubt true; but I know 
very well that a great deal that has been sold this 
year would have remained unsold at higher prices. 
For example, Mr. W. sells comb honey at 13^4 to 15 
cents, and a number of customers, somewhat like 
one he mentioned, a day laborer, buy considerable 
at the former price, who purchased but little when it 
cost more. In 1882 Mr. W. sold about 100 lbs. forme at 
33 to 35 cts. In 1883 the price fell to 15 cts., and he 
sold about 350 lbs. The next two yeai-s the crop 
was short, with prices higher and sales less. In 
1885 he retailed at 18 cts., and sold perhaps 250 lbs. 
for me. This year he has sold lower than ever be- 
fore; and what is the result? He has already dis- 
posed of over 400 lbs., about 130 lbs. being extract- 
ed, and I am to deliver him about 1.50 lbs. of the two 
kinds this week. 

Said Mr. W. to me, " I can see that it cuts into the 
syrup trade like every thing." 

You see, at such prices honey becomes a com- 
petitor with other commodities. Four years ago, 
only a few of the principal stores offered honey 
for sale; but now the stock in trade of none but a 
few suburban grocers is complete without it. 

Prices will not continue to decline as they have 
been doing. We shall reach rock-bottom pretty 
soon. I am very willing that honey should be put 
within the reach of the poorest. We owe this to 
humanity. A honey-pool is a chimera. One hun- 
di-ed manufacturers of an article may combine and 
control the market; but tens of thousands of hog- 
raisers or honey-producers can not. But if they 
could, I do not want them to do so. I am opposed 
to great or petty monopolies, as all such combina- 
tions tend to become. We should, instead of try- 
ing to keep up the price of honey, do our best to 
make our industry profitable by producing at the 
lowest possible cost. Geo. F. Bobbins, 93—61. 

Mechanicsburg, 111., Jan. 10, 1887. 



FEEDEES. 



HOW TO MAKE THEM. 



u 



N times of peace prepare for war," is an old 

saying. While I hope we in this country 

^i may never be called upon to prepare for 

''• another war with swords and musketry, 

yet there is always i?i this life a need of a 

warfare, and a preparation for the same, if we 

would be successful in the undertakings of life; and 

as in battle the army is most likely to be successful 

which has been thoroughly prepared in "times of 

peace," so the person who uses his leisure hours In 

getting prepared for the "heat and burden " of the 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



95 



harvest time is the one most sure of success. In 
nothing is this more true than in bee-keeping; and 
yet the majority of bee-keepers while away the win- 
ter days and months, not seeming to think that an- 
other season of heat and toil is coming until the 
season is upon them. To the truth of this, nearly 
every supply-dealer can testify ; for in spite of dis- 
counts ottered, and entreaties published and other- 
wise made during winter, all know that the great 
rush comes in May, June, and July. These thoughts 
were brought up by a friend desiring to know how 
1 made my bee-feeders, and saj'ing, " I want to get 
every thing in readiness this winter for another 
summer." I predict for that young man a success- 
ful life, health and strength being given him. As I 
have just finished making a lot of feeders I thought 
it might not be amiss to answer his question through 
Gleanings; for after trying nearly all the feeders 
ever advertised, I like the best of any the one about 
to be described, so I have discarded all the others. 
The idea of such a feeder I got out of some of the 
bee-papers; but when and where,! do not know. 
This feeder I call a division-board feeder, yet it is 
different from any such feeder which 1 have ever 
seen described. 

To make, get out one piece ?B of an inch square, 
and the same length as the bottom-bar to your 
frame, providing the end-pieces to your frame are 
nailed to the end of the bottom-bar. Otherwise 
make this piece as much shorter as the two end- 
pieces of your frame are thick; for it is to hang in 
the hive the same as any frame. Also the end-bars 
and top-bar are to be only ?8 wide, as a feeder of 
that width keeps the bees from drowning without a 
float, while, if wider, a float is necessary. Besides 
these four pieces spoken of above, you want two 
very thin boards (I make them 3-33 of an inch thick), 
the same size as the outside dimensions of j'our 
frame, less % of an inch at the top, it being suppos- 
able that the top-bar to your frame is only \i thick. 
In any event there is to be a •/i-inch space between 
the under side of the top-bar and the upper edge of 
the thio boards, for an entrance to the feeder. 

Next, get some white lead and thin it with boiled 
linseed oil till of the consistency of thin cream; for 
all the joints of the feeder are to be fl.xed so there 
can be no possibility of leaking. Now with a small 
marking-brush put some of the thick paint on the 
end of the % bottom-bar, and also on the lower end 
of the end-bar, where it is to be nailed to the bot- 
tom-bar, and nail together, preparing the other side 
the same. Next lay down your frame, which is com- 
plete, except the top-bar, and paint the sides which 
are up, and also around the edges of three sides of 
the under side of the thin board where they are to 
come in contact with the frame. Place the board 
so it comes even with the bottom and outside of the 
frame, and nail on, using ?4-inch wire nails, and 
driving the nails from !4 to U inch apart, when the 
other side is to be treated the same way. Now take 
the end-bar of a frame and saw it off short enough 
so it will come up within V4 of an inch of the top of 
the inside of the feeder, when it is to have three ?« 
holes bored in it near the bottom, the bottom one 
cutting out just a little at the end. Slip this down 
in the center of the feeder, and nail each side to It. 
This piece is to keep the thin sides of the feeder 
from bulging out when the feeder is filled, and the 
holes in the bottom of the stick are to allow the 
feed to run through from one side to the other, or 
it will be filled only from'one side.; 



There is nothing more to be done with it at pres- 
ent, except to paint the outside with two good coats 
of paint, when it is to be set away for two or three 
months, to have the paint thoroughly dry in the 
joints. When thus drj% melt five or six pounds of 
beeswax or paralhne (the latter preferred), heating- 
it quite hot, and pour into the feeder till full, when 
it is to be poured out again in a moment or two, us- 
ing it for another feeder, and so on till all are coat- 
ed with wax on the inside. If the wax is quite hot 
and the feeder well warmed, it will penetrate the 
wood to the depth of I-lti of an inch, which is a 
double preventive against leaking, while the main 
object is the keeping of the wood from taking up 
the feed by soaking, in which case the feeder soon 
becomes sour, and will sour the feed ever after- 
ward, unless at once taken up by the bees. 

We are now ready for the top-bar, which, after 
having a hole bored in it near one end for the point 
of a funnel to enter, is nailed on. Our feeder is 
now complete; and, barring accidents, it will last a 
lifetime. 

HOW TO USE. 

To use it, hang it in the hive the same as a frame; 
and if the colony is at all weak, put it at the side of 
the hive the furthest from the entrance. In fact, I 
always use it at one side of the hive: for in that 
case the slit which is cut in the quilt over the hole 
through which the funnel is inserted is always in 
the right place, while otherwise it would not be. 
Having the feeder in place, and the slit cut in the 
quilt, insert the funnel, pour in the feed and remove 
the funnel, when the slit will close up so no bees 
can get out or in the way. Twenty cubic inches of 
ordinary honey will weigh one pound, so it is easy 
to tell how many pounds your feeder will hold. 
Mine, made to fit the Gallup frame, holds nearly 5 
lbs., so I am sure not to run it over, if I feed 45^ ft>s. 
at a time. If I wish to feed more at a time I use 
two or more feeders; if less— well, I will tell you just 
how Ido, even if it does make this article a little long. 

To carry feed, I use a common watei'ing-pot with 
the rose, or sprinkler, taken oft'. This watering-pot 
is set on the scales, and feed poured in till one pound 
is registered. I now, with the point of mj^ knife, 
scratch the tin a little at the top of the feed in three 
different places, about equal distances apart; pour 
in another pound and mark again, and so on till the 
vessel is as full as I can carry it, which is generally 
about 1.5 ttis. I now pour out the feed, and wash and 
dry the watering-pot, when I touch a little paint, 
made of red lead, on each of the places scratched 
with the knife, and by the side of them I place fig- 
ures, made with the same paint, from 1 up to 15. 
When this paint becomes dry I always have a scale 
of pounds with me which tells me at once how much 
feed I have, and just what I am doing, as soon as 1 
hold the watering-pot level, and glance down into it. 

Now just a word as to why I like these feeders. 
Placed where I put them, they become a part of the 
side of the hive; and by knowing that the cluster of 
bees is next to them (as a few minutes' preparation 
will always make them), they will take the feed at 
any time of year if the feed is a little more than 
blood-warm when fed, so there is no danger of feed 
not being taken in cool or cold weather. Second. 
These feeders require no storage room, as they can 
be left in the hive when not in use, if it is wished so 
to do; and at such times they can be used as a 
division-board. Third. The weakest nucleus can 
be fed with no danger of robbing, when used as 1 



96 



GLEANINGS IN BEE nULTURE. 



Feb. 



have directed. Fourth. They are always handy, 
and no bees are in the way to bother while filling. 
Fifth. No float is required, as is the case with many 
of the feedei'S. Reader, make one or two for trial, 
during your leisure hours, and see if you do not 
agree with all I say. G. M. Doolittle. 

Borodino, N. Y., Jan., 1887. 

Friend D., you have given us some impor- 
tant suggestions in regard to the tise of 
what has been called a division-board feed- 
er; but why not cut into a solid piece of 
board with a circular saw, instead of having 
so much trouble to nail it up. and wax and 
paint it V The solid piece of board would 
probably hardly hold Ave pounds of honey ; 
but it seems to me it would be much cheap- 
er and more substantial. There are two or 
three patterns in our museum that have 
l)een sent in at different times. One great 
objection to these feeders with us was the 
running-over while filling; but this matter 
you have very ingeniously remedied. 



HOAV LONG HAS EXTRACTED HONEY 
BEEN ON THE MARKET ? 



FRIEND DADANT'S COMMENTS IN REGARD TO THE 
STATEMENTS ON PAGE 31, .JAN. 1. 



fKIEND Heddon, are you not making yourself 
older than you really are? Did you say 28 
years since we have been producing extracted 
honey? and " during all this time friend D. 
and his class .... etc."? lam trying to 
believe that it is a typographical error, and that 
you meant 18 years. But even that won't do, as I 
will show. 

Friend Heddon, you have a historical record in 
the old A. B. J. that you ought to refer to once in a 
while. Let me give a few reminiscences: 

In 186.5, 22 years ago, the honey-extractor was in- 
vented. 

In 1868 it was first described in the A. B. J., Vol. 3, 
page 189. 

In 18T0, A. B. .7., Vol. 6, page 118, friend Heddon 
reported .523 lbs. of hox honey from 6 colonies, and 
stated that he had as yet no " empt.ying machine." 
So it is just sixteen years, not 28, since Heddon has 
been using the " extractor," and producing and in- 
troducing extracted honey. 

But Mr. Heddon did as we did, and as you did, Mr. 
Editor; he began by extracting unripe honey. Then 
came adulteration, which we fought together for 
6 or 8 years. Now, adulteration is about scared ofl", 
both by our denouncing and by low prices. The 
principal adulterators even went so far as to pub- 
lish circulars to announce that tho> had stopped the 
practice. But honej' has been ct'c)/ plentiful for only 
about three years; and, as I said before, it Is iiat 
even now as cheap at retail as the wholesale prices 
would justify. In sugar.- and syrups, there is but a 
fraction of a cent between the wholesale and the 
retail price. 

Friend H. talks about " all this introducing!" In- 
deed, a little progress has been made. It took about 
ten years for us to obtain of the Boards of Trade 
the special quotaiion of " extracted " honey, which 
was going, and is still going, in many places, as 
"strained" honey. Why tell us that extracted 
honey will never be a staple, when its introduction 
is so new that not one person in a hundred knows 
the difference between strained and extracted? 



The people who like honey better than syrup 
" only because if, costs more," are the same ones who 
want strawberries in January and fresh oysters in 
July. Luckily we do not rely on this class for the 
sale of our extracted honey, for they will buy only 
the whitest comb honey, even if it is horsemint hon- 
ey, taste being no object. 

Friend Heddon says that the specialist alone will 
continue bee-keeping, and the small ones will drop 
out in the near future. Does not this prospect 
scare you, friend Root? More than two-thirds of 
your readers are either farmers, doctors, clergy- 
men, etc., not specialists, and you arc going to lose 
them I In answer, let me cite the woi-ds of Mr. G. 
H. Beard, a well-to-do farmer of Winchester, Mo , a 
bee-keeper, not specialist : 

" I find more difficulty in selling honey than in 
raising it, or wintering my bees; but with all that, 
it is my honey that pays the expenses of my 
farm in these hard times." 

To sum up: Honey is good, better than syrups. 
It can be produced as cheaply as cheap syrups, and 
must become a staple, sooner or later. We are too 
eager, too anxious, when we expect a radical change 
to take place in so short a time as that which has 
elapsed since we have found that we could produce 
it largely. Let us not become discouraged; let us 
sell loiv, and around home, and create a market for 
coming years. C. P. Dadant. 

Hamilton, 111. 

Perhaps, friend D., I should beg pardon 
for not having noticed the part referring to 
28 years. I recall to mind now, thinking it 
could not be so long a time, but I did not 
know wliere to find the figures readily. I 
believe I produced the first ton of extracted 
honey put upon the American market. Mr. 
Langstroth had made a rude extractor, and 
tested the sale of the new liquid honey by 
putting several jars full on the market. I 
believe a record of all this was given in the 
A. B. /., although I have not taken the time 
to look it up. If I have made no mistake, 
the honey-extractor was described in a bee- 
journal started in New York just a little be- 
fore the A . B. J. resumed— somewhere about 
20 years ago. The matter is of no practical 
moment, only it may be interesting to know 
just how long we have been teaching the 
people to use liquid honey, and I think 
friend Dadant's CMOsing paragraph is pretty 
near the truth. 



HONEY FROM THE "WILLOWS, ETC. 

HONEY-DEW ON THE BANKS OF THE MISSOURI. 



JT may be interesting to you to know what the 
bees are doing on the banks of the Missouri at 
Bluftton, Mo. We commenced with 6 colonies, 
two of which were in Simplicity hives, the 
other four being in box \\\\\ .«. They com- 
menced gathering pollen from ih" willows. The 
latter cover the islands here in the Missoini River, 
and are about the tiist thing lo Mooni liere. On 
this they built up quite rsipidly, and by the time 
fruit bloomed they were guile stmii}'-. when we 
transferred those in the box hive into Simplicities. 
It was our first attempt; but by following instruc- 
tions in the ABC of Bee Culture we got through 
with it pretty well. 

Bees commenced swarming earlier than usual, 
and did not seem to know when to quit. One could 



1887 



GLEA.N1NGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



97 



see a swarm passing over almost any day; how- 
ever, we did not lose any that we know of, neither 
did we allow ours to swarm more than once. 

The white-clover and basswood yield was rather 
short. Basswood yielded honey only a few days. 
All the white honey we secured was about 100 lbs. 

About the 28th of .June we had one of the heavi- 
est rains seen here for years; and after that we had 
none to amount to any thing for two months. This 
cut our honey-flow from flowers very short, as it set 
in very liot and dry just after the rain; but. fortu- 
nately, the honey-dew came in abundance, and the 
bees lost no time in taking advantage of the situa- 
tion. They would be out at daylight, and from that 
until al)Out 10 o'clock they seemed almost wild; but 
during the warm part of the day they would take a 
rest. This, we suppose, was due to the honey-dew 
being too thick when the water had evaporated. 
As nearly as we can estimate we e.\tracted about 
4.50 lbs., and procured about a.") lbs. in 1-lb. sections. 
We do not know exactly how much we extracted, as 
we have supplied father's house with honey since 
our first extracting; and being a family of seven, 
all of whom like honey, you may know that no 
small amount was consumed. Neither can we esti- 
mate just what it net us per pound, as we have not 
yet received returns for the greater part of it, but 
think it will be about 6 cts. per lb. We increased 
from 6 to 12, and bought three colonies from our 
brother, who promises to stay out of the bee-busi- 
ness in the future, so we count 15 colonies in Sim- 
plicity hives, not in the very best condition for win- 
ter, but trust they will come through all right, as 
they are sheltered from the northwesters by a bluff 
—something which we consider a great advantage 
to an apiary. 

We almost forgot to mention, that our own bees 
gathered some honey from a tall white flower that 
grows along the roadside, the name of which we do 
not know. We consider it equal to any honey we 
ever tasted. It is of a golden color. 

If a hive is opened while the bees are gathering 
this honey, one can detect the scent of this flower 
at some distance from the hive. It is a very com- 
mon weed here, but we consider it a splendid thing 
for bee-keepers, as it commences flowering in the 
latter part of August, and continues until frost. 

Mn,LER Bros. 

BluflFton, Montgomery Co., Mo., Dec. 31, 1886. 



HOTV OUR FATHERS DID. 

HOW Tf) SECURE WORKER COMB WITHOUT FOUN- 
DATION. 

ip CCORDING to the conclusions of several 
^. writers who tried to get perfect worker comb 
P without the use of full sheets of foundation, 
'^ as practiced by Mr. Hutchinson, it would 
seem as if there had never been any good 
set of combs before we had foundation. I wonder 
whether they have nevernoticedgood combs among 
a lot of box hives to transfer. Wherever such are 
found it can safely be said that they are built by 
after-swarras. There may not be many so found, 
but more regular results can be obtained; and a 
review of old-time bee-keeping will make it more 
plain. As stated before, we then kept our bees in 
straw hives, cone-shaped, and others consisting of 
rings piled up with flat covers, all wide enough to 
hold 8 to 9 combs. We put a piece of guide-comb 



in the center, and made them build straight. As 
the hives were all round, it will be seen that the 
center cruubs were the longest, and the extreme 
sides about the size of a hand. In order to get 
good stocks, with all worker cells, we put in early 
strong second swarms, natural or driven, and I do 
not remember of failing to get all worker comb, 
with the exception that one or at times both of 
these small side combs were biiilt drone comb, sim- 
ply enough needed by e\'ei-y colony. I say needed, 
because, if no drone com!) be allowed them they 
will disfigure other combs or go into the sections 
for that purpose. In first swarms we expected more 
drone comb, especiallj- where the queen was older 
than one year. Ifmay therefore be best to give the 
latter foundation where new combs have to be 
built. I used to trim down the lower edges of too 
tough old comb, aftei- swarming, which would he 
renewed, as soon as the young queen would he 
pressed for rooin, with worker comb. If such was 
practiced before swarming, more or less drone 
comb would be the result, and that for immediate 
use. Ever since I have used frames I do the same 
as I did in straw hi^•es to get worker comb. I put 
strong swarms with young queens on 7 to 9 frames, 
12x 10*2, and seldom see more drone comb than a 
little on one side. I so treated several last sea- 
son, some of which are in L. frames. In the latter 
it is much harder to get full frames, on account of 
their large size and shape. It is necessary that such 
swarms be put in early, so that they fill the frames 
thoroughly: for if left for the next season they are 
almost sure to be finished with drone comb, unless 
the hive be inverted to have them finished above, 
and then there might be some, if they are in need 
of it. 

To what extent foundation can be used profitably 
depends much on circumstances; what it costs one, 
whether he makes it himself, what his time is worth, 
etc. Foundation pays in all cases where no good 
results can be obtained without it, as in filling out 
the spaces in transferred colonies, building up of 
nuclei, late swarms, and adding frames, in in- 
creasing generally, where it is hard to get perfect 
worker combs built. As to moving surplus-cases 
with new swarms, 1 have also always v^racticed it; 
and as I work mainly for box honey I find it the 
best way to get even with bees that persist in 
swai'ming. It was also Mr. H. who remarked, some 
time ago, that as much comb as extracted honey 
could be obtained. Among the few believers in this 
I am one. C. H. Luttgens. 

Hammonton, N. J., Jan. 9, 1887. 



"WARMING OUR HOMES. 



FRIEND TERRY GIVES US A LITTLE TALK ON THE 
SUBJECT. 

fRIEND ROOT: — Some weeks ago I received 
two letters, thanking me for some things 
said in Gleanings, and asking me to tell how 
we warm our home. I am always glad to get 
and answer such letters, for then I know 1 
am writing something that some one wants to know 
about. Like every other family. I presume, wife 
and I have our particular notions. For example, 
we do not like a furnace. Having been brought 
up around wood fires in stoves and fireplaces, we 
do not feel quite warm and all right, some way, 
unless we can see the fire. Then, again, a furnace 



98 



(CLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



would make our cellar too warm to keep vegetables 
nicely. We want to keep the temperature there 
at about 34° during the winter. At that tempera- 
ture apples do not rot nor potatoes shrink and 
sprout. Therefore we decided against a furnace. 
Then came the question, " Shall we have grates ? " 
They are very pleasant and cheerful, and ventilate 
the rooms well, but they burn a large amount of 
fuel. In other words, a large part of the heat goes 
to waste. Then the3' are expensive, and it is a good 
deal of work to take care of them, and, really, in 
cold weather one wants to have the house warmed 
in some other waj', when he has a grate to sit by. 
About the time we were thinking over this ques- 
tion of how to warm our house, after it was built, 
a gentleman who had just put in a grate, and was 
loud in its praise, asked me to go home with him 
one evening and see for myself how cheerful and 
comfortable it was. I went, and there sat the wife 
with a heavy shawl around her shoulders, and her 
feet to the grate. One glance told the story— com- 
fort on one side. Well, wife and I, full partners, as 
Prof. Cook says, determined to warm our home so it 
would be comfortable, cheerful, and healthful, hav- 
ing due regard for economy and cleanliness, and so 
it should be as little trouble as possible to take care 
of the Are. For the latter purpose we determined 
that one lai-ge stove should warm the three main 
rooms below, and that it should be a base-burner 
anthracite -coal stove. To make it healthful we 
would not live in one room, but in two or three 
large ones, thus having lots of air-space, and then 
we would arrange for plenty of ventilation. We 
looked for a stove where we could see the Are burn- 
ing all around, so that it would be just as cheerful 
as a grate. As for comfort, after quite a trial (this 
is the fourth winter) we think we have found a 
pretty good supply of it. 



Parlor. 



niii 



Dininn-rovm. 



Bedroom. 



Before going further, please notice the ariange- 
ment of the main rooms below, as shown in the ac- 
companying plan. This plan merely gives the out- 
lines of the body of the house, without showing 
porches, bay window, pantry, kitchen, etc. This is 
sufficient for the point 1 am trying to bring out in 
this letter. You will notice, that from the dining- 
room into the bedroom, and also into the parlor, or 
li\'lng-room, there is a wide double door. These 
doors are eight feet high, so that, when open, the 
three rooms are practically one. The stove shovvn 
is in a position so central that it radiates heat read- 
ily into all the rooms. The doors may be closed 
so as to warm the dining-room, and either of the 
other rooms, or the dining-room alone. Ten or fif- 
teen minutes' work will take care of the fire for 34 
hours. Directly over the stove is a register opening 



into the hall above. From this hall are doors into 
five bedrooms. The chill can be taken off in these 
bedrooms, if desired, although a stove upstairs in 
the writer's office generally answers this purpose. 
The double doors opening into the bedroom open 
back into that room, one on each side. Of those 
opening into the parlor, one is hung on the other, 
and they fold around in front of the chimney. 

As I have written before, our kitchen was built 
for work. It is just the same size as Prof Cook's. 
We eat and live in the hest of the /(ou.sf— perhaps I 
should say in the body of the house, as the kitchen 
is just as nice and pleasant as any other room. I 
pity those poor people who live almost exclusively 
in the kitchen, or a rear dining-room, perhaps, and 
open up the main body of their house (not home) 
only when they have company. I am happy to say, 
that my wife thinks her husband and children are 
just as good as any other company. How I dislike 
to visit where they have to go and build a lire in the 
best part of the house, and be thrown all out of the 
regular order of things by my arrival ! 

As we use it, our stove burns about 4i4 to 5 tons 
of coal between, say, Sept. 15 and May 15. I paid 
last summer f 3.5.00 for 5 tons— not a very large sum 
for the comfort. The fire, of course, never goes 
out. To keep the entire house warm, upstairs and 
down, would probably take 8 tons. As to healthf ul- 
ness, as we use it we consider it all right; but a 
base-burner in a single room, poorly ventilated, 
would be another matter. When the children have 
company in the evening we give them the house 
below, and wife and 1 go to our large room (my of- 
fice, 16x18) upstairs. The floor of this room is 
deadened, so we hardly notice any racket that may 
be going on below. The bedroom below is used for 
company. 

I have written to you in favor of sunshine in our 
homes. There are 9 large windows and 3 glass 
doors in the three rooms. Our room (wife and I) 
upstairs has 4 large windows, and in a bright day 
in winter the sun will almost warm it. 

I should, perhaps, call attention to the fact, that, 
with a large (a little too large rather than too small) 
base-burner, properly managed, a gentle, uniform 
heat can be kept. The stove never becomes redhot, 
thus burning up the air. One can avoid being too 
hot one hour and too cold the next, as is often the 
case with wood-stoves or cheap soft-coal stoves. It 
is partly on this account, 1 think, that we have not 
had more than one-fourth as many colds in our 
family for the last three winters as we used to 
have; in fact, they are almost unknown. 

Hudson, O. T. B. Terrv. 

I believe, friend T., that I ngree with you 
in the main. I suppose you aie aware, that 
your base-burner could be arranged so as to 
take pure air directly from outdoors, without 
very much more expense. AV^ith the large 
number of rooms you have communicating 
with each other, however, I do not believe 
I would advise this. It takes very much 
more fuel, especially during zero weather, 
where all the air we require is brought by a 
cold-air pipe from outdoors. We have test- 
ed, at different times, ahuost all arrange- 
ments and appliances for heating. I do not 
like a furnace in the cellar, because there is 
always more or less liability of leakage that 
will permit coal gas to come into the rooms. 
Xew furnaces often work without this 
trouble for two or three years ; but when 



1S87 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CrLTlRE. 



9» 



they get old there is great liability of trouble 
of this kind. Where circumstances are fa- 
vorable, steam does the business nicely, and 
the heat may be distributed and made to 
come exactly wliere you want it, and no heat 
where you prefer none. By the way, 1 pre- 
sume you meant you would like to keep your 
potatoes at a temperature of about 84 ; and 
that whenever the weather is cold enough 
you keep it pretty nearly there. To keep it 
at all times at or about 34 would require the 
very best modern appliances for cold storage. 



FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS. 

FOUNDATION OR NO FOUNDATION. 

■R. BASS objects to empty brood-nests, when 
hiving swarms, on the ground that, in his 
locality, the yield is slow. At the Indian- 
apolis Convention, Mr. Poppleton sug- 
gested that my success might be attributa- 
ble to the same reason; viz., a long, slow flow. I 
do not think the success of my plan would be ma- 
terially affected by either. It the flow is abundant, 
the bees are furnished all the fdn. they can draw 
out in the supers; while if it is slow the bees cer- 
tainly have abundant" time in which to draw out 
fdn. in the supers. If they can only be started, 
at the outset, to working with a " boom " in the 
sections, there will be no crowding of the queen, 
nor building of drone comb, unless the queen is 
about to be superseded. Mr. Bass made the mis- 
take of using too large a brood-apartment. 

I guess you are right, friend Root; the matter is 
more complex than it appears upon the surface, 
and the publication of a few short articles scatter- 
ed through the various journals does not present 
the subject in the best possible manner; and I am 
going to thankfully accept your suggestion and 
"roll up my sleeves," mentally, clear up to my 
shoulders, and write a little book covering the 
whole subject of comb-honey production, as I prac- 
tice it, and have it published in time for use next 
spring. W. Z. Hutchinson. 

Rogersville, Mich., Jan. 7, 1887. 



CAN BEES FROM TWO DIFFERENT QUEENS WORK 
HARMONIOUSLY IN THE SURPLUS-BOXES? 

I have received the first three numbers of Glean- 
ings, and must say that I am well pleased with it, 
as an exponent of advanced apiculture. 1 wish to 
ask two questions. First, if I make my hive long 
enough to hold 16 frames (Gallup), and put a solid 
division-board in the center, with perforated zinc 
honey-board over all, and two entrances, one on 
the south and one on the east, the queens being 
thus confined to their respective chambers, would 
the bees work agreeably in the upper story of the 
hive? If so, would there be any advantage in such 
procedure? Second, are bees moi-e liable to store 
pollen in sections IVo inches thick than they are in 
thicker ones? J. M. Cruickshank. 

Lyons, Ontario, Canada. 

The plan you give will not work with any 
certainty for any length of time, friend C. 
During the rush of the honey-season, bees 
from different hives may mix up indiscrimi- 
fiately ; but as soon as the honey-flow is 



over, one of the queens will be balled, and 
you will eventually have but one swarm of 
bees. The matter has been thoroughly gone 
over by having division-boards that shrink, 
and letting the bees pass through or over 
them. I think likely the queen would be 
more apt to go into the sections where the 
latter were so much nearer the thickness of 
an ordinary brood-comb, although I have 
not tested the nintter from experience. Can 
any of the friends inform usV 



ALSIKE clover for THE SOUTH. 

1 see in Gleanings that you advise Southern 
bee-keepers to plant alsike clover to better the 
quality of Southern honey. Will the clover do well 
here ? Will the Chapman honey-plant do ? My 
place is on the Brazos River, subject to overflow 
occasionally. Will the clover stand it ? I saw Dr. 
O. M. Blanton's report (Gle.\nings for Nov. 1), and 
he says cypress barrels are the best that he has ever 
used. Won't the honej' taste of the cypress, and ruin 
the sale of it— it there is any ? Dr. B. is an old bee- 
keeper, and should know. Won't iron hoops do on 
the cj'press barrels, as well as Avood ? C. F. Muth's 
price for oak barrels is $2.00, without any inside 
coating or paint. They cost here about S^S.OO— too 
much. I find that people don't want to pay for bar- 
rels or any other vessel. I receive letters wanting 
me to ship honey to them on commission, one from 
Chicago; at the present prices the freight would 
cost more than the honey would sell for. Some of 
the parties writing don't give references. 

J. W. Park. 

Columbia, Brazos Co., Tex., Dec. 24, IS86. 

Friend P., I can not tell you whether al- 
sike clover will do well with you or not. It 
can be settled only by experiment. But 1 
think you can be sure of this, any way : It 
can be- raised in any locality where red or 
white clover will grow\— The supposition is, 
that the Cliapman honey-plant will grow 
anywhere— or, at least, I should feel safe in 
saying in anyplace where thistles will grow. 
—I am not acquainted with cypress for bar- 
rels. Will Dr. Blanton tell us about itV— Be 
very careful about shipping honey — not only 
to lohom you ship, but ascertain beforeliand, 
as near as possible, whether the transaction 
promises to be a paying one. I understand 
it is not very unusual for commission-men 
to sell goods for only enough to pay freight, 
cartage, and commission ; and I have known 
of some commission-men who were very cool 
about such transactions. It seems to 'me a 
fearful way to do liusiness ; and if any com- 
mission-man has any regard for his patrons, 
it seems to me he should manage in some 
way to avoid having goods shipped him, to 
meet such a fate as this. 



HOW TO EMPTY THE HONEY-SACK, WITHOUT IN- 
.JURV TO THE BEE. 

I have often noticed, by writers in bee-journals, 
and some, again, quite lately, in Oct. Gle.\nings, 
as well as one number of the A. B. J., where bees 
are dissected for the simple purpose of getting 
their honey. As this is not only a tedious and un- 
necessary operation, and, for that purpose, imper- 
fect. I beg leave to inform the readers of Glean- 
ings of a better and more simple way, and one, 
also, which will spare the bee from any harm. 
Take the bee the usual way. with both wings be- 



100 



(ILKANINGS IN liKE Clll/ri'lil-:. 



Feb. 



tween the thumb and first linger of the right hand. 
The bee will then put out its sting. Now press the 
sting gently against something hard — wood or 
glass: keep on pressing, and keep her as straight as 
possible. Her extremity is thus made to press 
against the honey-sack, which compels her to force 
up to her mouth whatever she has. honey or water, 
and show you the drop, large or small, between her 
mandibles. This can then be taken from her with 
the head of a pin or a pen-knife point, in the left 
hand, for examination, and the boe left to go for 
more. If I want to only see the honey or water, I 
press lier against my left thumb-nail, let her swallow 
it back, and let her go. Several bees can be exam- 
ined in a minute, as they come dropping on the 
alighting-board, if desired. C. H. Luttgbns. 

Hammonton, N. .T., Dec. 21, 1886. 

If we understand you, friend Jj., your 
plan is something like the closing-up of a 
telescope. The abdomen of the bee is con- 
tracted lengthwise, producing a pressure 
upon the honey-sack, causing its contents 
to be forced out. The idea is certainly an 
ingenious one, and the bee-keepers owe yon a 
vote of thanks, especially since it helps us 
to preserve the lives of our little pets. I 
have seeii men take up their beautifully 
marked Italians as they came in laden fiom 
the fields, and coolly disembowel them ; but 
I confess, my opinion of a man who does 
this falls a notch or two, in spite of myself. 
I have many times been very anxious to 
know what the bees were gathering, but I 
did not like to kill a bee to find out. Once, 
after I had watched nearly half an hour to 
satisfy myself, 1 saw a bee alight with mud- 
dy feet, and then I guessed they were carry- 
ing water, and I traced them directly to the 
brook. By means of your invention I could 
have satisfied myself in an instant. 



A PLEA FOR THE SABBATH; HOW TO MAKE SITN- 
D.4Y SWARMS COME OUT ON SATURDAY. 

Several years ago, when I first began keeping 
bees, 1 was too ignorant of their habits to make 
artificial swarming a success, and knew no other 
way to care for natural swarming than to watch 
them " through thick and thin," Sundays and all 
days. Later on, 1 began to watch only at such times 
as colonies were about sealing their queen cells. 
After two or three years ray stupid brain took in 
the situation, and since then I have not stayed at 
home on Sunday to watch bees. Bees swarm with 
the sealing of the cells or first cell. Knowing this I 
keep cells built, during swarming time, from my 
best queen in a manner costing no e.xtra time or 
queenlessness of stocks — always, however, being 
cai'ef ul to keep the dates, so as to know when a cell 
will hatch. In order to prevent swarming on Sun- 
day, 1 look the bees over on Friday a! out noon. 
The experienced eye will detect at once'siich colo- 
nies as will be ready to cast swavms in 2 to 4 days. 
To such give a sealed queen-cell, slipping it between 
the frames, and on Saturday you may exjiect, al- 
most with certainty, a swarm from that hive. T 
give this for those who, like myself, are obliged or 
prefer to have aday to themselves occasionally, and 
leave the apiary alone. This method is quick and 
effectual, Italianizing from your best queen at the 
same time; and last, but not least, having the Sab- 
bath to yourself. This plan is original with me, 



yet I doubt not others have thought it out as well; 
yet T have never seen it in print. I usually clip my 
queens' wings. C. M. Goodspbbd. 

Thorn Hill, N. Y., Jan., 1887. 

Your idea of obliging swarms to come out 
when you wish to have them do so is not 
entirely new, friend G. I know it will 
sometimes work as you say ; but it is my 
impression, that a good many times it will 
not. We shall be glad to hear from others 
who have tested it. 



QUEENS BY SPECIAL DELIVERY. 

As the delivery system has been extended to all 
mail matter as well as to all postofiices, it occurs to 
me that it will be a good thing for queen-rearers 
as well as for the purchasers. When any one or- 
ders a queen, he, of course, wants her as soon as 
possible. Now, by sending ten cents in addition to 
the price of the queen he would get her just as 
soon as she can possibly come through the mails; 
and if he lives within the delivery of a nj' free-de- 
livery postofflce, or within one mile of any post- 
office, it will be delivered to him at once by a spe- 
cial messenger (see " Notice to Public," from P. M. 
General, posted in all postofflces). There are some 
whom this would not benefit very much; viz., those 
that receive only weekly or semi-weekly mail; but 
1 think the majority of the purchasers would be 
benefited by it. Ordinary fourth-class matter is 
not attended to in the mails until the first-class has 
been disposed of, therefore it is more liable to mis- 
carry; but fourth-class matter bearing a special- 
delivery stamp will be disposed of before ordinary 
first-class matter, thereby going through with the 
greatest possible dispatch. 

What do you think of it, Mr. Root? Why not say, 
in your catalogue, that, if ten cents in addition to 
the price of the queen is sent, you will send her 
by special delivery? As the queen-trade is over 
for this year it may come good next year, pro- 
vided you approve of the suggestion. 

S. E. Miller, P. M. 

Bluffton, Mo., Dec. 4. 1886. 

Friend M., this matter has been suggest- 
ed before ; but before putting it in the price 
list, let us have some experiments to see 
just how it works. No doubt it will many 
times prove quite a convenience. 



does the BUSINESS OF HONEY-PRODUCING PAY ? 

I wish to ask a question or two concerning bee 
culture. 

1. Is it your candid opinion that the bee-business, 
when strictly confined to the production of honey at 
present prices, can be made a success financially ? 

2. How many colonies of bees will the flora of any 
one locality support profitably, where there is con- 
siderable woodland, and where the white clover 
abounds in its season ? 1 see there is considerable 
controversy on this subject, some maintaining that 
less than 100 will sufliciently'stock a district bounded 
by the distance of flight of the bees from any given 
place in the working season, while others claim (hat 
many more may be profitably kept. I think that, 
with your experience, you will be able to answer 
the questions satisfactorily. Richard L. Oleoo. 

Peoria, Union Co., O , Dec. 20, 1886. 

Friend C, 1 do not know how it is possi- 
ble to answer such questions as yours. Tt 
is just like asking if the strawberry business 
pays. The answer would be, with some 



1887 



Ui.EANlNGS TM BEE CULTURE. 



101 



people, that it pays splendidly ; but with a 
great many, perhaps it does not pay expens- 
es. Agaiii, no one can tell what a locality 
will do nntil it has been tested, and this 
applies both to soil and climate. By read- 
ing the reports given in every number, you 
will see that the bee-business pays some peo- 
ple. We also try to have reports in every 
number, from those who do not make it 
pay. In regard to the number of stocks in 
any one locality, it is rarely profitable to 
keep more than 100 in a place ; yet very good 
results have been made from 150 and some- 
times 200 on one spot. 1 am of the opinion, 
however, that 50 colonies will gather more 
honey per colony than will a larger number. 

AN APPEAL TO THE HONEY-BEE. 
Pretty little busy bee, 
Don't you make yourselves so free. 
Raising eane aiuonp your neighbors 
With your tiny pumps anil sabers; 
Going into people's iKUises. 
Cra\vling up the lens nf trousers, 
Getting your protectors lilamert— 
I should tliink you'd be ashamed, 
Stealing sweets from clioiuest fruits- 
Better stop, you little brutes. 
Better spend your leisure hours 
Pumping nectar from the flowers — 
See what a rumpus you are raising 
By your everlasting hazing. 
Now can't you look this matter over 
And get your ueetar from the clover? 
There's lots of room in fields and glen- 
Go there and get your honey, then, 
And don't be putting on such style- 
Quit buzzing people all the while, 
rll try you ]ust another season. 
And see if you have any reason; 
But if yoTi've not, I'll not abhor you , 
But have a little reason for you. 

J. K. Swipes. 



PHENOL .\N effective CUBE FOR FOUL BROOD. 

If you feed your bees in the early spring, to pro- 
mote breeding, or even if you do not, make candy 
as per the ABC book; and when making it, add to 
it the proper proportion (I use 1 in TOO) of phenol, as 
given by Frank Cheshire. Place the same on top 
of frames at the proper time, and note the results. 
In my experience every vestige of the disease will 
have disappeared unless the colony was too far 
gone. Please try it, and report for the benefit of 
others. When I first took up bee-keeping I was 
very enthusiastic, and wrote considerably for the 
bee-papers. Well, my friend, let me tell you that, 
though I have had considerable e.xperience since 
then, I don't know as much now as I thought I did 
then; and, though I am learning every day, yet I 
don't feel so much like rushing off to print it as 
I did. A Bee-Keeper. 

A PUMPKIN BEE-HIVE. 

We take the following from the Santa 
Maria (Cal). Times : 

One day this week Mr. Shu man, who resides a few 
miles west of town on the Guadaloupe road, was 
gathering his pumpkins. He placed one on the 
wagon, from which he noticed bees issuing. E.xam- 
ination revealed the fact that the interior of the 
pumpkin was full of honey; in fact, it was a verita- 
ble bee-hive. The bees had gained access through 
a crack in one side of the vegetable, and had taken 
up permanent quarters. Mr. Shu man took out 
eight pounds of tine honey. Is there any other land 
under the sun where the farmer can raise his own 
pumpkins and honey on the same vine 'i* 

Perhaps some of our older readers remem- 
ber this matter is not new, after all. Some 
years ngo the matter of having bee-hives 
made from th'^ sugar-trough gourd was dis- 
cussed. Surplushoii.-^v receptacles were to 
be made of small g mrds stuck to the side of 
the larger one. at the proper point. We 
should then have, not " sugar in a gourd."' 



but honey in a gourd. Probably gourd bee- 
hives can be produced cheaper than any 
thing else— that is, if we were going to dis- 
card movable frames. 



\ COLONY OF BEES IN THE OPEN AIR, WITH THEIR 
COMBS FASTENED TO GRASS AND WEEDS. 

Inclosed, a dollar you will see. 

For which send Gleaninss here to nu>. 

By experience. I have found 

It is useful, the year around. 

In winter, siiring, and summer too, 

It will tell us what to do. 

It also tells us where to tlnd 

Queens aiul supplies of every kind. 

In the August No. we read a short but interesting 
account of " How Bees Work in the Open Air in 
California." It reminds me of the work of a colony 
in Northern Indiana during the past season. In- 
stead of building their comb.s to the limb of a tree, 
they made their house in the tall grass and weeds. 
The combs were attached to and suspended by only 
grass and weeds, and the outer ones were built so 
as to partially protect the inner ones from rain, etc. 
Of course, this answered very well for summer, but 
I am afraid they are not provided with very good 
winter quarters. 

DOES COLOR IN CLOTHING ANGER BEESV 

A few years ago. when I first caught the bee- 
fever I visited the apiary of a German bee-keeper 
at Valparaiso, Ind. He had in the yard at the time, 
90 strong colonies, mostly hybrids, and I thought 
them about the Grossest bees I had ever met. I 
had hardly stepped out aiflong them befoi-e they 
commenced operations on me; and as they went at 
me in force it is hai'dly necessary to say I retreated. 
My friend dropped a hint then which I have never 
seen expressed in a bee-journal; but from experi- 
ence since, I believe it to be true. He said, " Didn't 
you know dat bees shust hate black clothes?" He 
always wears a light-colored suit while working in 
the apiary, and gets fewer stings in consequence. 

Westville, Ind. E. L. Reynolds. 

G. M. DOOLITTLE, and HOW DOES HE WORK OVER 
THE HIVES? 

Inclosed find $1M, for which please send Glean- 
ings for 1887, as I can not get along without it. I 
like the picture so well in Gleanings, "The Apia- 
rist at Work," that I can not help asking Mr. Doo- 
little to send bis picture and a cut of his apiary, 
with him sitting on his work-bench. Any way, I 
should like to see 280 lbs. at work. 

Bees have, so far, done well on their summer 
stands. They are snowed under at present, but I 
hope they will come out all right. J. V. Mishleh. 

Ligonier, Noble Co., Ind., Jan. 6, 18S7. 

If friend Doolittle will comply, we will 
have an engra\ing made to satisfy friend 
M. and others of our readers. 



FROM NORTHWEST MISSOURI. 

I commenced the season with 48 colonies, two of 
them queenless, •'> or 6 weak, the lest frOm medium 
to good. I increased to 7.5, and obtained .5600 lbs. of 
honey— 150 lbs. of which was in sections. I have 
about 3.50 lbs. on hand yet. The rest is sold nr an 
average of 10 cents a pound. My bees are well sup- 
plied with natural stores. I never feed sugar unless 
ms' bees are short of natural stores. We have a 
very good country here for bees, and bee-men are 
scarce. I know of some very good locations in this 
part, and cheap, compared with most places in the 
North. L. G. Purvis. 

Forest City, Mo. 



102 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



SWEET CLOVER AS A TREE IN TEXAS. 

Editor Gleanings:— Yon doubtless remember a 
note I sent you in October, about a plant which 
grows along the cliffs and rocky lands of our coun- 
try. 1 also sent with the note a branch and blos- 
som of the plant, or tree, you might call it, and 
asked you to name it, but you seemed to be sur- 
prised that I didn't know it was nothing but com- 
mon sweet clover. Well, it's true that I never saw 
any sweet clover to know it, but supposed it was a 
weed or grain. For fear you might have made a 
mistake, or that you did not take much time to 
examine the branch sent you before, I send you a 
block of wood sawed from one of the branches, and 
I ask you to reconsider the matter, and see if you 
can find a name for it. Tt grows from six to ten 
feet high, and is sometimes large enough to make 
fence-rails out of. The timber is very hard and 
durable. The shoots are very straight, and often, 
while out hunting, I have used them for ramrods 
for my ritle. J. P. Caldwell. 

San Marcos, Tex., Dec. 6, 1886. 

Ill reply, I wrote friend C. as follows : 
I never saw any sweet clover with a stalk 
as hard as the sample you send ; but as it 
has the very familiar taste of the plant, I 
think there is no question but that it is the 
same thing we have here. With us, how- 
ever, it always dies down in the winter. 
Do you mean to say that with you the same 
stalk grows year aftei' year like" trees ? 

Certainly, the plant grows year after year, like 
any other tree or bush. The blossom is vei-y fra- 
grant, and the mountains are strewn with its de- 
licious flavor twice a year. J. P. Caldwell. 

San Marcos, Tex. 

From the above it seems there is no ques- 
tion but that sweet clover, in climates suf- 
ficiently mild, changes its habit to that of 
a hard woody tree. I presume the leaves, of 
course, drop in the winter time. The next 
question will be. Is it still a good honey- 
plant V If I am correct, with us it fre- 
quently produces two sets of blossoms in a 
season, especially where a severe drought 
causes it to drop its leaves and dry up. 



HONEY FROM HARD MAPLE. 

The honey I sent, I think no doubt was obtained 
from hard maple, a part of it. I had no honey-dew 
honey— never have had in this State. I get some 
of the same kind every warm May. The largest 
colonies get it— the small ones, never. This year I 
extracted the first of it the fore part of June. 
Next year ] will watch and make assurance doubly 
sure. 

We have much maple timber near us, and we 
have large colonies early enough to gather it, and 
I think we fail only when the weather is too cool 
for bees to work, or the colonies are too small to 
get it. All my bees wintered in the cellar, and 
were not brought out till April 15. 1 failed to get 
any to show. Their brood probably used up all 
they obtained. 

We regard our last season's experience as 10 lbs. 
per colony in favor of outdoor wintering, on ac- 
count of this early gathering. Another spring 
may not so prove, but we shall see; 80 colonies are 
now in the cellar, as nice as can be— have been in 
just a month; 11.5 are outdoors, which had a nice 
fly Dec. 11. I have no doubt my outdoor bees will 



surpass my cellar bees in early honey by more than 
10 lbs. next year. T. F. Bingham. 

Abronia, Mich., Dec. 30, 1S86. 

The subject of hard maple came up at the 
Michigan Convention, and I asked friend B. 
to send me a sample of the hard -maple 
honey. I thought perhaps it might be 
something like maple molasses ; however, it 
tasted to me more like honey-dew; hence 
my suggestion, and the above is friend B.'s 
reply. 

HOW TO MAKE MILK PAINT FOR COVERING 
HIVES, ETC. 

I have been reading part first of Our Homes, and 
have commenced making drains, foot-paths, and 
cisterns, as per your directions. I should like to 
know just how you make the milk paint that stands 
so well; also directions how to make the very best 
kind of cistern for greenhouses. I have only one 
colony of bees left. I lost all the others by foul 
brood. 1 am very busy now with the greenhouses 
—no time for bees, but expect to try them in a 
cucumber-house before long. E. Grainger. 

Toronto, Ont., Nov. 33, 1886. 

Friend ii., milk paint is made by stirring 
water lime, such as is used for cisterns, in 
skimmed milk. If you can not get skimmed 
milk, use sweet milk. It will be much 
cheaper then than paint ; and if put on new 
rough boards it will stand for years. If the 
boards are old, and have commenced to de- 
cay on the surface, it will peel ofl:, taking 
the old surface with it. — I should enjoy 
hugely taking a peep at your cucumber 
greenhouses. 

THE LOW PRICE OF HONEY, AND ITS COST OF 
PRODUCTION. 

I can not forbear letting you know how well I 
like Gleanings. T take several very interesting 
papers; but when I get Gleanings they all have to 
wait until that is read, even to the advertisements, 
for 1 am always anxious to know all that is going 
on in the bee-world, even to who has got some- 
thing to sell, and what it is. 

I should like to say a few words on a subject that 
is being ablj' discussed by several of our leading 
bee-masters; namely, the low price of honey. In 
the years gone by, bee-keeping has been highly 
profitable where any effort was made to make it so, 
and wbyV Simply because it was not very much 
of a business in those days. There were but few 
specialists then in the business; the farmers pi'o- 
duced the most of the honey-crop, and but a com- 
paratively small amount was then placed on the 
market, and it brought fancy pi-ices. Now the 
large numbers of specialists engaged in the busi- 
ness are placing so many thousand tons of honey 
on the market that bee-keeping is being forced 
down to a business basis, and I do not think it is 
quite down yet. In the near future I expect to 
sell a nice article of comb honey for 10 cents per 
lb., perhaps for eight; but if I can get to winter my 
bees successfully, I am satisfied that I can raise it 
for that at a profit. G. E. Hutchinson. 

Rogersville, Genesee Co., Mich. 

May I caution you a little in regard to be- 
ing in too great hurry to get the price of 
honey down f It will get down fast enough 
without any such suggestions as you make. 
I think you will find it close enough work to 
produce" comb honey at 12^ cts. wholesale, to 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



103 



say nothing of 8 and 10 cts. Enthusiasm is 
a good thing, but it does not always pay 
debts and get us out of cramped places. 

GETTING THE MOTH OUT OF COMBS BY MEANS 
OF SUN HEAT. 

Moth worms may not trouble you any, but here 
they are very troublesome as soon as the combs 
are away from the bees. Picking- them up with a 
pin is a long- job, and sulphur fumes are not al- 
ways handy. As there may be some who, once in a 
while, will ha\e combs with worms in, I will g-ive 
you my way of killing them. 

When the sun shines bright and warm! take my 
combs, two or more at a time— this depends on how 
warm the sun is, and set them where it will shine 
directly in the cells. In a short time the worms 
will begin to hunt the shady side, when I turn the 
combs over and repeat the operation till the worms 
have all left, or are dead. By being- careful, not a 
cell will be injured, even if the sun is warm enough 
to melt the comb entirely, if left a few minutes too 
long. Aug. Leyvraz. 

Francis, Fla., Dec. 24, 1886. 

I have noticed, that when combs were set 
out in the sun, the worms crawled out of 
the cells, but it never occurred to me before 
that it was the heat of the sun that made 
them vacate. If your plan will scare them 
all out, it is certainly quite an item, espe- 
cially where black bees are kept. 



tenement plan of wintering. 

When spring opened last season, we had 58 colo- 
nies with which to begin the season. Fifty of the 
number were in gooil condition to gather honey. 
Our crop, 3000 lbs. of comb honey in one-pound sec- 
tions, and 1.500- lbs. of e.vtracted, was of extra qual- 
ity. 

Twenty-three colonies were wintered in chaff 
bee-houses, nmde to winter four and eight. They 
came out in fine condition. I think this plan of 
outdoor wintering is one of the cheapest and safest 
plans known, and one of the most convenient. 
As they are made adjustable, all bulkiness of 
hives in the summer time is avoided, and they are 
also a great protection in spring, against the cold 
wind. Mj' apiary of 123 stands will be arranged on 
this plan in fours, two facingjjthe east and two 
facing the west. 

We have tried to see how much honey we could 
sell here at home, and I think we did well, consid- 
ering that the number of inhabitants is less than 
one thousand. When we began to sell honey we 
held ours at 15 cents. In a short time the farmers 
began to bring in honey, selling it at 10 cents in 
the comb, but we have managed to get 10 cents on 
an average for it, and have sold 1.500 lbs. at home, 
and expect to sell more. W. S. Dokman, .58—133. 

Mechanicsville, la., Jan. 12, 1887. 



LICKING stamps. 

See here, friend Root; don't object to people rub- 
bing postage-stamps on their hair, as Mr. Waller 
suggests at the bottom of page 27 of Gleanings for 
Jan. 1, to prevent their sticking together. Your 
objection is, that if hair-oil is used the stamps will 
be greasy, and won't stick, and that " t'other fel- 
low " might " lick his tongue on the stamp after it 
had been rubbed on greasy hair." Now, a better 
way is to not have that " t'other fellow " nor any 
one else " lick " postage-stamps at all. Sometimes 



they get licked too much and don't stick well, and 
get lost from the letter or package. Just let them, 
that is, that " t'other fellow," and everybody else, 
lick, or wet the corner of the envelope, and then 
place on the stamp without " licking " it. If one 
has lots of letters or circulars to stamp, just lap a 
lot of them, leaving room for stamps uncovered, 
and, with a small wet sponge or cloth, wet all at 
once, and then put on a large number of stamps in 
a twinkling. A.B.Mason. 

Auburndale, O., Jan. 3, 1887. 



]\[0¥EP -ft^iJ) QaERIEg. 



WILL BASSWOOD GROW FROM CUTTINGS ? 

ILL linden (basswood) grow from cuttings? 
If so, when should they be cut, when plant- 
ed, and how should they be treated, from 
beginning to end? Will they grow as fast 
as Cottonwood? U. H. Walker. 

Sabetha, Kan., Jan. 10, 1887. 

[They will grow from cuttings, but it requires an 
experienced hand to do it. The subject is fully 
treated in our back numbers. I think they will 
grow fully as fast as cottonw-ood. The cuttings re- 
quire a special treatment that makes it somewhat 
expensive; nnd as seedlings are offered for SIO.OO 
per 1000 or less, the decision was that it would not 
pay to grow cuttings.] 

ALSIKE FOR PASTURAGE. 

Alsike makes splendid bee-pasture. It is hard to 
beat for hay for horses or cattle. They prefer It 
to any other hay. S. H. F. Schoulte. 

National, Iowa, Dec. 29, 1886. 



AN APIARY NEAR WATER. 

If an apiary is located near a river or lake, <>r 
on an island of 1 acres, would many of the bees 
be drowned? Chas. F. Clark. 

Cokeville, Wyo. 

[Unless there are high winds or stormy weather, 
we think there will be very few bees lost, under 
the circumstances you mention; in fact, a few col- 
onies have been kept under similar cii-cumstances, 
with very good results.] 

OMITTING separators, ETC. 

Please let me know if the criticisms of some 
friends against the practice of omitting separators 
between section boxes are well founded when the 
boxes are notched all around, as lately suggested, 
and I believe practiced, by friend Foster. 

Knoxville, Tenn., Dec. 7, 1886. Adrian Getaz. 

[My iiiii>i-essi()ii is, f ricnil G., that even with friend 
Foster's jilan of woikiuti-. we can not afford to omit 
the sepsinitors. if we want to have real nice straight 
honey.] 

A REPORT IN REGARD TO BARNES BROTHERS' 
FOOT-POWER BUZZ-SAW. 

I bought a new combined Barnes machine, with 
treadle, and a crank attachment. It was the 
fourth machine I have bought of their make. It 
is very much better than the old combined. I have 
used both. G. M. Morton. 

Smithboro, N. 1'., Nov. 27, 1886. 



I should like to ask Ernest if he introduces virgin 
queens to nuclei in the same way as described on 
page 1000, Dec. 15. Geo. W. Cook. 

Spring Hill, Johnson Co., Kan., Dec. 22, 18S6. 

[[ have never tried inti-oducing virgin queens by 
the Peet process, as described in Dec. 1.5th issue, but I 
presume that it could be done. D. A. Jones claims 
to do it successfully; and if it can be done at all. I 
believe that the Peet cage will do it successfully.] 



104 



GlEAi^lNGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



THE CHAPMAN HOJS EY-PLANT. 

We find the following paragraph in the Briti>(?i 
Bee Journal for Jan. 6 : 

We may here mention, tliat Mr. Cowan informs 
us that he has grown Echinops Sph«?rooephalus for 
eight or nine years, and classes it high as a bee-plant. 



CAN FOUNDATION GIVE FOUI- BROOD 'i 

Don't yon thinli foul brood can be spread from 
foundation made from diseased comb? 

Chas. H. Van Vechtin. 
Victor, N. Y., Nov. 23, 1886. , 

[I do not believe it possible, friend V., for foul 
brood to be communicated in the way you mention. 
In making foundation we always melt "the wax, and 
the temperature of melted wax is death to any fun- 
goid or animal life.] 

HOW *3.7.5 INCIiEASED TO fl.5.00. 

I want to tell you about my bees. This summer, 
the last of .Tune, I bought 1 lb. of bees and a queen, 
and put them on 10 frames of old comb, and they 
are a nice large swarm, now worth $15.00, and they 
cost me only $3.75 for bees, queen, expressage, $1.00 
worth of sugar, and my time. Pretty good, isn't it ? 

Jackson, Mich. Clarence W. Bond. 



THE BARNES SAWS. 

I write you in regard to the Barnes foot-power 
saws. Do you think I could saw four-piece sections 
with it? White poplar is what I intend to use. I 
am a rather stout man. W. D. Soper. 

Jackson, Mich., Dec. «, 1886. 

[Yes, friend S., you can saw four-piece sections 
with the Barnes foot-power saw; but I think that, 
even if you ai-e a stout man, you would begin to 
think of an engine before you had sawed many 
thousand, especially if you try to produce them ait 
the figure they are now advertised. If you think 
best to try it, we should like to have a report from 
you in regard to the matter.] 



FINE WIRE FOR SEPARATORS. 

Have you ever tried fine wire stretched on your 
broad frames, about ^4, of an inch apart, for separa- 
tors? I can't see why it would not answer, and be 
no hindrance whatever to bees passing in any 
direction through the openings in the sections. 

D. S. Benedict. 

Ludington, Mason Co., Mich., Dec. 20, 1886. 

[We have never tried flue wire, friend B., al- 
though the matter has been suggested before in 
our back volumps. The difficulty of putting them 
on and keeping each one of them stretched tight 
is what deterred me from testing it. Besides, after 
we got them on, unless the wide frames were han- 
dled very carefully they would be very easily in- 
jured. If any of our readers have ever tried it, we 
should be glad of a report.] 



A honey-cupboard— HOW TO MAKE. 

Will you please infoi'm me how to inclose a honey- 
cupboard ? I am making one to hold about 1000 lbs. 
of comb honey. A show-case will form the toj) to 
hold sections or prize boxes. Would you inclose the 
lower part with wire screen, to keep air to the hon- 
ey, or with lumber ? F. S. Thorington. 

Chillicothe, Mo., Dec. 2, 1886. 

[Friend T., I believe it is not usual to keep such a 
quantity of honey in a cupboard; and before we 
can tell whether it had better be inclosed In a wire 
screen or lumber, we should like to know some- 
thing about the room that contains it. If the room 
is one where it does not freeze, and the air is com- 
paratively dry the year round, wire cloth would 
perhaps be best; but if there is danger of frost 
enough to make a precipitate of moisture on the 
surface of the honey, you had better shut it up as 
tight as you can, with hoards.] 



^EP6^¥? Dl?C0ai^^6IN6. 



the honey season of 1886 ON THE LOWER 
MISSISSIPPI. 

R. EDITOR: — The honey season of 1886 Is 
past, and for this locality I have to record 
an almost absolute failure. I began the 
season with 125 colonies, very strong. 
A cold spell in April struck the apiary, 
and all of the strongest colonies were left with 
chilled bi-ood. I lost over 20 colonies from this 
cause. Those hives had from nine to thirteen combs 
filled with brood, and did not have bees sufficient to 
cover the combs during the cold spell, and the brood 
died from cold; hence I had not one fair-sized swarm 
during the entire season. The cold, late, and wet 
spring hung on so late that I got only two barrels of 
white-clover honey, of a very dark color, with my 
125 hives, compared with the ll'/i barrels of fine 
white-clover honey from my 67 hives the previous 
year. The bad weather hung on all season. The 
weather was so cool and damp that honey secretion 
was almost entirely suspended. My bees nearly 
starved during August, and only the strongest were 
enabled to raise brood enough to carry themselves 
over winter. Those deficient in brood late in the 
fall are dying off very fast, owing principallj' to the 
warm winter weather we have had so far. The bees 
will tly out and get chilled and are lost, thus deplet- 
ing the hive of the bees so necessary in spring. 
Where this dwindling is going to stop, I can't say 
yet. 1 have carried in, so far, 15 empty hives. Al- 
most all have plenty of honey, and none are in need, 
but the bees would be so few that they could not 
hold out, and died, in some hives, with honey all 
around them. 

I put by, for winter, 85 colonies, left from the 135. 
I began the season with 70, and have that many now, 
some of which are verj' good, and many very weak. 
The warm winters are a great drawback to bee- 
keeping here, if it would get cold enough to com- 
pel the bees to stay in the hives till spring, one 
would have full hives of bees to begin business 
with; but the warm days allow the bees to fly out 
and get lost, and to wear themselves out with exer- 
cise in the hives; and, as a result, only the strongest 
hives, with an abundance of late-hatched bees, will 
be strong in the spring. How many more colonies 
will die out before March, is a question I can't an- 
swer. They don't want feeding, as they have plenty 
of honey, but many of them do want bees. 

My yield last season was .35 lbs. of extracted honey 
per hive. This, with a loss of .55 colonies, and New 
York and Milwaukee for my markets, and a net 
price for my honey of a little over 4 cts. per pound, 
does not conduce to make me liable to lose my mind 
in my enthusiasm over bee-keeping in Louisiana— 
at present, at least. When I read of Dr. O. M. Blan- 
ton's little report of 70 Bbs. per colony and 60 barrels, 
I felt he ought to be ashamed to complain. What 
would he do with only 35 lbs. per colony? I have 
tried to look somewhere for the traditional ever- 
present silver lining, but I haven't seen it yet. It 
may yet come from behind the plainly visible, low- 
ering, dark-gray storm-cloud gathering in the west; 
and when that passes by I may look again upon 
pleasant sunshiny weather with my bees. In the 
meantime, I'll wait and see. 
Hahnville, La. 3— C. M. HiGGiNS, 125—70. 



I88t 



G^LEANI:^^GS iK bee culture. 



105 



And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy 
brother's eye, but considorest not the beam that is 
in thine own eye?— Matt. T: 3. 

TT was at the close of the Sunday evening 
M prayer - meeting, and my sister was 
jt speaking about the revival lield at one 
■^ of tlie other cluuches in our town. She 
said the pastor of that church had won- 
dered 1 liad not been present, for lie suppos- 
ed, from what he knew of me, I ct)uld not 
stay away when a revival was going forward. 
As it was near church time 1 passed along 
witli the crowd and was soon seated right in 
front of the pulpit, the usher probably 
thinking that there was where I ought to be. 
The revival work was conducted by a lady. 
I had heard her speak once before on tem- 
perance, and I was not very favorably im- 
pressed with her abilities. As an illustra- 
tion, among other points she made she call- 
ed attention to the fact that farmers have 
much more trouble in getting their corn to 
come up in the spring, of late years, than 
they used to have. I am well aware of this, 
and our agricultural papers have discussed 
it. But the speaker gave as a reason , that 
it was (rod's judgment on the farmers for 
selling their corn to the distillers. As she 
stood l)efore me that evening my mind re- 
verted to the incident above, and 1 could not 
or did not have very much faith in her abil- 
ity to lead souls to the cross. As I looked 
about among the people that were gathered 
before me, without hardly knowing it I was 
encouraging a disposition to criticise the 
friends and neighbors around me in the 
same way. The large church soon became 
very much crowded, and seats were placed 
on the platform, close up to the pulpit, so 
that many faces were before me, and a grand 
opportunity was afforded for studying hu- 
manity. I profess to have much charity, 
and love for unity among the churches, and 
I have often exhorted toward this same 
charity and love for our neighbors among 
the various churches of our town. But this 
evening it was very natural to see faults, 
not only among those of my own sex who 
had gathered there in their Sunday best, but 
even among the young people of the oppo- 
site sex. I have before alluded to this 
temptation of mine ; and as it comes up 
every now and then, I presume it must be 
one of Satan's strong points with my poor 
self. 

During the tirst half of the sermon I found 
fault with most that was said. The text 
was '' Eternity,'' and the speaker pictured 
hell in horrible colors. She said eternity is 
so great, that, if a bird could fly from the 
sun to the earth, and take a grain of soil in 
its bill and fly back again it would, in the 
process of time, carry this whole earth to 
the sun ; but this great period of time would 
be as nothing compared with eternity. The 
thought was, that everlasting punishment 
would be ages and ages longer than the 
lapse of time illustrated by the above figure. 
I want to say here by way of parenthesis, 
that, to my ivay of thinking, such illustrations 
are not wise or in good taste. It seems to 



me we are transgressing on the domain of 
the Almighty when we use tigures of this 
kind ; and very likely I shall always think so, 
even though it is a fact that ministers of 
various denominations are in the habit of 
using Such figures quite often. 

She changed her theme toward the close, 
and her talk fell in with my line of w'ork. 
She spoke of visiting the jails and prisons, 
and finally I so heartily indorsed the grand 
points she made that I should have felt 
guilty had I kept silent. I added emphasis 
to one of her remarks by an earnest 
" Amen." Now, please have charity for me 
when I tell you that, heretofore during the 
sermon, I had, much of the time, turned my 
eyes away from the speaker. I disliked her. 
and her face was not pleasant to me. After 
that indorsement by the amen, I began to 
fsee something different in her expression- 
something that was pleasant and attractive. 
Christ's spirit seemed to shine forth from 
her countenance. Soon after 1 caught a 
glimpse of some of the faces near her. How' 
strange ! Christ's spirit seemed to shine 
forth now, from those faces also ; and as I 
looked about me the whole audience had 
been transformed. Instead of narrow-mind- 
ed people, and people whose faces showed a 
lack of intelligence, I beheld humanity in 
the likeness of God the creator. Had they 
changed under the influences of the earnest 
preaching? Why, bless you, no, dear read- 
er ; my own heart had changed, and the peo- 
ple and the speaker were exactly as they 
had been. Christ's spirit had finally found 
a lodging-place in my own heart; and is it 
at all wonderful that 1 loved everybody? 
Their faults and imperfections had faded 
away off in the distance, and the charity and 
love in my own heart enabled me to 
see their lovable traits, and the God-like 
part in them all. 

The services lasted a good while, and it 
was late when I got home ; but for all that, 
as I told my wife about the meeting, and 
knelt by our bedside, I prayed that this bet- 
ter spirit might go with me through the 
coming week. That prayer was answered. 
Are not such prayers always answered? 

I want to stop a minute, however, before 
considering that coming week. Others may 
have felt like criticising our public speakers 
and evangelists in the same way I have 
mentioned. Well, suppose our sister did 
say that it was selling corn to the distillers 
that caused the trouble with the seed corn ; 
and suppose, too, she did picture etenial 
punishment in such awful colors as to 
frighten the youngsters, who shall say her 
figure was overdrawn? Ask our best think- 
ers of the day how terrible are the conse- 
quences of choosing evil rather than good. 
I have seen men deliberately decide to fol- 
low Satan. I have seen them go down step 
by step. I do not know where the end will 
be, but I think it very likely that neither 
human tongue nor human imagination would 
be able to picture the terrible consequences 
of such a choice. Why, then, should I find 
fault with the speaker? 

Among the thirty or forty that gathered 
to the anxious-seat at the close of the meet- 
ing, there were a good many children. There 



106 



GLEAXINGS IN BEE CULTURE, 



Feb. 



was one boy who used to swear on the 
streets so fearfully that the neighbors all 
felt troubled about him. There he stood 
right before me with penitential tears in his 
eyes ; aud when the speaker, in motherly 
tones, gave him Christian counsel and en- 
couragement, I inwardly prayed that God 
might spare and bless her even more abun- 
dantly. When I saw the teachers from our 
public schools join in the work, and come 
forward to the anxious-seat to exhort and 
encourage their pupils whom they found 
there, I said in my heart as did Jacob, 
" Surely the Lord is in this place." 

I felt the influence of that meeting during 
the whole week. During the first day of the 
convention at Albany, the low price of hon- 
ey was discussed, and several of the honey- 
producers felt as many of our farmers do 
now, a little sore about the price they were 
receiving for their products, and they very 
naturally felt like blaming somebody. One 
speaker made some remarks in regard to the 
middle-men and commission-men. Another 
suggested that the latter were a useless 
class, for they get all the profit while we do 
all the hard work. A third condemned them 
as a whole, and some of the terms he 
used were not very complimentary. I began 
to feel that they were getting into the same 
spirit I was when I first sat down in that 
revival meeting, and it seemed to me as if 
God called on me to enter a mild protest. 
They readily gave me the floor, aud I asked 
if it were not probable that there are good 
men and bad men among honey-dealers as 
well as among honey -producers. 

" Dear friends," said 1, " let us be careful 
how we condemn indiscriminately any class 
of people ; and, above all, let us not say un- 
kind things of any brother behind his back. 
If a bee-keeper has plenty of time, and with 
it the ability to retail his honey, or to fur- 
nish it in any way directly to the consumer, 
by all means let him do "so ; but if he has 
other business that pays him fair wages, 
and if, like many of us, he has discovered 
that he has no talent for peddling and selling 
in little dribs, by all means let him employ 
somebody who has this talent, and then 
every thing will be pleasant and there will 
be harmony. If a middle-man pays him so 
little that he can not afford to eniploy him, 
it is his privilege to trade some other way. 
If the commission-man he selects fails in 
selling the honey at the price wanted, try 
some other man or some other way; but 
through it all, let us have charity." 

There was another thought I did not give 
then, because I did not wish to take up so 
much time, but I will give it here. At the 
convention, middle-men were accused of 
doubling on the honey, when they buy, and 
sell at wholesale. This may be true iii some 
instances, but 1 think not often. Middle- 
men often have many vexatious losses as 
well as ourselves. A. C Kendel, of the 
Cleveland Seed Store, invested several thou- 
sand dollars in a cold-storage room of the 
most approved construction. The very first 
year he tried it he lost $2000 clean cash ; he 
lost it, too, I verily believe, in trying to 
help farmers and producers, by taking pro- 
duce when the market was glutted, rather 



than have it a total loss to the producer. 
During the present winter, however, with 
the benefit of the experience of the year be- 
fore, be has succeeded so finely that he has 
already pretty nearly or quite made up 
for the losses of a year ago. At the Forest City 
House, where we took dinner, grapes and 
other fruit were on the table, from his cold- 
storage room. They were as fine in the 
middle of January as any fruit I ever ate at 
any season of the year. Now, friends, I 
have no doubt l)ut that Mr. Kendel is get- 
ting twice as much for those grapes as he 
paid for them ; and one who has no concep- 
tion of the care and anxiety, as well as mon- 
ey it cost to enable him to do this might 
say, "Just look at it 1 he paid us only 4 cts. 
a pound for those very grapes that he is 
now selling for 10 and 12 cts." The above 
figures are given at random, only by way of 
illustration. One thing I do know, and that 
is, that middle-men are often obliged to sell 
honey as well as fi'uit at a great loss •, they 
take risks where they buy things of this 
kind out of season, and they must have 
their profits. In my remarks" I suggested, 
if I am not mistaken, that we should invite 
the honey-dealers to be present at our con- 
ventions, that we might hear both sides of 
the question. About this time our good 
friend L. C. Root suggested that one eve- 
ning be devoted to the consideration of the 
honey-market, and that middle-men, com- 
mission-men, honey dealers and consumers, 
be invited to Ije present and give us their 
views. Accordingly an evening was ap- 
pointed ; and as the invitation was given 
through the press, a large number were pres- 
ent — perhaps 200 oi- more. During the 
midst of our talk a fine-looking young man 
came up hurriedly to the platform, and 
threw off his overcoat with an air that seem- 
ed to imply that he was squaring himself 
for a fight. His first words were something 
like this : " Ladies and gentlemen, I am a 
middle-man ; " and then he gave us one of 
the finest talks in regard to the sale of hon- 
ey I have ever heard in my life. Some one 
had doubtless repeated to him the unkind 
words that were uttered the day before, as 
seemed evident from some of his remarks. 
His name is Mr. Henry R. Wright, and his 
place of business is 328 Broadway, Albany, 
N. Y. I extract the following report from 
his talk as given in one of the Albany daily 
papers: 

"I sell honey; I am not a producer. I consider 
honey a staple, not an article of luxury. I think 
the low prices due to over-production. I should 
like to see a uniform style of comb adopted, some- 
thing- like this. [The speaker exhibited an unglaz- 
ed frame which would contain a comb and about 11 
ounces of honey.] Two-thirds of the honey pro- 
duced is buckwheat. I sell 100 cases of buckwheat 
to 10 of the others. I sell from f 10,000 to $30,000 
worth of honey a year, and I don't make a specialty 
of it either. [Applause. 1 My experience shows 
that an ung-lazed package of about 10 or 11 ounces 
that will sell for 10 cents is the most popular, and if 
a uniform package of that size could be adopted it 
would increase the sales of honey, and be of benefit 
to the producers." 

The speaker had a number of the frames of the 
size shown by him disjointed, and he said any one 
who wanted one could have it. There was a scram- 
ble among' the members, and the frames soon dis- 
appeared. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



107 



The little frames he exhibited were about 
the width of oiir one-i)ouiid section — per- 
haps a little narrower. They were oblon.u', 
something the shape of a testament, per- 
haps. He prefers tliem oblong-, because, as 
he expressed it, it made moi'e of a show of 
surface of comb honey. Tlie reason lie pre- 
ferred Ituckwlieat to basswood or clover was 
because it enables us to give consumers a 
bigger chunk for a dime. Ills whole enter- 
prise is based on the idea of selling the hon- 
ey at 10 cts. a cake. I replied to him, and 
suggested that we use the ordinary Simplici- 
ty section, 4i x -li in., making "it thinner 
instead of smaller or different in size. But 
his experience had been entirely with the 
oblong section. As buckwheat is so rarely 
in sections in the West, we should jtrobably 
need to make ours so as to hold a little less 
than 10 ounces — say 8 or 9 ounces. Mr. 
Wright told us he had sold from $15,000 to 
$20,000 worth of hone} in the city of Albany 
during the last year, all put up in the kind 
of sections recommended. He said the sup- 
ply had been out for some time, and he 
would be glad to coutiact for a large 
amount of this honey for another season. I 
do not know whether he is prepared to ans- 
wer inquiries in regard to this matter or 
not ; but I do believe the coming honej^- 
package is something that can be retailed 
for an even dime. One of the strong points 
he made on it was, that any average family 
will eat it all up and '"clean" up the platter;'' 
there will be none of it left to set away to 
daub the dishes and draw the flies. Be- 
sides, a great part of the laboring popula- 
tion are in the habit of buying their sup- 
plies for the table, 10 cents" worth at a 
time. If you will tell them the price is 12 
cents or lo cents, they won't buy it. If it is 
only a dime, olf it. goes. Mr. Wright does 
not retail at all. He furnishes grocers and 
retail dealers. I do not remember how 
many of these 10-cent sections were in a 
crate, but I suppose it does not matter ma- 
terially — anywhere from 12 to 24, perhaps. 
He takes the honey all on commission. 
Two-thirds of the value is paid in cash to 
the producer when the honey is laid down, 
and the remainder when sold. He buys by 
weight, but the consumer purchases, as 1 
have said, by the piece. In view of this it is 
desirable that the sections of honey should 
weigh as nearly alike as possible ; and to do 
this we shall have to use separators. Xow, 
then, friends, all these valuable points were 
brought out by a pleasant and friendly talk 
with one of our much-abused veighhors ; and 
the moral to my little story to-day would be 
this: Maybe the neighbor whom you are 
abusing and calling names is this minute 
both able and willing to help you very ma- 
terially if you will treat him as you should 
always treat every neighbor. 

Since the above was written I have talk- 
ed with our foreman about this dime sec- 
tion ; and as it is very near the dimensions 
of the sections we make and keep in stock, 
known as six to the L. frame, perhaps this 
will be the most desiral)le size, ;is it will fit 
all of our hives and packages. If we are to 
sell clover and basswood honey for 10 cts. a 
section, we can not have it contain more 



than 8 or 9 ounces ; and to do this, the sec- 
tion mentioned above, six to the L. frame, 
will need to be about an inch in thickness ; if 
separators are used, may be \k inch. Have 
any of our readers ever' experimented on a 
section of this size ? The comb, you will 
notice, will be al)out of the thickness of an or- 
dinary brood-comb. It will l)ea little card of 
honey for 10 cts. Mr. A. A. Rice, of Seville, 
O., has sold sections quite similar to the 
above. He gets tliem filled by putting 
them in an ordinary brood -frame in the 
lower story or the brood-apartment. 



OUR P. BENSON LETTER. 



HOOOS FOR SWAKMIN BEES. 

BEES has to be swarmed evrj- summer. 
Thay cum out to be swarmed of thair oau 
ackord. Moastly on a hot day. 
Hwen thay cum out, poot on a overcoat- 
fur is best. Thay like to feel the soft fur and 
will role over and over in it. forgittin to sting-. Poot 
on thii;k woolen mittens and ty a string around the 
rists. Also ty up the ankels. Poot on a son bunnet 
and ty it tite around the neck. This will maik you 
middlin warm. 




p. BENSON, A. B. S.. KEDDY FEK STINGS. 

Then go out and look if the swarm is still thair. 
Git three (3) vales and ty over yure son bunnet. If 
you lied oanly one (1) vale the bees mite chaw throo 
it. This will maik you a little warmer. 

Tell yure wife to look you all over kind o careful 
like and see if thair izzent a bole ennywhair whair 
a bee mite break throo. Then go and git a hive. If 
you hevvent got enny, that will be better. You ken 
go over to the nabers to borough 1, & it will amoose 
the naber's ehildern to see you drest vip so cumfert- 
able like. You woont ken git enny to the nabers 
so you ken cum home on a run and maik 1 out of a 
old box or nail keg. This will herp to warm j"Ou. I 
forgought to say that hooever 1st sees the swarm 
cum out must yell for the rest, & all hands must 
kommens to keep up a noise. The oald wooman 
ken pound on a tin pale with a piiU dipper, aniitber 
ken l)lo a horn, and 1 ken jinggel a cow bell, and 1 
ken hammer on a tin pan, and I ken hammer on 
anuther tin pan, & all ken holler, exseptin the horn. 



108 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



he kant holler. Keep the noise & racket agoln 
steddy. If thay is enny nabers thay cood bring 
sum moar tin pales & things & maik sum moar 
racket. 

After you git yure box or nale keg reddy, rub on 
sum tanzy tea. This will help to charm the bees, 
but I cood sell you a bottel of P. Benson's Bee Hive 
Elickser that is shure evry time. Anuther time I 
will tell you whot els to doo, but kepe up the racket 
till then. P. Ben.son, A. B. S. 

P. S.— Printer poot in that A. B. S. stans for Api- 
culturistical Beekeepin Sighentist. 



THE CONVENTION AT ALBANY, N. Y. 



CONTINUED FROiM PAGE 46, LAST ISSUE. 

fHIS convention was one of tbe best and 
most profitable tbat it bas ever been 
my good fortune to attend. To give 
in detail an account of all the valuable 
things that came up and were discuss- 
ed, would make quite a book in itself, there- 
fore I shall have to notice briefly the most 
important points. 

The question as to what to do with our 
honey was the most absorbing topic, and 
there was some considerable complaint of 
overproduction, but not quite the customary 
amount of censure because somebody else 
had done or had not done so and so. Blam- 
ing editors of bee-journals for urging every- 
body to go into the business, occupied a por- 
tion of the time. Then came the question, 
are there too many already in the business V 
and is it best for some of us to give it up ? 
Mr. L. C. Root, son-in-law of "Father Quin- 
by," as he is called in York State, was one 
of the bright spirits of the occasion, and I 
understand he has been one of the old wheel- 
horses in the convention ever since its start. 
I learn, also, that Father Quinby was found- 
er of this same convention ; that he had met 
and taken part in its deliberations on the 
very floors of Agricultural Hall, which we 
were then occupying. I hope my two good 
friends. Prof. Cook and L. C. Root, will ex- 
cuse me for saying that L. C Root seems to 
be to the bee-keepers of York State just 
about what Prof. Cook is to the bee-keepers 
of Michigan ; and I think the inhabitants of 
these two States may fervently thank God 
for two such men— men so devoted to the 
best interests of the youth of our nation ; 
and men, too. who are laboring so earnestly 
to have godliness and righteousness prevail. 
Among other good things brought out by L. 
C. Root was a little talk which he prefaced 
with the following, in his own words, as near- 
ly as I can recollect. 

IS OUR PURSUIT A WORTHY ONE V 

" Now, friends, before going very far in 
this matter of giving up the business because 
it does not pay, let us look at it a little. Is 
bee culture a worthy pursuit ? Is the indus- 
try one we may be proud of ? When a young 
man starts out in any sort of business, if he 
does not he certainly should inquire, ' Is this 
kind of work laudable, and will the world be 
benefited by it V Is it a respectable calling T 
I am glad to be able to point to you the 
words of Holy Writ where it says : 



Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know 
to refuse the evil, and choose the good. 

"Now, friends, there is more in this little 
verse, perhaps, than the world has evei- 
brought out. The production of butter and 
honey was especially pointed out as worthy 
and laudable, in the Bible ; and whatever is 
in the Bible will bear following. Many peo- 
ple find themselves greatly benefited by a 
diet of milk and honey ; and in the text I 
have quoted, butter and milk amount to 
pretty much the same thing ; that is, the in- 
dustry that affords butter, of course affords 
milk. A great deal has been said here about 
the overproduction of honey. We are pro- 
ducing too much of it, hence the low prices. 
I want to say, there is no overproduction, if 
it were properly placed before the people, 
and they had an opportunity of using it. 
There are enough children in our land alone 
to take every pound of honey we can pro- 
duce, and not have half enough to go around, 
even then. [Applause.] Instances have been 
mentioned during this convention, of cases 
where people had no sort of knowledge that 
good honey could be offered at retail for 8 or 
10 cents per pound in its liquid state, and 
from 12 to 15 cents in comb. [Louder ap- 
plause, etc.] We have produced immense 
quantities of honey. At one time the ship- 
ment of a ton of honey to New York created 
quite a sensation ; but now, carload after 
carload may be unloaded at our commission- 
stores, and no note or comment is made of 
it. We are consuming immense quantities, 
but the world is by no means supplied yet. 
What is the trouble V One of the troubles, 
to my mind, lies right here, and it certainly 
is a very great trouble. The industries of 
our land are not all worthy and laudable. 
The Bible indorses and approves of the milk 
and honey industries ; but does it anywhere 
say that beer and whisky shall ye drink, that 
ye may know to choose the evil from the 
good? [Loud applause.] Do you wish to 
know what the beer and whisky business 
has to do with the low price of honey V Just 
this, my friends : The money that should 
pay for milk and honey for the children, now 
pays for beer and whisky every Saturday 
night, and the children go without these 
things that would be so conducive to their 
health and Avell-being. [More applause.] 
You have all heard of the immense sums of 
money that go into the dram-shops. Now, 
a great part of these immense sums are made 
up of the money that is needed for the grow- 
ing children ; and 1 hardly need allude to 
the fact that a mere fraction of the money 
that goes for intoxicating liquors would take 
all the honey that we can produce, at good 
prices, and the honey would benefit, while 
strong drink is a curse."' 

I wish it were possible for me to give a 
good many more similar talks furnished us 
by friend Root ; but I am afraid that a good 
deal that I have quoted above may be so far 
from his words that some of the Ijiends may 
think 1 have not done him justice ; but I 
have given the idea, and it is a grand one fi-r 
the encouragement of the bee-keepers of the 
world. 

Some very pleasant words were said in re- 
gard to reviews of the past. Friend Root 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



109 



spoke of the progress we had been making 
in the matter of charity for each other. 
Said he, " Why, I remember tlie time when 
this convention spent nearly one whole day 
in censuring and finding fault with the edit- 
or of Gleanings and the editor of the A. 
B. J. The principal complaint made of our 
friend A. I. Root was his one-pound section. 
I am glad he is here to-day, however, and I 
am glad that the one-pound section is now 
the standard the world over. We complain- 
ed then because of the smaller package he 
recommended. What shall we say now, 
when a dime package of comb honey seems 
to be the coming package ?" 

The subject of supply-dealers came in, of 
course, during the deliberations, and friend 
Root said he had urged the importance of 
bee-journals not connected with the supply- 
business, and he still felt that it would be 
very desirable, it it were possible, to have a 
bee-journal in no way connected or interest- 
ed in the sale of supplies. He added, how- 
ever, that, if experience seemed to indicate 
it best, all things considered, to have the ed- 
itors deal in supplies, he was willing to give 
way and let the matter drop. He emphasiz- 
ed, however, a point which I wish to notice 
a little. It was this : That one who deals 
in supplies, and has no interest in any jour- 
nal, does not stand a particle of chance of 
competing with the proprietor of said jour- 
nal, on account of the editor's facilities for 
constant advertising. At that time I want- 
ed to put in a word ; but as so much was be- 
fore the convention, and as it seemed a little 
like pleading for my side of the question, I 
let it drop. I will, however, give it here : 
Admitting that a bee-journal is a wonderful 
help to a dealer in bee-keepers' supplies, be- 
cause of the reasons given, there is, notwith- 
standing, a far better way of advertising 
than through any bee-journal; and this bet- 
ter way is open to all and every one in any 
business of any kind. Shall I tell you the 
secret ? It is, my friends, simply to surprise 
every customer you get, by giving him the 
goods he has paid for, before he expects 
them ; and surprise every one who writes 
you a letter, by getting some sort of an an- 
swer to him before he supposes an answer 
could possibly have had time to reach him. 

Had there been an opportunity for me to 
say this before the convention, I suppose it 
would have brought down the house with 
applause, for they applauded me for many 
things with far less truth in them than the 
above. Now, the above few words are of so 
very much importance to the thousands who 
are just embarking in business, that I want 
to digress right here in my report of the Al- 
bany Convention, long enough to explain a 
little how you may all avail yourselves of 
this wonderful means of advertising. If you 
are some distance from the postoffice, and 
go after the mail yourself, put some postal 
cards in your pocket. , Open your mail at the 
oflBce, and acknowledge the receipt of letters 
of importance right on the spot. It is a very 
great advantage to be located near a post- 
olBce and express office ; and if you are go- 
ing to build up much of a business of sup- 
plies, or sending goods by express or freight, 
you had better get a location that will admit 



of promptness. When an order comes with 
money, start back a postal card, telling your 
patron what to expect ; then bend your en- 
ergies to the fulfillment of the order in such 
a way as to make friends with your custom- 
ers. Now, then, get up early mornings, or 
be out a little after dark, if need be, to get 
the goods on an early train ;■ and if you lose 
money by the time it takes to be prompt, on 
a single transaction, you are laying up mon- 
ey by building a reputation, and you are 
building on a solid rock. 

After the convention was over, among the 
great numbers who wanted to shake hands 
with " Brother Root ■■ was a young man of 
fine appearance and pleasing address. By 
the way, 1 have begun to think several times 
lately t was really falling in love with the 
boys of our land— with good boys — boys who 
do not swear nor drink, nor use tobacco — 
boys who love bees and outdoor pursuits- 
boys who love godliness and righteousness. 
Well, right before me was a model boy. He 
might have been 25 years old, but he was 
one of America's boys for all that. He v. us 
a schoolteacher ; and it just now occurs to 
me that I love schoolteachers. May God 
help us in choosing teachers for our youth, 
who are upright in life and pure in heart. 
After talking with him a little I found oiit 
that his father was somewhat of a market- 
gardenei", and that he himself was in love 
witli intelligent agriculture. Need I tell 
you that we became fast friends very fastf 
When we got down to the Globe Hotel he 
applied for a room, and was told that the 
bee men had filled the house completely— 
there was notroom for another one. " Why, 
look here," said I to my friend, "if it meets 
your approval, room with me, and then we 
can talk bees and gardening.'' 

He seemed to be very much pleased with 
the arrangement, and we had some big talks, 
I tell you. Next month I will give you the 
outcome of some of these talks ; but I want 
to make only one point now. He, with 
many others, spoke of our wonderful 
promptness at the Home of the Honey-Bees, 
and, by way of contrast, he mentioned the 
following : 

Early in the spring his father sent for sec- 
tion boxes, etc., for the coming harvest. He 
sent the exact amount of money, for he had 
previously received an estimate. The esti- 
mate came promptly ; but after they had 
sent the money it was almost impossible to 
get a word from the supply-dealer. I do not 
know whether they even acknowledged the 
receipt of the money or not, but tney did 
not send the goods, and did not tell when 
they would send them. The bees began 
gathering honey. As our friends could get 
no answer they asked to have the goods sent 
at once, or the money refunded ; and in any 
case to let them know what to depend on, 
without a moment's delay. After nearly or 
quite two Aveeks had passed, our young 
friend, in desperation, went across the coun- 
try with horse and wagon, and succeeded in 
getting some sections that were not at all 
what he wanted, although they cost much 
more than tiiose that were ordered and paid 
for. After they got home with their rdd- 
sized sections, and got p;irt of them in the 



no 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



hives, the goods that had been waiting for 
weeks and months put in appearance. But 
even then no word of apology, no letter of 
explanation, came. After the rush was over, 
came a very handsome letter of apology. I 
do not remember whether there was a pro- 
posal to pay the damages or not, but there 
ought to have been. My young friend stat- 
ed, that a simple postal card, telling them 
just what they could depend upon, would 
have been worth more than ten dollars in 
cash. Now, then, do you see clearly the se- 
cret I have been telling you of — a secret that 
is worth for advertising purposes more than 
all the bee-journals put togetherf 



CONDUCTED BY ERNEST R. ROOT. 



HOW THE BEES HAVE WINTERED UP TO 
DATE. 

TN my last, you remember I felt some- 
m what apprehensive as to whether the 
W large number of nuclei with their val- 
"^ uable queens would survive the contin- 
ued zero weather we were then having. 
Since this time we have had a day or two 
of beautiful spring weather, during which 
our bees all had a good fly. I am glad to in- 
form our readers, that, at this writing, not 
one of our colonies, either large or small, has 
died. I opened, or peered into about 25 of 
the doubtful ones— the weakest and the 
strongest. The fcn-mer I feared might per- 
ish from the cold, on account of the small 
cluster ; the latter, because they might have 
consumed their stores. All were in excel- 
lent condition, and well supplied with 
stores. As the bees were flying from the 
entrances of all the rest of the hives (about 
17o), from which bees ought to l)e flying if 
alive, we decided not to open them up and 
disturb their winter nest. The colonies all 
had a great abundance of stores the previ- 
ous fall, and we took it for granted they 
would hardly be needy by this time. In a 
month or so, when a w arm day permits, we 
will examine all thoroughly, aiid all such as 
may be running short we will supply with 
combs of sealed stores. These latter we 
have stowed away for this purpose, in our 
honey-house. 

While it is encouraging thus far, the bees 
have yet to encounter the changeable weath- 
er of spring, and I may yet realize what I at 
first feared. 

VENTILATION. 

For two seasons back, my attention has 
been attracted particularly to the fact that 
all colonies packed in chaff liives cluster 
close to tlie front side of the hive (providing 
they have stores in that quarter) just over 
the entrance. In pulling back the chaff, 
and lifting the burlap in the colonies that I 
examined recently, I found that the bees 
were invariably clustered over the entrance. 
Why do they do this ? I believe it is wliolly 
on account of l)etter ventilation which they 
get in that quarter of the hive. Hence I 
think the wisdom of giving bees the full 
width of the entrance. 



WHEAT OR OAT CHAFF. 

Onp of our colonies was, by mistake, pack- 
ed with oat chaff instead of wheat chalf , as 
the rest were packed. The chaff in this 
hive was wet and moldy, and even partly 
rotted. The wheat chaff, on the contrary, 
was nice and dry. I threw out the' wet 
chaff and put some dry in its place. 

CLEANING THE CLARK SMOKER FROM THE 
VALVE. 

In order to obtain the best results, the 
Clark should be cleaned daily. Heretofore 
we have been obliged to clean from the 
nozzle, passing the wire cleaner through the 
blast-tube : but as tlie latter is not easily 
accessible through the nozzle of the smoker, 
C. C. Miller and others have suggested that 
the valve he made removable so as to per- 
mit tlie cleaning-wire to enter through the 
bellows into the blast-tube. Mr. J. T. Cal- 
vert, one of our co-workers, as you may 
know, and a brother-in-law of the writer, 
has struck upon the plan illustrated below. 




THE CLARK SMOKER, WITH THE VALVE 
SO CONSTRUCTED AS TO FACILI- 
TATE CLEANING. 

The engraving shows the smoker in the 
act of raking out tlie sooty accumulation, 
the wire passing through the valve into the 
blast-tube. You oliserve that the valve- 
hole, instead of being located where the 
small staple is now, is placed directly op- 
posite the blast-tube. The arrangement for 
permitting the closing and opening of the 
valve is simply a screw cap of a suitable 
size. The leather is punched to receive tne 
rim of the cap, and is glued fast. When the 
cap is screwed on we have a valve that w^orks 
as before. If it is desired to clean the blast- 
tube, the cap is unscrewed. As the new 
arrangement of the valve adds but a trifle 
to the original cost of the smoker, we will 
furnish the smokers at the same price as 
l)efore. There is only one defect in this 
valve. After the accumulation of soot 
has collected in the cap, it is sometimes dif- 
ficult to unscrew it. But one with a pair of 
stout fingers ought to be able to loosen it. 
The bellows must l)e tightly closed, other- 
wise tlie unscrewing of the cap will loosen 
the valve. 

This improvement greatly facilitates 
cleaning, as well as making a better job of 
it. The soot, instead of being pushed in 
the bellows, as in the old wiiy, is, by tlie 
plan above, shoved ont through the valve- 
hole. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Ill 



Gleanihcs in Bee Culture, 

Published Seini-MontUly. 

Jk.. I. Z^OOT, 

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 

MEDINA, O. 

TERMS: SI.OO PER YEAR, POSTPAID. 

for Clnbtise Sates, See First Page of Beiding Uatter. 

If. when ,Vf do well, ami suffer for il. ye take it patiently. 
thi.< is ueceptii ble with God— I. Pet. 2: 20. 

Thk (lepartnient of Circulars Received is crowded 
out tliis issue by advertisements. 

The total number of new names received during 
the past mouth, exclusive of renewals, was 528; 
ordered out, 190. Total number up to date, 6424. 

PROF. COOK'S NEW BOOK ON THE MAPLE-SUGAR 
INDUSTRY. 

The title of the above book is, "Maple Sugar and 
the Sugar-bush." It will be a book of about 50 pages, 
profusely illustrated, and we hope to have it ready 
to mail by the 15th of this month. Price 40 cts. by 
mail, postpaid. If ordered with other goods, by ex- 
press or freight, 35 cts. 

THE BEE-KEEPERS' ADVANCE. 

The above is the name of a new journal, or rath- 
er, perhaps, the name of the Maine Bee-Journal, 
commencing with the new year. It is now in the 
hands of our good friend .1. B. Mason; and as he 
has been a good straight honest man heretofore, we 
suppose he will be a better one since he has become 
an editor. The January number is at hand, and 
full of good things; but if I were in friend Mason's 
place I don't believe I would have my price list of 
supplies bound together with the journal. I know 
there are other journals that do the same thing; 
but as we have, as a class, been accused of running 
our bee-journals solely to advertise our supply bus- 
iness, will it not be better to shun even the appear- 
ance of evily 

EXTENDING THE TERRITORY TO THOSE WHO ARE 
SOLICITING SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR GLE.4NINGS. 

Several have asked us if they could not take 
names at adjoining postoflices as well as at their 
own, and we have decided that you may get sub- 
scriptions anywhere you choose, provided you see 
the parties personally, and do not. in any circular 
or elsewhere, make any printed announcements 
that you will i-eceive subscriptions for less than 
il.OO each— our established price. The principal 
Idea is, friends, to have Gleanings presented to 
the class ol' individuals who would not know any 
thing about it unless their attention was called to 
the matter bj- some one in their neighborhood. 
Our subscriptit>n-list is evidently going higher this 
year than it has ever done before, and we think it 
is principally owing to this matter of personal work 
for it. If you do not get the subscription, be sure 
to send in the name, in order that we may send 
the party a price list^ 

THE AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST. 

ONE'reason why we value this standard agricultur- 
al periodical is because of its numerous engravings 
of household and farm conveniences that appear in 



every issue. As an illustration: A few days ago 
we were talking about an arrangement of pulleys 
whereby our teamster could lift the box Irom the 
wagon himself, and put it on again, having the box 
overhead in the tool-house, entirely out of the way. 
In glancing over the Agriculturist for February, I 
saw a picture of an arrangement not only very 
much better than the pulleys, but cheaper, and I 
presume that this one picture saved me much more 
than the price of the journal for a year It saved a 
good deal of thought and study, and gave me a bet- 
ter machine than it is at all likely I should have got 
hold of without its help. The regular price of the 
journal is $1.50 per year, but we can furnish it to 
our subscribers for $1.25. 



i\lR. THOMAS HORN. 

After considerable correspondence, Mr. Horn 
has finally consented to have me collect all the 
claims against him; and to end all controversy and 
long letters, he proposes to give his note for all in- 
debtedness. These notes are to be payable in two 
years, but he is going to try to pay them up this 
season. Ten per cent is to be added for the use of 
the money. Now, then, write me just how much 
Mr. Horn is owing you; and when the amounts are 
ascertained to be correct, I will forward you his 
note. Please do not write long letters about it, if 
it can possibly be avoided. When we get every 
thing settled, Mr. Horn is to advertise again, and 
make the attempt to get back the reputation he has 
temporarily lost. We presume most of his custom- 
ers will consent to receive bees or queens this sea- 
son, instead of asking for the cash back again; but 
the note is to be held until the account is settled 
satisfactorily. Let us make it as easy as we can foi- 
him to geton his feet again, for you know there is 
joy even in heaven over every sinner that repenteth. 



WHO SHALL BE GREATEST ? 

In the issue of the British Bee Journal for Jan. 6, 
we notice some retlections on the American people 
for having copied the inventions of our British 
friends, without giving credit, and it is stated that 
the one-piece section was made in England at least 
one season before it was made in America. No 
doubt this may be so, but I do not believe it will 
benefit any of us to spend very much time in look- 
ing it up. Let us by all means be careful to give 
credit whenever we get an idea from any one. 
With the multitudes on both sides of the water who 
are now contributing to our inventions and bee-lit- 
erature, it may be. however, sometimes quite Incon- 
venient to acknowledge every suggestion by which 
we have profited. Let us remember the Savior's 
words to his followers when he found them disput- 
ing among themselves as to who should be greatest. 
Quite frequently I find my inventions used and de- 
scribed, without any credit whatever to the source. 
Sometimes articles are copied, or portions of them, 
without credit. This species of plagiarism is not 
confined to this side of the Atlantic, however; for 
on page 385 of the Bulletin d' Apiculture de la Suisse 
Romande, one of our ablest French exchanges, edit- 
ed by Ed. Bertrand, at Nyon, Switzerland, we read: 
We are pained at times by the custom that some 
journals have of reproducing articles from ourBe- 
'view, without giving credit, or simply giving the 
name of the writer of the article, without paying 
any attention to the law of literary propriety, which 
demands that the name of the proprietor— that is to 
say. the name of the jouinal, be indicated. This is 
a convenient way of obtaining the work of our co- 



112 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



workers. Another method consists in taking the 
text and changing- the lines a little. 

As for myself, I do not see that it matters very 
much, after all. If the public are benefited, does it 
make any great difference " who is the greatest " ? 



ARTIFICIAI., COMB HONEY — SOMETHING MORE 
ABOUT IT. 

A SHORT item appeared in the Pitt burgh West-End 
Bulletin, to the effect that there was an establish- 
ment in Pittsburgh making comb honey, etc. Our 
good friend W. H. Ferguson, of Bloonisdale, O., 
while in the above city, took the pains to follow It 
up. The editor of the paper declared there was no 
mistake about it, and gave the street and number. 
When our friend got there they said it was a fact, 
but that it was off somewhere else, up three flights 
of stairs, and so on. What do you think they 
found V Why, a man who makes cement and seal- 
ing-wax; and it happened that this worthy trades- 
man also put up very neat little cakes of wax for 
the sewing-table— just that, and nothing more. As 
he is said to be both honest and industrious, we 
give his address to the friends who may want little 
cakes of wax— postofflce box 15.5, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Now, then, who comes next ? 



gPECI^Ii ]S[05^ICE^. 



MAPLE SYRUP. 



In view of the crop soon to come, we offer the 
remainder of the lot mentioned on page 1003, Dec. 
15th issue, at 75c per gallon; or 8.5c per gallon with 
package included to ship it in. 



DISCOUNTS ON GOODS FOR THE MONTH OF FEB- 
RUARY. 

As before announced, we shall make an extra 
discount of 3 per cent on all goods of whatever na- 
ture, mentioned in our price list, for orders receiv- 
ed during this month. The object is, to prevent the 
rush and crowd that comes a little later on. 



THAT LOT OF GLASSED COMB HONEY. 

In order to close this out before the new season 
opens, we have decided to offer it at an even 10c 
per lb., in lots of 10 cases; less than 10 cases, 10V4c 
per lb. For weights of cases and further descrip- 
tion, see page 339, April 15, 1886. if you have not 
the above number we will mail one on application. 

FRENCH BEE-.JOURNALS. 

We have on hand a large lot of nearly all the 
standard French bee-journals published. We will 
mail any number, as long as they last, to all who 
can read them, for 3 cts. per copy. So far as possi- 
ble they will come in regular order. At this rate 
we can not promise to select any particular num- 
ber. 

FRIEND MARTIN'S CHROMO. 

As a general thing, it will not do for us to make 
editorial mention of the things offered for sale in 
our advertising columns. Friend Martin has, how- 
ever, gotten up a chromo of such exceeding beauty 
that we do not feel as if it would be right to pass it 
by. The figures of the bees and queen stand out 
like life. The Chapman honey-plant is wonderful- 
ly true to nature, even to the colors. The same is 
true with the alsike clover and other honey-plants. 
Even Heddon's hive is a thing of beauty, as the 
chromo shows it. The idea is, to have your price 
list printed on the back of these cards. For con- 
venience In this latter respect, we will fui'nish 
them here at his prices. The cost of the printing 
on the back side will depend on the amount of 
matter. The size is about that of a common postal 
card. One feels, in looking at this, as he does in 
looking at many of the seed-catalogues nowadays— 
the pictures are a good deal nicer, many times, 
than the thing Itself. 



WHAT KIND OF SEED SHALL "WE 
PLANT? 

SOME EXCEEDINGLY Klblb WORDS FROM FRIEND 

GREEN, OF THE EXPERIMENT STATION, 

COLUMBUS, O. 



fRIEND ROOT:— I am much pleased with your 
catalogue of seeds. Many might think, that, 
because your list is so short, you do not have 
the best to be had; but my reason for being 
pleased is the fact that you have the best and 
about all the best, varieties known to the 
trade, and have put the matter in such shape 
that even a novice can select. You have con- 
densed a voluminous catalogue to two pages, and 
have left out hardly a single valuable thing; or, to 
use a very commoTi figure of speech, you have 
given us the " cream " of the catalogues. The list 
is not yet quite so short as I would have made it, 
and I would put in a few varieties not found there; 
but it is near enough to niy ideal to meet my hearty 
api)roval. 

I know that one's success in gardening depends 
largely upon a good selection of varieties; and I 
know, also, that the majority of people do not 
know what the best varieties are. The ordinary 
seed-catalogues are so voluminous as to be confus- 
ing toalle.\cept the experienced gardener, and he 
is often misled by a flaming list of novelties. Hav- 
ing tried almost evei-y thing, and found so few 
varieties that are really good, I can readily see how 
serious losses and vexatious might come because 
of these bad habits that our seedsmen have fallen 
into. I have really taken the matter quite to heart, 
and have ardently desired to see a reform inaugu- 
rated. I have not blamed seedsmen, at least none 
in particular, for the evil has grown so gradually, 
and apparently in such an innocent manner, that 
the blame can be attached to no one alone. Fur- 
thermore, I had come to think, with many seedsmen, 
that a short condensed list would carry no weight, 
and bring but few customers. I hope, Mr. Root, 
that you will not hesitate to tell us the results as 
nearly as you may be able. If others know as well 
as I know that you have not only selected the best 
varieties, but have bought your seeds of the most 
reliable growers, they would not hesitate to order 
of you. You might have bought seeds that would 
not have cost you half the money, nor that much, 
indeed, in the case of many articles; but you have 
selected the best, and I earnestly hope that you 
will be rewarded; bvit I really fear that your re- 
ward will be almost wholly that which comes from 
having a good conscience, which every man ought 
to have, but he is entitled to something more also, 
if he is diligent. 

One thing further I should be glad to see done; but 
if it is done at all it must be done in a convention of 
seedsmen. That is, to reform the nomenclature of 
vegetables. At present every one has his own way 
of writing names. One writes Early Wakefleld, 
another puts in the Jersey, and another prefixes 
Very. An old English pea is cal'ed, by some, Early 
Philadelphia, while others, like Landreth and Hen- 
derson, prefix their own names. Thus it gets out 
under a dozen or more aliases. So on through the 
list, almost every thing having several names. If 
this does any one any good, I am u nable to see how ; 
and I am not ignorant of the arguments in favor of 
it. That it does harm, there can be no doubt; for it 
is a stumblingblock in the way of thousands who 
buy seeds. Suppose that some one concludes to 
give you, an order, but fails to find in your list 
what he wants. It is altogether probable that it is 
there, but under another name, or, what is still 
worse, the same name is often used for entirely 
different things; and even the most careful may 
thus get deceived in buying. Fruit-growers have 
had the same trouble, but they have brought about 
a reform, and seedsmen ought to do the same. I can 
not believe that things are so disjointed in this 
world that it pays to perpetuate a wrong. Every 
seedsman who aids in keeping up this Babel of 
names is doing his customers an injustice, and 1 do 
not believe that such a course is consistent, nor in 
accord with business principles. It surely Is not 
honest for a seedsman to prefix his name to a thing, 
or rename it in any way, and then send it out at a 
high price as something new, when every seedsman 
has It; and I do not believe that such a course pays 
in the long run. It is, however, done frequently, 
and a large share of the surplus names come in that 
way. I do not object to an improved sort being 



188? 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



113 



called "Improved," or in some way designated, 
and let the iniijrover have the credit, liut we want 
short names, and honest names, and 1 ht)i)e the time 
may come when we shall have them. 
Columbus, Ohio, Jan, 4. W. J. Green. 

After reading the above I wrote immedi- 
ately to friend Green, saying that I would 
gladly pay him for the time and troul)le re- 
quired to cross out and add in such garden 
vegetables as he thought advisable. I also 
desired him to direct me in regard to aspara- 
gus, potatoes, and a few other things omitted 
in our list, as given on pages four and live, 
issue for Jan. 1. The following comprises 
all the additions he has thought fit to make. 
The only things he has crossed out from the 
list as 1 gave it is the long blood beet, the 
Stone-mason cabbage, and the Trophy to- 
mato. He does not mean to say by this 
that the above are not good, but that we 
have others so much better he thinks it ad- 
visable to drop them out. The additions 
are made as follows : 

ASPARAGUS, 
t'oiiover's Colossal. Oz. 5c; lb. ,50c. 

These are said to be improvements upon this variety, but 
they have not been fully tested. No one will lose any thing 
by planting this old standard. 

BEANS. 
\%'lilte Marrowfat. Pt. 10c; pk. $1.00. 

One of the best to tise shelled, when Rreen or ripe. 

BEETS. 
Lane's Inipro'ved. Oz. 5c; lb. 40c. 

The liest variety foi stoik-tVeding. It showed a larger per 
cent of sugar at the Experiment Station than an.y other an- 
alyzed. 

Long; Ked Itlansjel. Oz. 5c; lb. 30c. 

Yields well, but not so sweet as the above. 

CABBAGE. 

liOulKvllle Driimliead. Oz. ].')c; lb. «;2,00 

One of the most uniform and s\irest-heading sorts tried at 
the Ohio Experiment Station. It is a little later than Flat 
Dutcli, henee may be planted later; .iust the kind to plant 
after early crops." 

CARROTS. 
Orange Danvers, Hall'-liong. Oz. .5c; lb. 60c. 

Yields well, and is easv to dig. The best sort known, by all 
odds. 

CORN (FOR TABLE USE). 

liivingston's Evergreen. \k pt. 5c; pk. $1.00. 

Earlier than the Jlammoth. Excellent as a market varie- 
ty, also for drying and for home use, 

ONION. 
Yellow Danvers. Oz. 20c; lb. #2..50. 

A standard yellow variety. The best of all to grow from 
seed. It makes a wonderful difference, however, liow the 
seed is grow n. Some strains will give nearly double the crop 
that other.s will. 

PEAS. 
Landreth's Extra Early. 'A pt. 5c; pk. *1.50. 

We I'ousider this equal to any for the first peas of the sea- 
son. The same as the First of All, First and Best, and other 
extra eai lies. It yields its crop in a very short time. Not 
equal in iiuality to the following: 

Marrowfat, '/a pt. .5c; pk. $1.00; bu. $3.50. 



KIND WORDS FROM OUR CUSTOMERS. 



>f the most desirable and ' 



vn late sorts. 



Box received; every thinff Is all rig'ht, perfectly 
satisfactory. A part of the articles are already in 
use. Wm. C. Pai.mkb. 

Old Chatham, N. Y^ 

The section honey I ordered of you some time ago, 
received injirood order; no leakage and no breakage. 

Wm. Bitzer. 
Fulton Station, W. Va., Nov. 29, 1886. 



POTATOES. 
Early Ohio. Per peck, .50c, or $1.25 per bushel. 

The Experiment Station, Columbus, O,. says there is noth- 
ing earlier. 

Our whole <-rop of Early Ohio last season was sold at $2.40 a 
bushel. Of course we could not otter the seed at the above 
prices were in not that we procured our se.ed of a neighbor 
who raises potatoes largely. 

Early Pearl. Per peck, 75c, or $2. .50 per bushel. 

The Experimental Station finds this about as early as the 
Early dliio, and perhaps yields a little better. 

Lee's Favorite. Per peck, 50c, $1,25 per bushel. 

This is a few davs later than the foregoing, but yields a 
little better still," 

Empire State. Per peck, 40c, $1.25 per bushel. 

This, the Experiment Station considers as good a late or 
medium late potato as any before the public. They decide 
that the above four varieties are the cream of the list. 



Gleanings has become a household fixture. 
The A B C is our best counselor. The " Home of 
the Honey-Bees " is that Mecca to which one longs 
to make a pilgrimage. L. F. Stoddard, M. D. 

Kamsay, 111. 

Accept my thanks for the favors you have shown 
me during this year. Your goods were satislactory 
in everv respect, and all arrived without the slight- 
est injiirv. W. T. Horton. 

Continence, Pa., Nov. 24, 1886. 



THAT WATERBURY RUNS UP TO A MINUTE. 

I have had dealings with you, and found you al- 
ways to deal on the square. The Waterbury you 
sent me runs just as you said it would, up to a 
minute— the best timepiece I ever had. 

Pleasant Mound, lU W. G. Hayen. 

The honey arrived all right. I have sold nearly 
$8.00 worth of it, clover honey, at 15 and 16?;$ cts; 
basswood, at 12>2 and 14. Plenty of California honey 
in town at 10, section boxes at 13, for sale. The 
" Little Detective " is a gem. D. Howard. 

Dover, Del., Dec. 10. 1886. 



"BREAD CAST UPON THE WATERS." 

I want Gleanings and the British Bee Jom-nal 
another year, sure. Gleanings I should want, 
even if I took no interest in bees. I don't wish or 
intend to flatter, but your labors in Gleanings for 
the benefit of the world generally are appreciated 
by myself, and have been the means of leading me 
to coiisider the hereafter as nothing else has done. 
You may not feel that you are getting an immedi- 
ate reward for your work, but it is " bread cast up- 
on the waters," and it will surely return. You will 
find in your crown of glory many stars that in this 
world you will have no knowledge of. 

J. E. Pond, Jr. 

Foxboro, Norfolk Co., Mass., Dec. 10, 1886. 

HOW a woman can make use of our wheel- 
barrow. 

Inclosed find $2.00 for goods mentioned below. 1 
am ashamed for not letting you know how nicely 
those goods were packed. They carried well, and we 
were all so well pleased with them we could not find 
fault if we tried to. We were pleased with every 
thing, from the 10-cent wrench to the wheelbarrow. 
That little wheelbarrow is a blessing to women. It 
saves many steps. We use It in the house and out 
of the house. I never knew before that a wheel- 
barrow could be tnade to be so useful. Of course, 
some would ask, " What could you do with it in the 
house / " Try it in taking up carpets and what not; 
in house-cleaning, etc. Try it in bringing vegeta- 
bles from the garden. I think mine a very nice 
piece of furniture when brought into the kitchen, 
loaded with sweet corn, tomatoes, etc. With a little 
care there need be no litter. I never allow the 
chickens to roost on my wheelbarrow. It is too 
good a friend. If it should get broken I should have 
to have another right away. Mrs. Ann Scaife. 

Barboursville, Lycoming Co., Pa., Nov. 30, 1886. 

THE A B r of bee CULTURE. 

1 think I can claim, or rather begin to claim 
brother on bee-keeping, after the success we have 
had this summer. Wife and I are partners in bees 
as well as in every thing on the farm. Only one 
thing we do not agree on— I have had two A B C's 
and sold them both in a short time after I got 
them. Wife rebels, and says she is going to have 
one herself, as we can not keep bees without it. I 
had 9, spring count, all pretty good and strong. 
We took off 12.50 lbs. of comb honey in Mb. sections, 
and 200 lbs. of strained. We increased to 23; sold 5, 
lost 1, and now have 17, packed away in chaff and 
forest-leaves, on summer stands. I think we have 



114 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CIFLTURE. 



Feb. 



one swarm that is hard to beat for brown bees. I 
don't like the name " black." We took from it 17.5 
lbs. in pound sections. How is that for an A B, not 
yet to C, scholar? Three years ago we hardly knew 
a drone from a worker. We have not lost one yet in 
wintering. We thank the ABC book for it", with 
Gleanings to help. We could not do without 
your journal. I miss Our Homes every other week. 
1 would rather have it come twice a week than 
twice a month. John H. Kirk. 

Royalton, Mich., Dec. 34, 1886. 



EXCHAl^GE DEPARTMENT. 



WANTED. — To exchange for g-ood horses 
and mules, 200 colonies of bees in Simplicity 
frames; also 40 acres of land adjoining the city. 
SOtfdb Anthony Opp, Helena, Phillips Co., Ark. 



THOROUGHBRED fowls, Brown Leghorns, S. S. 
Hamburgs, W. C. B. Polish. P. Rocks and Wyan- 
dottes, Bonney's, Forbes', Hawkins', Wilcox &Fultz' 
strains. We will sell for cash, or exchange for fdn. 
and beeswax. Price list free. 
18-19tfd A. H. Duff, Creighton, Ohio. 

WANTED.-To exchange, nursery stock of all 
kinds (evergreens a specialty), for Italian bees, 
tested queens; nuclei, fdn., apiary supplies, bee- 
plant seed. Give prices of your goods. My price 
list free. R. A. Lewis, Cherokee, Iowa. 

WANTED.— To exchange Gregg raspberry-plants, 
comb fdn., 1-lb. 1-pieee sections, L. frames. 
For particulars, address Thompson Brown, 
Id Cloverdale, Ind. 

WANTED.— To exchange spider-plant seeds for 
Plymouth Rock eggs. Conger or Hawkins 
strains, or offei-s. W. A. Sanders, 3d 
Oak Bower, Hart Co., Ga. 

TIT ANTED.— To exchang-e extracted honey for one- 
Vt piece sections. Chas. T. Gerould, 

3d East Smithfleld, Bradford Co., Pa. 

WANTED.— To exchange eggs from four yards, 
pure-bred prize-winning Plymouth Rocks, for 
pure Italian queens. Eggs. *2 00 for 13, or $3.00 
for 30. B. D. Sidwell, 

3-8db Flushing, Belmont Co., Ohio. 

WANTED.— To exchange a good colony of bees in 
Mitchell or Simplicity frames for Rose Comb, 
Brown Leghorn Pullets, or Wyandotte Pullets. 
Nothing- but thorough breed wanted. 3d 

David Lucas, Jewett, Harrison Co., Ohio. 



TlfANTED.- To exchang-e my new catalogue of 
Vt bees, queens, new section-case, for your ad- 
dress on a postal card. Address F. A. Eaton, 
3-4d Blutfton, Allen Co., Ohio. 

WANTED to exchange or sell, a Given fdn. press, 
3 tanks, and V^ doz. dipping-boards. 
Itfdb J. Swallow, 2816 Mo. Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

WANTED.— To exchange for a self-inking print- 
ing-press (not less than 10X12-inch chase), or 
offers, one German-silver B-flat cornet, used but 
little, one novelty pi'inting-press, 6;4 x 10 inch, and a 
lot of Simplicity bee-hives. Address 2-3d 

Cyrus McQueen, Baltic, Ohio. 

WANTED.-To exchange chaff hives or surplus 
crates for bees next spring. Illustrated price 
list on application. Geo. E. Hilton, 

2-3-4-5-6d Fremont, Mich. 

WANTED.-To exchange pure Italian bees for 
supplies or chaff hives in flat. Make offers. 
For particulars, address S. F. Reed, 
2- tfd N. Dorchester. N. H. 

WANTED.-To exchange Cuthbert raspberry roots 
for a double-barrel 12-gauge breech-loading 
shot-g-un, or a female ferret, or beeswax. 
3-6db M. Isbell, Norwich, N. Y. 

WANTED.-To exchange Italian or Syrian queen- 
bees, or 3-frame nuclei of same, for a pair of 
Embden or Toulouse Geese, a pair of Aylesbury 
and Rouen ducks, Bronze and White Holland tur- 
keys, or other fancy poultry. Address 
3-4d W. P. Henderson, Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



WANTED.-To exchange some comb and extract- 
Vl ed honey for hives, 1-lb. sections, 414x4^4x1?^ or 
2, and a few trio of Wjandottes and a few cockerels 
for supplies or cash. 
3d L. Werner, Edwardsville, lU. 

WANTED.-To exchange a new large pictorial 
family Bible, cost $8. .50, for extracted honey. 
3d W. H. Laws, Lavaca, Ark. 



WANTED.-To exchange a " Taylor " Horse Pow- 
er, Saws, etc. (cut furnished on application) for 
hive-making, and a 10-inch Root fdn. mill, tank, etc., 
good as new, for nice extracted honey, farm wagon, 
cash or otters. J. G. Fitzgerald, Brookston, Tex. 



WANTED.— A sandpaper section machine (Root's 
make) in exchange for bees, sections, ship- 
ping-crates, or a sewing-machine. 
3d F. Granger, Harford Mills, Cortland Co., N. Y. 



AT KANSAS CITY, JVIO. 

•*PUREIITALIAN:;:BEESIFORISiLE.-l^- 

Untested (lueens, in May $1 50 

" " " June 125 

after ■' 1 00 

Tested queens, double the above prices. 

Full colonies, before July 1 $12 00 

after " 10 00 

Bees per half-pound, same prices as untested 
queens. My untested queens are 

Warranted to be Purely Mated. 

My bees are in fine condition ; no " foul brood " in 
my yard or neighborhood. 
3tfd. E. M. HA YHURST, P. O. Box 60. 



SIMPLICITY AND 

LANGSTEOTH HIVES, 

ALL DOVETAILED SECTIONS, 
BROOD AND WIDE FRAMES, SHIPPING-CRATES, 

Wire Nails, etc. Send for circular. 

CEO. WHEELER, 

3tfd. Norwich, Chenango Co., N. Y. 



ALL DOVETAILED SECTIONS, 

One and two pounds. Langstroth Hives, etc. ; 50 
colonies Italian Bees, Nuclei, Queens, Brood and 
Section fdn. Ash kegs for extracted honey, frames 
of brood and bees. M. ISBELL, 

3-6db. Norwich, N. Y. 

DON'T FJLTL. 

To send for price list of Bee-Keepers' Supplies, etc., 
manufactured by the use of 



3-5d. 



XTJlTI7XlilL. GILS, 

To J. J. BRADNER, Findlay, Ohio. 



H 

00 



[^ BEES! BEES! 

QQ Colonies, Nuclei, and Queens, 

f>f\ For sale. Send for price list to \JU 

rH I 3-5-7d. 



S. D. 



McLEAN, 

CoLTMBiA, Tenn. 



FliAT - BOTTOJW < OMB FOUNDATION. 

High side-walls, 4 to 14 square feet to 
the pound. Circular and samples free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN &SONS. 

5tfd Sole Manufacturers, 

SPROUT BROOK, MONT. CO., N. Y. 




DADANT'S FOTODATIOM FAOTOET, WHOLESALE AND 
RETAIL. See advertisement in another column. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUUE. 



119 



Contents of this Number. 



Agricultural Papei-s 155 i 

Bees Color-bliiKl 117 I 

Bee-Keepers ()|iinionatecI...132 

Bees, Unitinir 146 

Blacks vs. Italians U5, 146 

Blacks anil Millei-s 243 1 

Book Avriiits 127 

Bioo(l-('haiiili..rs. Shallow. .133 

Cells, Kistiiutiou of 14<> 

Circulars Received 155 

Color, Constancy of. 124 

Delos Staples 134 

Drone Comb 129 

Editorial 155 

Ellison at Fair 145 

Foul Brood.To Cure 128 

Hive Machinery, New 154 

Hive, Bintrham 133 

Hives, Color of 147 

Hives, Shallow 133 



Honey Column 122 

Honi'v, First Cost 143 

House W:inniiit- 124 

Hiiiiil.UKs and Swindles 134 

Jiivenilr nepartnieut 148 

Oil. Volatile 134 

Our Own Apiary 156 

P. Benson 126 

Reports Kncourapinpr 147 

Ripc'Miuij: Honey 123 

Rolibiiitr, To Prevent 147 

Sci-tioii Case. Eaton's 131 

Se.tii.ns, Half-fllled 131 

Snow. H.inking up 149 

Spcrial Notices 157 

StiiiK Theory, Clarke's 144 

StiUjJTS, Poison of 145 

Super. The T 156 

T Super, Advantages 156 

Tobacco Column 150 



C. M. aOODSPEED, 

THORN KILL, ONONDAGA CO., N. Y., 

Furnishes any newspaper to single subscribers, 
away below the usual club rates. Our list compris- 
es ail the leading- papers, and is the lowest-priced 
list in the field. Alsike, bees, queens, poultry, and 
small fruit. Write tor :JO-page catalog^ue. Mention 
this paper. 2-48d 

PTIR ^ A T P* ~-'^ complete apiary of 140 colo- 
•'^ *'-»^ Oxxlulj. onies of fine premium bees in a 
never-failing locality. A bargain, if called for soon. 
My bees and queens were awarded first premium at 
the late St. Louis Pair, St. Louis, Mo. Address at 
once, L. Werner, Edwardsville, 111. 4tfdb 



P^f^p QqIp '^^' exchange for Western land, 90 
*■ "'^ Oa,LKSy colonies of bees and apiarian fix- 
tures, sufflcient to increase colonies to 100 double 
hives— Simplicit.v hives. An excellent opportunity 
for a live apiarian. Plenty of white clover and bass- 
wood, besides abundance of fruit-bloom. Inventory 
sent on application. Must be sold sonn. 
4-5-6d Address S. W. LAKIN, Eureka, III. 



DADANT'S rOTODATION FACTOET, WHOLESALE and RETAIL. 
See advertisement in another coluiim. :5tfhd 



EXCHANGE -DEPARTMENT. 



"IITANTED.— To exchange some comb and extract- 
VV ed honey for hives, 1-lb. sections, 4\ix4i.ixl '4 or 
2, and a few trio of Wyandottes and a few cockerels 
for supplies or cash. 
3d L. Werner, Edwardsville, lU. 



WANTED. — To exchange for good horses 
and mules, 200 colonies of bees in Simplicity 
frames; also 40 acres of land adjoining the city. 
30tfdb Anthony Opp, Helena, Phillips Co., Ark. 

W.\NTED. -To exchange, nursery stock of all 
kinds (evergreens a specialty), for Italian bees, 
tested queens; nuclei, fdn., aplar.v supplies, bee- 
plant seed. Give prices of your goods. My price 
list free. R. A. Lewis, Cherokee, Iowa. 

TITANTED.— To exchange eggs from four yards, 
VV pure-bred prize-winning Plymouth Kocks, for 
alsike clover seed. Eggs, #3 00 for 1.3, or *.3.00 
for 30. B. D. Sidweli,. 

3 8db Flushing, Belmont Co., Ohio. 



TTT ANTED.— To exchange my new catalogue of 
IT bees, queens, new section-case, for .vour ad- 
dress on a postal card. Address F. A. Eaton, 
3-4d Bluffton, Allen Co., Ohio. 



WANTED to exchange or sell, a Given fdn. press, 
3 tanks, and bi doz. dipping-boards. 
Itfdb J. Swallow, 2816 Mo. Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

WANTED.— To exchange chaff hives or surplus 
crates for bees ne.xt spring. Illustrated price 
list on application. Geo. E. Hilton. 

S-3 4-u-6d Fremont, Mich. 



EGGS for hatching.— Wyandottes, Polands, Ham- 
burgs, and Leghorns, in exchange for section 
boxes, or foundation. Circulars free. 
4tfdl). A. H. DnhF, Crcighton, Ohio. 



W 



ANTED.— To exchange bees for cornet. 
4d. L. J. Tripp, Kalamazoo, Mich. 



WANTED.- To exchange nurser.\- stock of all kinds 
for bees in spring. Terms on application, stat- 
ing what you want. D. G. Eumiston, 
•ttfdb. Adrian, Mich. 



WANTED.— To exchange for bees and apiarian 
supplies, one four-horse-power engine, with 
flve-horse-power boiler, nearly new and in tiptop 
order. Write soon. C. Wolfcale, 

4d. Wolfcale, Ohio. 



WANTED.— To exchange a good Excelsior extrac- 
tor, uncapping-pan, honey-knife, a lot of Sim- 
plicity hives, brood-frames, etc., for comb honey at 
15 cts. per lb., delivered here. Address 
2d. A. M. Morrill, Box 473, Ft. Scott, Kansas. 



WANTED.— To exchange Italian bees for Ameri- 
can Merino sheep, buH' and partridge cochins, 
Wyandottes, and Light Brahma chickens. Address 
4-5d. P. F. Rhodes, New Castle, Ind. 



Air ANTED. — To exchange correspondence with 
\ I California apiarists who want to employ one or 
two experienced young men next season. Address 
3d. F. F. Roe, Ennis, Tex. 

WANTED.- To exchange good harrow, lawn-mow- 
er, lawn-roller, each article for one hive of 
bees. AkthiirTodd, 

4-.5d. 1910 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 



WANTED.- To exchange bee-hives, sections, or 
frames, for full colonies or three-frame nuclei 
of bees. 4-5-6-d W. H. Cook, Clintonville, Wis. 



WANTED.— To exchange foundation for three or 
four sittings of pure (none but the best) eggs of 
Wyandottes. W. K. James, Loudon. Tenn. 4-5d 



WANTED.— To exchange basswood-trees, hard 
maple, and raspberry-plants, for pure Italian 
queens. H. Wirth, Borodino, 

4-5 6d Onondaga Co., N. Y. 

WANTED. — To exchange flrst-class brood-frames 
at 90c per 100, for honey. C. W. Dayton, 
4-.5d Bradford, Iowa. 

WANTED.— To exchange P. Rocks, or eggs for 
hatching, or eggs of B. Leghorns, or Pekin 
Ducks, for Italian queens. 4d 

Sptiing .and Meadow Poultry-Yards, 

Mulberr.v, Pa. 

WANTED.— To exchange Full-bred Gorman Cana- 
ries, also rice pop-corn, for sections, beeswax, 
or supplies, aKso our homestead of 10 acres, for 
larger farm in Northern Ohio. F. H. Chapin, 
4-5d Hinsdale, N. Y. 

WANTED. -To exchange bees in Simplicity hives 
for gold watch and Thomas sinoothing-harrow. 
4d Address L. D. Gale, 

Stedman, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. 



WANTED.— To exchange Gregg raspberry-plants 
for comb fdn., 1-piece sections, or L. frames. 
For particulars address Tho.mpson Brown, 
4-5d Cloverdale, Ind. 

WANTED.— To exchange Italian or Syrian queen- 
bees, or 3-frame nuclei of same, for a pair of 
Embdcn or Toulouse Geese, a pair of Aylesbury 
and Rouen ducks. Bronze and White Holland tur- 
keys, or other fancy poultry. A(ldres.s 
3-4d W. P. Henderson. Murfreesboro, Tenn. 



\irANTED.— To exchange a'Jnew large pictorial 
\t family Bible, cost $8.50, tor extracted honey. 
3d W. H. Laws. Lavaca, Ark. 

WANTED.— To exchange Cuthbert raspberry roots 
for a double-barrel 13-gauge breech-loading 
shot-gun. or a female ferret, or beeswax. 
3-6db M. ISBELL, Norwich, N. Y. 



120 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



FIRST IN THE FIELD!! 

The Invertible Bee-Hive 

Invertible Frames, 

INVERTSBLE SURPLUS • CASES, 

top, bottom, and 
Entrance Feeders. 

Catalo;^'uea> Free. AcldreM<!> 

J. M. Shuck, Des Moines, Iowa. 

_ 4-3db 

TQX'T J^EEPEES' GUIDE, Memoranda, and Illus- 
^HaIa trated catalogue, for 18,S7. PEEE. Reduc- 



ed pric•e^ 



Address JOS. N?SEWANDEE, Des Moines. Iowa. 
Stfdlj 



DADANT'S FOUNDATION FACTORY, WHOLE- 
SALE AND RETAIL. See advertisement in 
another cohimn. 3btfd 



200 COLONIES OF 

ice Italian & li 



FOR SALE AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. 

Also a full line of Bee-keepers' Supplies. COTttB 
FOUNDATION from cbojce select yellow 
bees'ivax a specialty, at very low rates, both 
wholesale and retail. 

Do not fail to send for my 27th Ainiiial Catalog-ue 
before purchasing-. 

3tfdb ^''''-''^ WM. W. GARY, 

COLERAINE, MASS. 

Mention thie paper when writing. 



ALL DOVETAILED SECTIONS, 

One and two pounds. Langstroth Hives, etc. ; .50 
colonies Italian Bees, Nuclei, Queens, Brood and 
Section fdn. Ash kegs for extracted hoiiev, frames 
of brood and bees. M. ISBELL, 

3-6db. Norwich, N. Y. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Dunham Brood Fdn., 40c. per lb.; extra thin Van- 
dervort Fdn., 45c. per lb. Wax made into fdn. for 10 
and 30c. per lb. 10% discount on all orders received 
before the 1.5th of April. 

3-tfdb. F. W. HOLMES, Coopersville, Mich. 



MUTH'S 
HONEY-EXTRACTOR, 

»»(tlJ.AKE GLASS HONFY-JARS, 

TIN BUCKFTS, BFF-HIVFS, 
HONEY-SF€TIONS, &c., &c. 
FFRFECTION COLO- BLAST SITIOKFRS. 



Apply to CHAS. F. MUTH & SON, 

Cincinnati, O. 
P. S.—Send 10-cent stamp for " Practical Hints to 
Bee-Keepers." Itfdb 



BE SURE 



To send apostal card I'orour illustrated catalogueof 

APIARIAN e^.s^Xre^.-'itrn^ SUPPLIES 

tains illustrations and descriptions of everj' thing 
new and desirable in an apiary, 

AT THF LOWFST PRI€FS. 



J. C. SAYLES, 

2tfd Hartford, M'ashington Co.. "Wis. 



DADANT'S 

FOUNDATION 

is asserted by hundreds of practical and disinterest- 
ed bee-keepers to be the cleanest, brightest, quick- 
est accepted by bees, least apt to sag, most regular 
in color, evenest, and neatest, of any that is made. 

It is kept for sale by Messrs. T. G. Newman & 
Son, Chicago, 111.; C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, O.: Jas. 
Heddon, Dowagiac, Mich.; Dougherty & Wiley, 
Indianapolis, Ind.; B. J. Millei- & Co., Nappanee, 
Ind.; Chas. H.Green, Berlin, Wis. ; Chas. Hertel, 
Jr., Freeburg, 111. ; Ezra Baer, Dixon, Lee Co., 111. ; E. 
S. Armstrong, Jersey ville, Illinois; Arthur Todd, 
1910 Germantown Ave., Phil'a, Pa.; E. Kretchmer, 
Coburg, Iowa; P. L. Viallon, Bayou Goula, La., 
M.J. Dickason, Hiawatha, Kansas; J. W. Porter, 
Charlottesville, Albemarle Co., Va. ; E. R. Newcomb, 
Pleasant Valley, Dutchess Co., N. Y. ; D. A. Fuller, 
Cherry Valley, 111. ; J. B. Mason & Sons. Mechanic 
Falls, Maine; G. L. Tinker, New PhiUdelphia, O., 
J. M. Shuck, Des Moines, la.; Aspinwall & Tread- 
well, Barrytown, N. Y. ; Barton, Forsgard & Barnes, 
Waco, McLennan Co., Texas, W. E. Clark, Oriskany, 
N. Y., G. B. Lewis & Co., Watertown, Wis., E. F. 
Smith, Smyrna, N. Y., and numerous other dealers. 

Write for samples /ree, and price list of supplies, 
accompanied witli 150 Complimentary and unso- 
licited testimonials, from as many bee-keepers, in 
1883. We guarantee every inch of nu'r foundation equal 
In sample in everu i-espcct. 

CHAS. l^ADAN T & SON, 
3btfd Hamilton, Hancock Co., Illinois. 



May oome, but tlie 

Stanley Automatic Honey-Extractor 

HAS come to stay. Special otter up to March 1. 
4d. G. W. STANLEY, Wyoming, N. Y. 



EIGHTH YEAR. 
THE SUGAR BEET 

Illustrated Qu.irtcrly. 50 cts, a year, including postage, 
LEWIS S. WARE, M. E., Editor. 
HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO., Publishers, 
810 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 
This is the only publication in the United States 
devoted exclusively to the cultivation and utilization 
of the Sugar Beet. Farmers and Capitalists should 
remember that from the beet is manufactured one-half 
the sugar consumed in the world. The beet manufac- 
turing processes are not in their experimental stages — 
by them are obtained not only sugar, but also meat, 
alcohol, etc. 

IN SEASON FROM 

CHOICE BROWN LEGHORNS 

Of Rose or Straight combs, or Pekin Duck Eggs, for 
$1.00 for 18, DAVID LUCAS, 

4-5d. Jewett, Ohio. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



121 



ITALIAIT QUEEITS 

BEE-HIVES AND SUPPLIES. 

ONE PIKCU V-OUOOVI*: SKCTIONS, BGE- 

FEEDKRS, WIRE NAIL.8, PfiU- 

FORATED ZIN«;. 

Scrub Finishes, a friend for the ladies, 65 cents 
each: $-t. 0(1 per dozen. Alsike clover seed, $7. ,50 per 
bushel; i^'.J.OO per peck; 15 cents per pound. 

B. J. MILLER & CO., 

4-lOdb NAPPANEE, IND. 



3M[- H. HXTKTT, 

Manufacturer of and dealer in every thing needed 
in the apiary. 

BEAUTIFUL SECTIONS, FOUNDATION, 

ALSIKE CLOVER SEED, &C. 
4tfd Btll Braiu-lio Wayne Co., ITIIcli. 

Price list free. (Near Detroit) 

Jhere is Some fun 

And much sense in t)ur beautiful clivonio card de- 
scribed on pages i-'i and 112. Sense to tell people in 
a neat way what you have to sell; and fun to take 
in the money. Look it up, or address 

J. H. MARTIN, Hartford, N. Y. 



4tfd 



CmCULAH 

NOW READY. 

ADDRESS JAMES HEDDON, 

u«^ DOWASIAC, WICH. 

ATTENTION I 

SECTIONS, BEE-HIVES, HONEY-BOXES, 
FR.VMES, ETC. 

LARGEST FACTORY TN THE WORLD. 

Best of goods at lowest prices. Write for free il- 
lustrated Catalogue. G. B. LEWIS & CO., 
Itfdb Watertowii, Wis. 



Send for my new and enlarged Price List for 1887, 
now ready, of 

APIARIAH SUPPLIES, 

ITALIAN BEES AND QUEENS. 

All untested queens warranted purely mated. Al- 
so three varieties of 

HIGH-CLASS POULTRY. 

3d. C. M. DTXON, Parrish, 111. 



WRITE TO JOHN CALLAM & CO., 

LUMBER DEALERS, KENTON, OHIO, 



— FOR PKICES ON 



BEE-HIVES, SECTIONS, 

And General Supplies for Bee-keepers 

New Factory. Low Prices. Good Work. 
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HOW TO RAISE COMB HONEY. 

Price 5c. You need this pamphlet, and my free 
bee and supply circular. 18tfdb 

OLIVER FOSTER, Mt. Vernon, Linn Co., Iowa. 



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FOE THE UAOTFAOTUEE AND SALE OF 

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CHAFF AND SIMPLICITY HIVES FURNISHED 
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Hives, one-piece sections, comb fdn., smokers, 
honey-extractors, Italian queens, bees by the pound. 
Highest cash price for good beeswax, also honey. 
Send for our new circular for 18S7, now out. 
4d. SMITH «& JACKSON, Tilbury Center, 

P. O. Box 73. Kent Co., Ontario, Canada. 

PURE ITALIAN BEES FOR SALE. 

In superior movable-frame hives. Frames 12'4X 
13'.i; eight frames each, at from five to six dollars 
per colony; or same in light strong shipping-boxes, 
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122 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



P0]VEY O0MJIN. 



CITY MARKETS. 
Boston.— Honey.— We notice a little improve- 
ment in sales, and one-pound fancy white lioney is 
wanted; tiie supply is not equal to demand; price 
for same, from 14@15c. No change in other kinds. 
Blake & Ripley, 
Feb. 11, 1887. .57 Chatham St., Boston, Mass. 



Kansas City.— Honey.- No chang-e in quotations 
since our last. 
Feb. 11. 1887. Clemons, Cloon & Co., 

Cor. Fourth and Walnut Sts., Kansas City, Mo. 



New York.— Honey.— There is no material chang-e 
in the honey-market. There is a good demand for 
line white comb honey, but the demand for poorer 
gi-ades is limited, with plent.y of stock. We make 
no change in our quotations. Extracted honey in 
fair demand, with the exception of buckwheat. 

Beeswax, a little firmer, with good demand. 

Feb. 11, 1887. Thukber, Whyland & Co., 

Reade and Hudson Sts., New York. 



St. Louis.— Honey.— The movement of honey Is 
very light; few orders from country, and they are 
very small. Stock in the city is large, and seems to 
be still accumulating. 

White-clover honey in 1-lb. sections, dull, 11@12; 
same in cans, dull, 5@6; Southern honey in bbls, as 
to quality, 3@4; California honey, in cans, amber, 
iM; sage, 5. Beeswax, i-eflned, 38@30; selected yel- 
low, 38. Dark and mixed, 31. 

W. B. Westcott & Co., 

Feb. 13, 1887. 108 a nd 110 Market St. 

Columbus.— Honey.— Demand light. Best white 
clover. 14@15. Extracted, 10@12H. Beeswax, 'i'iCgi^o 
in a jobhing way. Earle Clickenger, 

Feb. 10, 1887. 117 S. 4th St., Columbus, Ohio. 



Cleveland. — H<m.ey. — There is no material 
change in the market. Sales continue very slow at 
13c for best white in 1-lb. sections. Dark 1-lb., dull 
at 10; 3-lbs., white, 11@13. Extracted, 6. 
Beeswax. 35c. A. C. Kendel, 

Feb. 10, 1887. 115 Ontario St., Cleveland, O. 



Cincinnati. — Honey. — There is nothing new 
worthy of note in the market. Demand is slow for 
all kinds and shapes of honey, Prices remain the 
same as quoted last. 

Beesit'a:c.— There is a good demand for this, which 
brings 30@23c for good to choice yellow on arrival. 

Feb. 10, 1887. Cha.s. F. Muth & Son, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Detroit.— Honey. —Best white comb honey in 
one-pound sections, IS'^c; other grades, 10(5,11. 
Beeswax. 33c. M. H. Hunt, 

Feb. 11, 1887. _Bell Branch, Mich. 

Chicago. — Honey. — Sellers ask from 7@10 for 
dark and crooked to good l^-lb. sections; good 1-lb. 
sections, white, but not scraped, 10@,11. Fancy 
white in apparent good order, and scant pound sec- 
tions, 13@]3. Very little sold at the outside quota- 
tions. Extracted comb honey, lifeless. No sales to 
quote from this week. Beeswax, 35. 

R. A. Burnett, 

Feb. 10, 1887. 161 So. Water St., Chicago, 111. 



For Sale.— 3000 lbs. best clover honey in Root's 
" raised-cover pails." One set, 30% lbs., |3.50; ] set, 
132 lbs., $9.35. Boxed, they ship same as bbls. 

Oliver Foster, Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 



For Sale.— 1 bbl. of 550 lbs. net, and 5 kegs of 115 
lbs. net each, all of which is No. 1 white-clover 
honey, well ripened. Will take 6^40 per lb. for bbl. 
and 7c for kegs. Sample sent for 3-cent stamp. 
R. J. Barber, 818 E. Washington St., 

Blooming-ton, 111. 

For Sale.— 4 cases of 43 lbs. each, net, of the finest 
white-clover honey, in 1-lb. sections. Price 13'/2e 
per lb.; has been kept in a warm room, and is in 
good order. Henry Willson, 

Box 360, Clinton, Dewitt Co., 111. 



DADANT'S rOUNDATION TAOTOEY, WHOLESALE AND 
RETAIL. See advertisement in another column. 



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Write to W. H. COOK^lIntonville, % Wis, 

FOR PRICES ON 

Bee-Jives, Seotionu Frames 

As I am located where an abundance of Itasswood 
and pine grows, I feel safe to say I can furnish my 
goods as cheap as they can be produced. 

A. I. Root Chaff Hive a Specialty. 

All g6ods warrantpd. For reference, apply to the 
Bank of Clintonville, Wis. 4tfdb 



Wjintpri A good bee-keeper to take charge of 
"" 111 ICUi my apiary of 130 colonies, on shares. 
4d Robert Blacklock, Killgore, Carter Co., Ky. 



10 



Cpays for a valuable book for beginners, "First 
Principles in Bee Culture," or T5c for book and 
a Clark smoker. Circulars of a new pat'd hive 
FREE. G. K. Hubbard. La Grange, Ind. 4tfdb 



N. Y., N. J., MASS., & CONN. 
« BEE-KEEPERS, « 

SETTD rOR MY NEW PRICE LIST. 

E. R. Newoomb, Pleasant Valley, Dutchess Co., N.Y. 
jtfdt* _ 

/TAUAN QUEENS FOR SALE, 

REARED FROM IMPORTED MOTHERS. 

Untested, in March and April, $1.35; May to Nov., 
$1.00; Nov. and after, $1.25. .Address 4-6-8d 

J. P. CALDWELL, San Marcos, Tex. 



being 

A Talh ithout some of tlir Inijilrnienfs. I'Uiii.s. 

iind Jf ra ct i t'i'.s of ii Hi't'-kri'/irr of ?,» >/vai:s- 

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t'roductioii of Hoitei/ his K.rclnsixu- 

liiis'nte.s.s. 

A book of 114 pages, well printed, and nicely 
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A. I. Root, in Gleanings, says: It is a plain, fa- 
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out in an intensely interesting and taking way, and 
keeps it up all through the book. 

Dr. J. P. H. Brown, says : It bridges over a big va- 
cancy in practical bee-keeping. 

Price 75 Cts. Sent Postpaid by the Author, 
Dr. C. C. MILLER, 
4-5d Marengo, III. 

F7URM FOR SALE." 

A good farm of 135 acres in the groat corn belt of 
Western Iowa— good crops the past dry season. An 
apiary on the farm has never failed to produce a 
good crop of honey. A pond of natural water, live 
acres of good timber, good bee-house, new stable, 
house 16 X 3t, two story; ell, 14 .\ 34, one story. Good 
school facilities, healthy climate. Reasons given 
fcr wishing to sell. F.E.ROSS, 

4d Onawa. Monona Co., loiira. 




Vol. XV. 



FEB. 15, 1887. 



No. A 



TERMS: Jl.OO Per ANNtTM, IN ADVANCE;] fp c,+ rtTtl T oTt o rl -i-n 'IR'7^ 
2Copiesfor$1.90; 3for*2.75:5for«4.00-, ( ^Ot'Ct't/t't'O/e'CJCt' Lfl/ J. O I O . 

PUBLISHED SEMIMONTHLY BY 

A. I. ROOT, MEDINA. OHIO. 



2 Cop 

10 or more, 75 cts. each. Single num- 
\wr. 5 cts. Additions to clubs may be 
made at club rates. Above are all to 
be sent to one postoffick. 



( Clubs to different postofRces, not less 
I than 90 cts. each. Sent postpaid, in the 
J U. S. and Canadas. To all other coun- 
1 tries of the Universal I'ostal Union, 18 
cts. per year extra. To all countries 
I. NOT of the U. P. U., 42 cts. per year extra. 



KIPENING HONEY, ETC. 



SOMETHING SPECIAL IN REGARD TO RIPENING THE 
CAPPED HONEV IN SECTION BOXES. 



fN page 476 of Gleanings for 1886, Dr. Miller 
says: "It may be objected, that the bees, 
thus left to fill themselves, will take just so 
much honey out of the sections. That is just 
what I like to have them do, for there are 
always unsealed cells around the outer margin of a 
section, and the more honey taken from these the 
better." Dr. Miller, please tell us why you consider 
it an advantage to have this unsealed honey taken 
out. I used to think the same before 1 learned how 
to properly ripen honey, for in the cool damp room 
where I then kept it, the honey in these unsealed 
cells always kept thin and getting thinner, so that 
by the time I crated it a section could not be turned 
upon its side without this thin honey dropping out 
and daubing every thing upon which it fell. Ac- 
cordingly I learned that sections must be kept right 
6ide up all the while if I would keep every thing tidy. 
Of course, 1 could do this; but how about the mer- 
chant who bought it, and the consumer ? I well 
remember taking a nice sample of the most snowy- 
white comb honey I ever produced, to a merchant. I 
sold my honey, too, at that time, and the first thing 
he did was to turn the section down flat in his hand, 
as his eyes looked admiringly upon it; but said 
gaze was only momentary, for the honey from 
these unsealed cells which 1 had been so careful to 
keep in place was dripping down between his fin- 
gers, which caused a feeling other than of admira- 
tion to come over him. I then gave him a lesson in 
handling honey, and never afterward did I see him 
handle honey except in an upright position. But 



however well I and a few others (who know how) 
might succeed in avoiding this daubing, yet I knew 
if such a state of affairs were allowed to exist that 
many would become disgusted with the •' dauby 
stuff," even if I did not, so I set to work to see if I 
could not remedy the matter. After studying 
some time on the matter without solving it, I went 
to see Mr. Betsinger one day; and while there I 
went to see his honey, which was kept in a small 
building, only 7 feet high, having on it a rusty tin 
roof. As we went into the building I remarked 
about the great heat inside, when he said that this 
was as he desired it, for this heat ripened his honey 
so that it was thick, and never leaked and daubed 
things. Putting his talk into actions he picked up 
a section which had been in this room a couple of 
weeks, and turned it over, backward and forward, 
without a particle of drip, while one just off the 
hive, treated the same way, leaked badly. I then 
saw what was the remedy for my trouble; for here- 
tofore 1 had kept my honej' in a room on the north 
side of my dwelling-house, on the first floor, where 
of course it was cool and damp. Thanking friend B. 
for what I had learned I came home and planned 
my present honej' - room which I have often de- 
scribed in the different bee-papers. 

With this I was satisfied till some two or three 
years ago, when we had a damp cool time for about 
two weeks, during which the sun did not shine at 
all to warm up the dark paint on the outside, in 
consequence of which the honey gathered damp- 
ness to an extent not pleasing to me, epecially as I 
was now about to crate it. This set me to thinking 
how to remedy the matter, should another such 
damp time occur in the future, the result of which 
was the placing of an oil-stove in ray honey-room, 



124 



glea^'INgs in bee culture. 



Feb. 



so that now I have complete control of the temper- 
ature, and can raise or lower it at pleasure by sim- 
ply turning- the wicks up or down. As, when the 
wicks are turned low down there is an offensive 
smell comes from the stove, I am about to fit a tin 
cover over the stove on which is to be fastened a 
length of two-inch conductor-pipe. On this I can 
use other conductor-pipe with various elbows so as 
to retain the heat and yet carry oft' all the fumes 
from the burning kerosene, the same as smoke is 
carried off by a stove-pipe. In this way the honey 
will be constantly growing- better instead of deteri- 
orating; besides, if I wish to draw it to market on a 
cold or cool day thei-e will be no danger of breaking, 
for a body of honey will retain heat for a long time. 

A MISTAKE CORRECTED. 

On page 930 of same volume of Gleanings, Mr. 
Swinson says: "I think G. M. Doolittle made the 
statement, . . . that Syrians and Cyprians, as a 
rule, produce brighter-colored queen progeny than 
any other race." If Mr. S. will turn to page 729 of 
said volume I think he will find that he made a mis- 
take in reading. I there say, that "the queens of 
these two races of bees are next in constancy of 
color to the German queens," by which I meant that 
their markings were more fixed and unchangeable 
than any other, save the German. This has noth- 
ing to do with brightness of color, as will be seen 
where I apply the same "constancy" to a greater 
extent, to black bees. I fully agree with Mr. S., that 
" the best domesticated Italian queens produce the 
yellowest queen progeny of any race we have," 3-et 
this does not conflict with what I say about queens 
of the other races being " most constant in color." 

Borodino, N. Y. G. M. Doolittle. 

Friend D., I have been thinking of your 
phm of ripening honey so it would not run 
out, and I regard it as a matter of the great- 
est importance. I am very glad you have 
taken it up for us in the very thorough way 
you have in the above. 



ALSIKE CLOVER - "WHEN AND HOW 
TO SOW, ETC. 



ALSO SOMETHING ABOUT RAISING BASSWOODS 
FROM THE SEEDS. 



a EAR SIR:— Whenever one of my manuscripts 
is not available, dump it into the waste-bas- 
ket without ceremony. Can you not let us 
know through Gleanings, at an early date, 
when and how to sow alsike to the best ad- 
vantage, and how much seed to sow to the acre 
■when sown alone? Also how much, when sown 
■with timothy? Please tell us when to gather bass- 
wood-seeds, when to plant, and how to cultivate. 
Denison, Iowa, Feb. 1, 1887. Z. T. Hawk. 

Friend H., we are very much obliged in- 
deed to you for the liberty you give us with 
your manuscript. There has been quite a 
little complaint of late, because we receive 
articles for publication and don't publish 
them, return them, nor give any explana- 
tion. If the friends will take a seat in the 
editorial chair a while, they will perhaps see 
why this is one of the hardest things to do, 
and do promptly. We are constantly debat- 
ing what to use and wliat not to use. Now, 
to add to the perplexities, the contents of 
each mail is liable to upset the calculations 
we have made. For instance, an article has 



been prepared for print. Something better 
and later comes in, and the first one is laid 
aside. At other times something occurs to 
render it desirable to hunt up and publish 
something we had decided not to use. So 
you see a gieat many articles are under a 
weight which we designate ''Awaiting 
Further Orders." We do not put any man- 
uscripts in the waste-basket. Sometimes an 
article lies on the table a month or two un- 
til we find we are just ready to give it a 
place. At other times, after having held it a 
month or two, to see just where the best in- 
terests of our readers are running, we decide 
not to use it at all.— -In regard to alsike : As 
it is just about time now to sow it, we are glad 
you have called attention to the matter. 
Sow about -4 lbs. to the acre, on any kind of 
grain ; and if you sow it on one of the last 
falls of snow you can easily see how thick 
you are getting it. Terry's favorite time to 
sow red clover is about the time of our last 
severe frosts. Whenever we find the ground 
all honey-combed, as it were, by the frost, 
with the prospect of a thaw as soon as the 
sun gets up, then is the time to get in your 
clover. The seed rattles down in these little 
holes made b\' the frost, and the thaw covers 
it up with damp soil as soon as the sun 
shines out. Have every thing all ready, and 
then go at it as soon as you can see, when the 
right time comes. Friend Terry has his 
breakfast put off an hour or two, rather 
than miss the chances of getting in his clo- 
ver-seed just right. If your ground is good, 
so as to make a strong growth, it will pay 
you well to put in a sprinkling of timothy, 
so as to make it stand up. This matter was 
pretty well discussed at the Albany Conven- 
tion. In very strong ground, alsike will 
make such a mass of vines and stalks that it 
is liable to rot during much rainy weather.— 
Raising basswoods from the seeds, so far, 
has been pretty much of a failure. I have 
just received a catalogue from George Penney 
& Co., Evergieen, Door Co., Wis., adverti.s- 
ing basswood-seeds at a dollar a pound. He 
also has little trees for sale, and has prom- 
ised to give us an article on saving and 
sowing the seeds, and on the treatment of 
the seedlings. 



HOUSE-WAKMING. 



PROS'. COOK PLEADS FOR A FURNACE, AND WOOD 
FOR FUEL. 



T MOST heartily agree with our friends Terry 
l^f and the Editor, in their position on the tobac- 
^t CO question. How irrational and incompre- 
hensible, that men will, in the face of the 
known physical evils that attend the use of to- 
bacco, the disgusting character of the habit, which 
would surely nauseate any one except that we see 
it from youth up, the moral obliquity, and disre- 
gard of others' comfort which its use engenders; 
and the worse than useless expense which goes 
with the habit; that any one will suffer himself to 
become its slave! The explanation must come 
with the fact that children— mere nurslings- 
adopt the pernicious practice ere reason and judg- 
ment are sufficiently matured to guide and con- 
trol. So much the more need that we who are 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



125 



parents spare no effort, either of precept or ex- 
ample, to hold our children, that we may influence 
them aright in this most susceptible period. How 
thankful we all ought to be, that Gleanincs has 
taken the stand it has on this question! What a 
power for good it would be, if all our editors would 
join in the same blessed undertaking- 1 

I am also one with our friends in the thought that 
home should be made the most delightful of all 
places. Only last night, wife remarked: "There 
are two things we will use most liberally— light and 
fuel. We can not afford to stint in genial warmth, 
or the pleasant cheer which a well-lighted room 
helps so materially to diffuse through the home." 
Wife is right. It is a wiser economy to burn a lit- 
tle more oil and wood, and keep the children at 
home, than to lose their company as they go else- 
where to burn tobacco. Why, Mr. Editor, just 
once fill a home with loving self -sacrifice; have 
ever in reach in the pleasantest room of the 
house— the living-room— such papers as Glean- 
ings, the Youth's Companion, etc., and good 
books; have the house warm and bright these win- 
ter evenings, and we shall find it very easy to hold 
the dear children. Yes, this costs something, liut 
less of both money and worry than does the street- 
corner, the cigar, the saloon, and, last in this awful 
sequence of events, the way that leadeth down to 
hell. 

But I must differ with both our friends as to the 
method of heating our houses. I was brought up 
in the warmth and glare of the old fireplace, with 
its huge back-log of hickory, the ample fore-stick, 
and open work of crossing timbers all aglow with 
the leaping, crackling flames. I have used wood- 
stoves for years. I have used the hard coal stove, 
lauded by friend Teri-y ; 1 now have my ofhce, lab- 
oratories, and lecture-room heated by steam, which 
you, Mr. Editor, praise as the best thing, while our 
present home is heated bj- the furnace, which you 
both decry, but which, in the judgment of all at 
our house, is by far the best way to heat our dwell- 
ing's. I fear, Mr. Editor, some may be misled by 
what you have said— indeed, I know of one reader 
of Gleanings who is now proposing, the coming- 
summer, to remove stoves and replace them with a 
furnace. He is a bee-keeper, and keeps his bees in 
his cellar. Yet I think he is wise, and I would not 
have him or any other falter in such a wise inten- 
tion. 

Let me briefly state my reasons for this conclu- 
sion. 1 think they will commend themselves to 
any interested person : 

Steam heat is mainly objectionable in that it 
heats the air already in the house, and in no waj' 
effects to change it. Thus our rooms are apt to be 
ill ventilated, and colds and headache are the re- 
sult. Again, the coils are usually not attractive, 
and are in the way. Once more: If the house is 
to be shut up, and through neglect or carelessness 
the steam is not thoroughly shut off, and the water 
all drained off, then there is liability to have burst- 
ing pipes and no end of trouble. It is also more 
expensive to secure a little quick heat in summer, 
spring, or autumn, to temper the chill of a cold 
morning with steam. I have a brother-in-law 
whose house is heated by hot-water circulation in 
pipes. I think the above objections all hold to this 
method of heating. 

1 object to the coal-stove heating— I mean wife 
and I— because it heats only a part of the house, 



is a dirty thing at best— even the bard-coal dust is 
very pervasive and annoying, is in the way, is apt 
to be out of the way in cold days of summer, and 
is hard to start when just a little heat is desired. 
While the coal-stove is a little better than the 
steam for ventilation, it is not conducive to good 
ventilation. True, it draws a little of the air from 
the room, but in the main it heats only over and 
over the vitiated air, which, with these stoves, is 
usually retained in the rooms to be breathed again 
and again, thus engendering disease and enfeeljled 
strength. 

Now for the furnace. It is in the cellar, and all 
dust and are dirt avoided. The pleasant living- 
rooms are not cumbered witli ugly stoves or coils. 
The husband can arrange the fires, and so the wife 
is saved to the utmost. Best of all, the heated air 
is drawn right from outdoors; and as it can not 
enter the rooms unless just so much air passes out, 
there is a constant exchange of air, and so our 
rooms are constantly well ventilated. With no 
trouble, every room in the house can be heated, or 
by the push of a lever any can be kept cool. A 
stick or two of wood in the furnace, on a cool 
morning, just removes the chill of the whole house 
and makes a happy household. We have had our 
furnace for over twelve j-ears, and it has heated 
our house perfectly, has given the most perfect 
satisfaction, has never been out of order, and we 
scareeb' ever go to visit our friends, where stove 
or other heat is used, but that we join in praise of 
the blessed furnace. 

In arranging for a furnace, the room to contain 
it should be large^ours will hold eight cords of 
three or four feet wood, and this room should l)e 
entirely separated by a l)rick or stone wall from 
the remainder of the cellar. Thus we can keep our 
vegetable-cellar just as cool as though we had no 
furnace; and still, l)y simply opening a door we 
can surely prevent freezing in case of very severe 
weather. The cold-air shaft should open toward 
the prevailing winds— west at this place— for if it 
opens east the strong west winds that rush around 
the house so suck the air as to reverse the current 
of hot air, and it is too expensive to heat all out- 
doors. But -with an east opening, all will work 
well, even with a heavy west wind, by opening the 
cold-air flue into the cellar, and closing the outer 
opening. Yet I prefer to always take the air from 
outdoors. We have our chimney in three divi- 
sions—the center division carries off the smoke, and 
the whole chimney is kept warm. Eacli room is 
connected, by means of a register and a close pipe, 
with the outer divisions of this chimney. We see, 
then, that the ventilation is perfect. We start the 
flre, which heats the air fresh from outside, which 
passes to our rooms. This rises and pushes the 
cold air down. At the same time the heated 
chimney causes the air in it to rise, and this is re- 
placed by the colder air from our i-ooms passing 
out. I can not see how we could have more per- 
fect ventilation. Good ventilation means good 
health and long life. 

We keep three rooms on the first floor, two large 
halls, and our children's two rooms above, heated 
all the time, and a third chamber when needed, 
and it costs us »40.0() a year. At night I fill the 
furnace, close the dampers and shut tlie registers, 
except in the dining-room and sitting-room— we 
have no "parlor" at our house— and when I get up 
in the morning these rooms are warm and com- 



126 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUHE. 



Feb. 



fortable; and when I call the household, two hours 
later, the whole house is warmed. As I said be- 
fore, we think it economy to keep our whole house 
as warm and cosy as possible. If we can make 
this the most delightful place in the world to our 
children, we shall have solved the problem of their 
habits in a most agreeable manner. Now, Mr. 
Editor, I am rejoicing in the hope of a visit from 
both you and friend Terry this spring; and if this 
article does not convert you both, I believe a per- 
sonal examination on the spot will. A. J. Cook. 
Agricultural College, Mich. 

I am converted already, friend Cook ; but 
I want to add, that steam is used quite ex- 
tensively for warming a current of air 
brought inffrom outdoors, exactly as you do. 
We have outdoor pipes which bring in the 
fresh air, and pass it around the coil of 
steam-pipes ; and just the air, and not the 
ungainly-looking coils you speak of, passes 
into the' room above, as does the lieat from 
your furnace. We have used furnaces on 
the plan you mention, for a good many years, 
but my objection is the expense of warming 
up this" outer air, especially when the tem- 
peratui-e is below zero. It takes a heap of 
coal or wood either to warm a large building 
in that way. I greatly prefer a wood-burn- 
ing furnace ; bvit in our locality it is much 
more expensive than soft coal, although I 
believe with you I would willingly pay the 
extra expense to get rid of the dust and 
smoke from any kind of coal. Our new fac- 
tory is warmed by still another device. A 
blower run by machinery sends a blast of 
air (taken from outdoors) through an ar- 
rangement something like a common steam- 
boiler, only the steam passes through the 
flues, while the blast of air circulates around 
them. With suitable pipes we can send the 
hot air into any room, and it warms it very 
quickly.— When Dr. Miller was here he took 
me to task because I assumed so many re- 
sponsibilities, and did so much choring 
about, for otners. Now, if I understand it, 
a large part of your strength, perhaps both 
of mind and body, is consumed in building 
tires, pumping water, and taking care of the 
horse and cow, etc. As you get up two 
hours before the rest of the family, 1 con- 
clude you have this two hours of hard work, 
down cellar and upstairs, as a regular rou- 
tine each morning. If you had steam in yoiir 
household, it might do every bit of this, if 
you except making friends with the domes- 
tic animals. Your wife could have hot or 
cold water taken from the well or cistern, 
by turning a single valve, and it has some- 
times seemed to me as if the steam rejoiced 
in being permitted to do such service. I 
know all about the recreation these duties 
give you, but I don't believe it is good for 
me to be obliged to have too much exercise, 
day after day, whether I feel like it or not. 
Very likely, "Bertie is beginning to ease his 
papa a little in these every-day duties, just 
as Ernest is now relieving me. I presume 
your wood-burning finnace will be most 
feasible for the greater part of the readers 
of (iLEANiNGS, and friend Terry's arrange- 
ment is not so very much different from it, 
after all. In many homes, perhaps his plan 
would be the best. 



OUR P. BENSON LETTER. 



ROOLS OF HOW TO SWARM BEES.— KONTIN YUDE. 



TN ml last discoarse I left you dun up in a over- 
j^f coat & three (3) vales & the fokes a makin a 
^i outrajis noise. If the racket has binkep a goin 
"*■ lively, it has fetoht the bees down by this tilne, 
and by this time you ar pirty warm. 
The bees will be pirty shure to settel on a sour 
appel tree, but moar likely thay will settel onto a 
oke tree, pirty well up. Git a ladder & set agen the 
oke tree & tell the fokes to stop thair outrajis racket. 
Klime up to whair the swarm is hangin on a lim of 
the tree & shake them down onto a sheet whitch 
you lied plaist the sheet under the hive, & as kwick 
as you shake them off of the lim hurry down sose to 
git them in the hive. By the time you git i4 way 
down the tree, sumbuddy will holler "The bees is 
goin back on the lim," but you needent pay enny 
atlOshun to it; klime down &seefor yureself. Then 
you ken klime up agen & shake them off as be4. 
Repeat this a phue times and it will inkrease your 




PROF. Bf^NSOX TAKEING UOUN A SWORM. 

temperreightyure. Then you ken git a saugh and 
saugh off the lim & thay will lite onto a appel tree 
whair you ken shaik them down & swarm them into 
the hive. By this time you will be warm. The bee 
is a nativ of a warm climait and likes to hev things 
warm. Keep on yure overcoat & things till sundown 
sose yule be reddy if they cum out agen. It will 
save the trubbel of warmin up agen. Besides you 
mite ketch coald if you talk them off too suddent. 

If the hive is shaded poot it out whair the sun ken 
shine on it all day long. This will maik them shure 
to stay bekoz thay will see its a good warm place for 
winter. In a phue days, move the bees to the place 
whair you want them to stay. It woont do to move 
them the 1st day or 3 till they hev lernd to reckog- 
nize thair hive, and then thay will find it whairever 
you poot it. 

Drive staiks in the ground 3 feet hi to set the hive 
onto the staiks, soze the wurms will fall & braik 
thair ne.x hwen thay cum out of the hive for exer- 
sighs. Besides, the moth miller, whitch gits into 
the hives and eats up the yung bees, woont hev so 
good a chants to find it if its up hi. 

P. Benson, A. B. S. 

(Whitch is Apiculturistical Beekeepin Slghentist.) 



18«7 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



127 



BOOK AGENTS AND THEIK BUSINESS. 

GOOD ADVICE FROM DR. MILIiER. 



'HILE the subject of hook agents is up, al- 
low me to refer to another phase. Among- 
boc>k agents, as in all other callings, there 
are good anrl bad people. For the benefit 
of two classes I want to speak. First, for the 
benefit of any readers of Gleanings who are 
good people, and who are liook agents; second, for 
the benetlt of any upon whom hookj agents, good 
or bad, may hfippen to call. 1 will give you an il- 
lustration of what sometimes happens. 

A book agent of pleasing address, and who de- 
sires to do good by selling a good book, comes to 
my house and rings. The lady of the house, en- 
gaged at some occupation which she can with diffi- 
culty leave, possibly some mystery of cookei-y, at 
a critical moment when a few minutes' absence 
may bring disaster, stops and cleans up her hands, 
and. like a true daughter of Eve, looks a little to 
her general apiiearauce, then goes to the door, and 
admits the stranger. 

" Ts the gentleman at home? "or if, as maybe 
the case, he has learned my name, '* Is Dr. Miller 
at home? " 

Not knowing what may be the business in hand, 
she comes to me, where I am very busily engaged, 
perhaps with a hive open. Closing up as speedily 
as possible, I get myself a little in shape, go into 
the house, and greet the stranger, wondering 
whether it may be some old friend whom I do not 
recognize, and a little fearing it may be a book 
agent or an insurance agent. He commences, per- 
haps, by saying, " What a fine view you have from 
herel Really, I didn't know such a hilly country 
could be found in this part of the State." 

" Yes, this is one of the least prairie-like parts of 
the State." I reply, in a manner equally pleasant 
with his own, at the same time inwardly denounc- 
ing myself for being a little hypocritical in speak- 
ing so pleasantly when 1 am really feeling cross at 
the interruption, for by this time I begin to feel 
sure his visit is not to be a profitable one for me. 
For some time a conversation is carried on by 
him, my replies becoming more and more in the 
form of monosyllables until finally he introduces 
the object of his visit. Failing in his effort, he 
goes away with a feeling of disappointment, possi- 
bly with a feeling of pity for me that I did not get 
the full benefit of the book or other article he wish- 
ed to sell me, never dreaming, perhaps, that he has 
been doing me a serious wrong in making such 
demands on my lime and patience. Now. good 
people, if you must have an agency for a book or 
a broom-holder, don't — I was going to say steal, but 
perhaps I had better soften it a little by saying 
don't take the time of others in that way. Make 
known your business at once. If Mrs. Jones comes 
to the door, don't ask her to send for Mr. .Tones. 
Consult other people's convenience as well as 
your own. You have no right to impose on their 
courtesy by taking time that they would not will- 
ingly give if they knew your errand. To those who 
have calls from agents, I would say, the chances 
are so many that you will have to pay more for 
articles thus purchased than you would have to 
pay for them elsewhere, that in general you may 
do well to refuse to buy in all cases. Possibly one 
time in ten or twenty there might be a case where 
it would 1)6 well to buy; but if you allow yourself 



to buy in this one case you will he likely to over- 
balance it by buying at a loss in two other cases, 
so the safe plan is to refuse all. Learn to say 
pleasantly, but very firmly, that in no case can you 
be induced to purchase. The agent will say, that 
if you do not purchase, you can at least look. Tell 
him just as plainly as before, that it is not worth 
while even to take the time to look. There is much 
in the positive but courteous manner; and the 
agent, thus good-naturedly repulsed, will go away 
much better satisfied with himself and with you 
than if you had wasted a half-hour by parleying. 

To the young people who almost all, at some 
time, think of trying this sort of business, my ad- 
vice is, " Don't." That's the general rule. There 
are exceptions. In a sparsely settled region 
where stores are not easy of access, even a pack- 
peddler may be welcomed. But in towns or vil- 
lages, or in their vicinity, there is no need of 
agents in general. There may he an exception, in 
the case of an article that the purchaser must try 
at his own home, the agent showing its use, or of 
some article which is never kept in stores. 

Please don't think that I have no feeling of kind- 
ness for agents. In many cases they are impelled 
by good motives, and are really to be pitied. In 
my college days I was fortunately so poor as to be 
obliged to work my own way. One vacation 1 
undertook the business of a map agent. I was 
about as forlorn and homesick a mortal as you 
could desire. 1 made little or nothing at the busi- 
ness, and was probably a nuisance to many, and of 
little use to any, for the nnips were hardly worth 
the price, even if the profit did hardlj- pay expenses. 
When clothes-wringers first came out, I took 
an agency and sold a number at a fair profit, doing 
a good thing for the people and myself, but T went 
only a few miles from home, and in no case, if I 
remember rightly, did 1 sell to any except ac- 
quaintances. This was one of those cases where 
an agent was necessary to show the people at their 
own homes how to use the wiinger. 

Marengo, 111. C.C. Mii-i.kk. 

Friend M.. in the above article you strike 
at the real trouble in this matter of book 
agents, and I confess it never occurred to 
me before. It is this: They from tlie out- 
set—at least a great many of them, and, in 
fact, all of them that are objectionable — pre- 
tend to be something they are not. If every 
book agent, when he comes near your pieni- 
ises, would hold out his book, and say. " Sir, 
I am a book agent : liave you a few moments 
to spare to talk with meV" that would end 
all the trouble. Not long ago a gentleman 
who might have been, judging from his ap- 
pearance, some distinguished statesman, de- 
sired to see me individually; in fact, he 
would not tell his business to any of the 
clerks. He put out his hand, took off his 
hat, and expressed great pleasure in being 
able to take A. I. Root, of whom he had 
heard so much, by the hand. Then he dis- 
coursed eloquently about the growth of our 
business, and giving employment to so many 
people, etc. When I had talked as long as 
I could afford to, I suggested getting to bus- 
iness. This man was a book agent. He left 
his package near the door, so that I might 
not suspect he had something to sell. Now, 
I was obliged to l)e rude with this man, and 
I confess I became exceedingly vexed when 



128 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



he insisted that I should look over the pages 
of his book, and listen to his set speeches. 
Any business that will not succeed when a 
man announces at the outset just what his 
calling is, should be regarded with suspicion. 



FOUL BROOD. 



THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF CURE CAREFULLY 
CONSIDERED. 

TN my article in Gleanings of Jan. 1 I detailed 
/^ my experience with foul brood. In this I wish 
^r to present the methods I would recommend for 
"*■ its cure. Before doing- so, a few words of com- 
ment on the various remedies jnay not be out 
of place. 

First. Spraying or fumigating with salicylic acid. 
Neither of these methods is to be relied on. 

Second. Muth's plan of removing- combs, putting 
the bees on full sheets of foundation in a clean 
hive, and then feeding salicylated syrup. This is a 
good method; and if carefully and thoroughly car- 
ried out it will always be successful. The principal 
objections to it are, that salicylic acid is trouble- 
some to use, as well as somewhat expensive, and 
that it is impractical to feed during a yield of honey. 

Third. The .Jones, or starvation plan. I used this 
plan extensively, because it was quick and simple, 
dispensing with the fuss and bother of spraying or 
feeding. Although generally successful, I would 
not recommend it. In the first place, it is a very ex- 
pensive plan. The starving is a terrible tax on the 
vitality of the bees, and especially of the (lueen. I 
have had a number of fine queens ruined in this 
way. No colony seems to work with any energy for 
some time after being released, while they dwindle 
away with unusual rapidity. This is a loss, at what- 
ever season the cure is attempted. If during or 
just before a honey-tlow, the lo.ss of honey may 
amount to more than the value of the colony. If 
no honey is coming in they must be fed to suppoi't 
and build them up. At such a time, starving is un- 
necessary, as the feeding of medicated food is a 
complete cure without the cruelty and loss incurred 
in starving them. Moreover, starvation is not al- 
ways to be relied on, especially during a heavy 
honey-flow, or when they are hived on empty combs. 
Unless great care is taken to have all the bees gorge 
themselves to the utmost with honey— a very diffi- 
cult thing at some times, and especially with some 
bees— and they are then starved to the last extremi- 
ty, some of the honey will remain in their sacks. 
This honey, unless measures are taken to prevent 
it.Js liable to be stored in the brood combs until 
used for brood-rearing, thus starting the disease 
anew. By feeding the bees medicated food during 
their confinement, this, as well as the other evils of 
the method, are obviated, as the feed, mixing with 
the infected honey in their sacks, renders it harm- 
less—but then it is the " starvation plan " no longer. 

Fourth. The Cheshire plan of feeding phenol 
(carbolic acid) without removing the combs. This 
will undoubtedly succeed when all the conditions 
are favorable, but I can not recommend it as prac- 
tical, though a more extended experience might 
change my opinion. The amateur can afford to ex- 
periment and run risks. He who has only a few 
colonies of bees can usually spare the time required 
to cure by feeding and similar manipulations; and 
if he loses a large part of his honey-crop in doing 



so. he does not notice it very much. But to the man 
who makes a business of bee-keeping, whose bread 
and butter depends on it, it is a matter of consider- 
able importance whether the cure is accomplished 
in one day, or whether it is spread out over several 
months, increasing the chances of spreading the 
disease many times, and consuming much valuable 
time. He can not afford uncertainty, nor can he 
afford to lose his honey-crop. 

In seeking for a certain, speedy, and inexpensive 
cure, I observed that, during a heavy honey-flow, 
the progress of the disease was measurably abated, 
except in the worst cases, and some eolonies cured 
themselves. Why was this ? I decided that the dis- 
ease was generally conveyed and propagated 
through the medium of honej-. When honey is 
plentiful, the larvae, instead of being fed on honey 
which has been in the hive for some time, and thus 
become infected, have their food prepared from 
honey fresh from the fields, with which every bee is 
gorged. The best time to attempt a cure is when 
nature is inclined to assist. 

I noticed, too, that "starved" bees, released on 
combs, frequently had the disease again; those hiv- 
ed on full sheets of foundation, very seldom; while 
none of those compelled to build their own combs 
showed any trace of it. This convinced me that any 
plan which would prevent brood-rearing for several 
days, at the same time using up the infected honey 
from the old hive, would render the bees incapable 
of transmitting the disease. The most practical 
way in most cases is to compel the bees to build a 
new set of combs. 

HOW TO CURE FOUL BROOD. 

As soon as you discover the presence of foul 
brood in your apiary, make up your mind that you 
have to deal with an enemy that will require your 
utmost care and vigilance to subdue. Remember 
that prevention is better than cure. Foul brood is 
probably more often spread by careless handling 
than in any other way, so be careful that, in your 
efforts to cure, you do not spread the disease. 

To start with, get a supply of carbolic acid. You 
will do best to buy it in the original bottles, holding 
a pound each, which should not cost you over 75 
cents. If you buy a less quantity it will be more or 
less diluted with water to keep it liquefied. Find out 
what per cent of water there is in it, so that you 
may know what you are doing. There is a great 
difference in the quality of the acid. I have used 
that from several different manufacturers, Graes- 
er's proving the best. Make a S'':' solution of the 
acid. If you have not the apparatus for accurate 
measurements, take a tall bottle and measui-e into 
it carefully 100 spoonfuls of water, marking with a 
flic the height which it reaches. To make a 'S% so- 
lution, put in three spoonfuls of acid and fill up 
with water to the mark. This solution is for wash- 
ing your hands, implements, etc., after any work 
with diseased colonies. You will do well to have a 
special smoker, knife, brush, etc., to be used only 
with attected colonies. Remember, the disease is 
very contagious, and may readily be carried on the 
hands or any implement. Just how far this con- 
tagiousness goes I can not say ; but to be on the safe 
side I would disinfect every thing that has come in 
contact with any part of an infected hive before 
using it in other work. 

The best methods of cure will vary according to 
the season. The best t ime is « hen honey is coming 
in freely. At such a time, prepare a hive as follows: 



1887 



GLEAKl^NGS IN JbJEE CULTUKE. 



129 



Contract the brood-chamber to four or five Lang'- 
stroth frames, according' to the size of the colony. 
Have in these frames nothing' but starters of foun- 
dation, 'i inch wide. Place over the brood-chamber 
a queene.x'clnding honey-board, and above it room 
for surplus, according to the needs of the colony. 
The sections may contain full sheets of foundation. 
Put this hive on the stand of the colony to be cured, 
removing the ashes, sand, or whatever you have in 
front of the entrance, replacing with fresh. Shake 
or brush the bees down in front of the hive and run 
them in. Tn all this, disturb the bees as little as 
possible, so that they may not fill themselves with 
honey. The philosophy of the method is, that the 
bees are compelled to build considerable comb be- 
fore they cau rear any brood. This consumes what 
honey they have in their sacks in wax-making. If 
any remains unused it goes into the boxes instead 
of being stored in the brood-chamber, and thus be- 
comes harmless. In very bad cases it may be well 
to hive the bees in an empty box or old hive for two 
or three days, then shake them out and melt up the 
comb they have made, into beeswax. 

If honey is scarce in the fields, put tin- bees in an 
ordinary-sized brood-chamber, on full sheets of 
foundation, and feed them phenolaled syrup until 
they are self-supporting. To prepare this, take 
honey, or syrup of the same consistency, and add 
one-si-\th of one per cent of carbolic acid. Thin this 
down, as required, for feeding. 

The combs from which the bees were shaken niaj' 
be tiered up over other colonies which have the 
disease. Put them three or four stories high. As 
soon as there are bees enough, shake the queen 
and a good-sized colony of bees into a wire-cloth 
box, and, after one or two days' confinement in a 
dark place, hive them on a new stand. Ten days 
after the queen is removed, give the old colony a 
queen-ccll or young queen, as those they raise may 
not hatch. In ten days more, treat them as first 
described. Extract the honey, boil it, and nuike 
the combs into wax. Be very sure to disinfect 
thoroughly every thing that has been used in do- 
ing this; and be sure, too, that no bee gets a taste 
of the honey in all your operations. There is so 
much danger in trying to do any thing with the 
combs, that, unless you have many, you had bet- 
ter burn them up. 

The hives may be disinfected by thorough boil- 
ing. Scalding will not answer. A little lye or 
wood ashes in the water will take the propolis off 
clean. If you have not facilities for boiling hives, 
add .T'f of carbolic acid to strong soapsuds, and 
scrub the hives well with the mixture, rinsing 
afterward. 1 think I would rather depend on this, 
if thoroughly done, than on boiling alone. 

Tn conclusion, I would say that, if you are care- 
ful, prompt, and thorough, you can cure foul 
brood. If you are not so— and most people, T be- 
lieve, are not sufficiently so until they have had 
some costly experience— you had better not trj- it, 
unless you have considerable at stake. Indeed, 
in any case, if you have only a few cases— say not 
over '■>'„■ of your apiary— and are sure there are no 
more iu yours or youi-rueighbor's apiaries, I should 
advise you to destroy them— bees, hives, and 
combs, if \ ou can do so without handling them. If 
you are obliged to handle them, you might as well 
cure them. J. A. Gkekn. 

Dayton, HI., Jan. 10, 1887. 

Friend G., I believe you have carefully 



covered the ground, and, as far as our ex- 
perience goes, we can agree with all that 
you have said. In fact, it seems that we 
have practiced the same, or very nearly the 
same, method of cure which you consider 
most effective. Come to rentiember, in a 
private letter you gave us a few suggestions 
at the time we were battling with the dis- 
ease. After receiving said letter we aban- 
doned starving the bees, and, instead, put 
them into clean hives where they were com- 
pelled to build combs, or. rather, work out 
foundation. However, we gave frames with 
full sheets of foundation, and all colonies so 
treated were cured. Perhaps in the ad- 
vanced stages of the disease, starters only 
would be preferable. We did not use car- 
bolic acid, as you recommended, though we 
exercised extreme caution, even burning 
a tool that had by accident received a possi- 
ble taint of the disease. Your statement, 
that starvation weakens a colony, is very 
true, as we are satisfied from repeated ex- 
periments. In regard to cleansing the 
hives, we have, as you know, used steam, 
and hives so disinfected have not as yet 
given us any trouble. 



DRONE COMB. 



KKIENU UAUANT GIVES US S(JME VAI,f.\BJ.E IDEA8 
IN REGARD TO IT. 



HE above subject, treated by Mr. Hutchinson, 
[hi" in Gle.\nings, Nov. 1."), drew my attention, 
I? and incites me to redress some, to my mind, 

false notions accepted as truths by about 

every bee-keeper. 

1. A swarm, hived on empty frames, always be- 
gins its construction by worker cells. 

2. It the queen of a SAvarm is removed, or dies, 
while the bees are building, all the combs, nmde 
during her absence, will consist of drone colls. 

3. If the queen of a swarm is very iiroHflc, \ery 
little drone comb will generally be made by her 
bees. 

4. If, on the contrary, from old age, or from some 
other cause, the fecundity of the queen is deficient, 
her bees will fill the hive with a quanf iti' of drone 
comb. 

I am persuaded that e\ery true bee-keeper will 
admit the above, premises; from which I draw the 
infert nee, not only that the presence (if thr (/itrin iu 
tlic hive eompeh the liees to make worker cells, hut that 
they rush into the huildirm of their preferred (store) 
cells as soon as Vie queen ceases to control their work; 
for. a verj- prolific queen, having to wait for cells, 
is all the time watching the work of her bees; while 
a slow-laying queen is soon left behind. Then her 
workers, acting without control, hasten to build 
drone com/*, which would be more appropriately 
named store-comh. Such actions prove, without 
possible contest, that there are two opposite prefer- 
ences during the building of comb, the preference 
of the workers for store combs— a preference which 
bows before the desire for worker cells manifested 
by the queen, who exercises her sovereign authori- 
ty iu this one circumstance only. 

The deficient proliflcness of a queen is not the 
only cause which allows the bees to build too many 
sf ore-cells; for we meet with swarms which, al- 
though having very prolific queens, have con- 
stru jted a large amount of drone comb. Such a fact 



130 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



is not of rare occurrence, and can be easily explain- 
ed. We have put a heavy swarm in an empty hive, 
whose frames can admit 100,000 worker-cells. The 
bees hasten to build combs at the rate of 3500 cells 
daily; the queen follows them, laying in every cell 
as soon as half constructed. Such going, hand in 
hand, of the queen with the workers, lasts 15 days; 
then the flowers, becoming scarce, the building 
ceases, together with the laying of the queen. Six 
days after this interruption, the hatching of eggs, 
laid on the first day, begins, leaving, eveiy day, 3.500 
cells empty. If this dearth of nectar continues tor 
15 days more, then 40,000 cells, of the 50,000 which 
had received eggs, are ready to be filled again. If, 
at that time, some other flowers have begun to 
give honey, the laying of the queen is resumed, 
together with the building of comb. But the queen 
is no more near the builders, .to require worker 
cells: she is far away, laying in the first comb. 
Then the bees, no longer restrained by her pres- 
ence on the spot, fill, with store-combs, the half of 
the hive, which, so far, had remained empty. Had 
the queen rejoined her bees after a while, the build- 
ing of worker comb would have been resumed, and 
the hive would show a patch of store-cells in the 
middle of its worker combs. 

Every bee-keeper has noticed such irregular 
building of combs; but nobody, so far, has tried to 
explain it. In fact, it is inexplicable by any theory 
other than the one which I have just developed. 
We are accustomed to endow bees with so much 
knowledge that this theory could not come to the 
mind of our best authorities in apiculture, on ac- 
count of its extreme simplicity. 

The facts related above show that the circum- 
stances of the building of worker and drone comb 
vary ad infinitum; and it is to such varied condi- 
tions of building that the diversity of results, as de- 
scribed by Miss Cora Major, page 716, is due, and 
not, as Mr. Hutchinson supposes, to the foresight 
of bees, who, " knowing that their queens are old, 
have in mind the superseding of them, and think 
that drones must be provided for the fecundation 
of the young queens." 

In the experiment of Miss Cora, 10 swarms had 
built very little or no drone comb; 5 had from one- 
fifth to ;;one-half of the space given, filled with it. 
If we admit the idea of Mr. Hutchinson, we have to 
acknowledge that the bees of these five colonies 
were very far-sighted ; for, the life of a queen last- 
ing, on an average, about 36 months, the 15 swarms 
had less thanj one queen to supersede every two 
months. Then the workers, of some of these five 
colonies, prepared comb, to raise drones, 8 or 10 
months previous to the death of their queens; 
while some of the 10 colonies, which did not pre- 
pare any drone; combs, or which prepared only a 
few square inches, could repent of not ^having pre- 
pared ^themselves for the emergency, if, for some 
unexpected cause, their queen had to be replaced. 

I had just written the above when I saw, in 
Gleanings for^JJanuary 1, page 51, the relation of 
an experiment, made by Mr. J. A. Buchanan, which 
confirms my theory. 

A large swarm had been hived on 10 Langstroth 
empty frames. Seven days after, the hive was en- 
tirely filled with;?i worker and H store cells. Mr. 
Buchanan cut out the store, or dronejcombs, which 
were rebuilt by the bees, with worker^.and a little 
drone comb. These last having been removed also, 
the bees rebuilt them also with worker comb. Every 



bee-keeper has noticed, that, when drone comb is 
removed from the hives, the bees, in nearly every 
instance, build nothing but drone comb in its place. 
Then why did the bees of Mr. Buchanan act differ- 
ently? My theory explains ,this fact, not only easily 
but conclusively. A ten-frame Langstroth hive 
has room for about 80,000 worker cells. Then the 
bees of this swarm, having filled the hive in seven 
days, had built about 11,600 cells everj' day, on an 
average. Of course, the queen was unable lo fill so 
many cells as soon as they were constructed. But 
such a fast building is always caused by a heavy 
crop of honey. This honey, stored in the cells as 
soon as they were built, had helped the queen to 
follow the builders with her laying during the four 
first days. 

If we suppose that the queen had laid 3.500 eggs 
daily, there were, on the fourth day, 3.500 hatched 
grubs to nurse. But this nursing, consuming honey 
and pollen, increased the number of empty cells, in 
which the queen could lay. Besides the ripening, 
or evaporating, of the honey gathered during the 
three first days, and the subsequent transporting of 
this condensed honey in the upper cells, offered also 
to the queen a quantity of empty cells, that she was 
no longer able to fill, without ceasing her control 
on the builders, which, unrestrained, began to pre- 
pare drone - cells. The removal of those store- 
combs, by Mr. Buchanan, three days later, delayed 
the workers and allowed the queen to regain her 
place among the builders, and to obtain the build- 
ing of worker-cells. But the queen was soon again 
left behind, and the building of drone comb was re- 
sumed. The second cutting of drone comb, by Mr. 
Buchanan, disturbed again the bees, which were 
soon overtaken by the queen, and compelled to 
finish their building with worker-cells. Had Mr. 
Buchanan postponed, for 21 days, the removing of 
the store-combs, the queen, having daily at her dis- 
posal about 3.500 cells from which the first-laid eggs 
had emerged, the workers would have replaced 
with drone-cells all the combs removed. 

Fjom this interesting experiment of Mr. Bu- 
chanan, coupled with my theory, we can draw the 
inference that, if we desire to have the drone coinb 
of a hive replaced with worker comb by the bees, 
we ought to deprive the queen of all the empty cells 
before introducing our empty frames, remember- 
ing that, if the queen had cells in which she can lay 
far from the builders, the bees will construct store- 
cells exclusively. Chas. Dadant. 

Hamilton, 111. 

Friend D., your idea is ingenious and 
wonderful; but I confess I shall want to tiiink 
about it and watch it a little before I am 
ready to accept it. So far as I have observ- 
ed, I have not been able to learn that the 
queens control or "boss'' any thing about the 
hive. I do know this, however : After she 
is taken away, the bees, with very few ex- 
ceptions, change from worker to drone 
comb. I have seen one or two exceptions, 
nevertheless, where bees built worker comb 
at the same time they were building (jueen- 
cells. It used to be said, that the queen led 
out the swarm ; but in most cases it has 
seemed to me that the bees led out, and the 
queen followed along with the rest. I should 
think it quite likely, that, if the queen were 
in one part of a large hive while the comb- 
builders were in any other part, they might 
build drone or store combs. If this be true. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



131 



I should expect the bees to fill surplus-box- 
es with drone or store comb, instead of 
worker-cells, especially if the queen were 
absolutely compelled to remain in the brood- 
chamber l)y means of the perforated zinc 
honey - boards. I believe others besides 
friend Hutchinson suggested, years ago, 
that the bees build drone comb whenever 
they are thinking of swarming, or rearing 
another queen ; thei"efore if their queen 
seems to be failing or defective they would 
instinctively build drone-cells, and seem 
anxious to have the queen fill them with 
eggs. This whole matter is deep water, and 
it serves to show us how little we do know 
in regard to the workings of these wonder- 
ful insects, if nothing more. 



EATON'S SECTION-CASE. 



WHAT TO DO WITH HALF-PILLED SECTIONS LEFT 
OVER FROM THE PREVIOUS SEASON. 



fHE cut below represents my new section-case; 
not so new, either, as I have used it for the 
past four years on more than one hundred 
colonies of bees in obtaining comb honey. 
Success depends largely on the style of hive 
used, a thorough knowledge of the time, and how 
to manage; and last, but not least, the manner of 
arranging the sections on the hive in order that the 
V)ees may have perfectly free access to them. 




\ SECTION CASE FOR TIFRING UP 

There are a good many little points to be got at to 
make a receptacle for sections on a hive, the most 
convenient for the bees and the apiarist. This is 
what I have aimed at in my case; and I like it much 
better than other eases I have used. There 
are some who use and prefer single-tier wide frames. 
Well, with wide frames we have to have an outer 
case to hold the wide fi-ames, besides all those wide 
frames to take care of out of season. You see, by 
the above cut, that all I have is the outer case and 
the bottom-bars of the wide frames combined; the 
sections sit on the slats the same as they do in the 
wide frames. This keeps them clean on the bottom, 
the same as with a wide frame. With the latter you 
can use separators, which is difficult to do with most 
of the popular section-cases in use. T have no use 
for separators. By using full sheets of foundation 
in sections seven to the foot, and leveling the hive 
with a spirit-level sidewise, and tipping it forward 
sUcrbtly, you will have ninety-nine out of one hun- 



dred nice straight sections that you can crate. But 
if you use wider sections you will have to use sepa- 
ratoi-s. By using sections (7 to the foot) without 
separators they will weigh as near a pound as the 
n^-inch will with separators. With my case you 
can use separators if desired, as well as without, by 
slipping a half-inch strip of tin in between the two 
end rows of sections, so as ^to hold the separators 
up from going down between the slats. Then as 
you set in a row of sections, set a tin separator in. 

Now, then, there is another point, although a 
minor one: The sections set compactly over the 
brood-nest. There are no wooden partitions be- 
tween each row. There is but one bee-space be- 
tween the bottom of the slats and the brood-frames, 
the slats forming a sort of skeleton honey-board. 
The case is a bee-space deeper than the sections, 
thereby admitting of tiering up to any desired 
height. The slats make the case solid and substan- 
tial. If such a case were nailed up solid, and the 
sections fitted in it, the first sections would be very 
dilHcult to i-emove; and as there are slats under the 
sections you could not invert it and drive them out. 
I found that, by such a practice late in the fall, with 
other cases, when the weather was cold, it loosened 
and broke out comb, so 1 provided a hinged side 
which opens out, thereby loosening all at once. If 
you wish to remove any sections on the hive you can 
open the side and remove sections without taking it 
from the hive. 1 use an eight-frame Langstroth 
hive for comb honey, and make my section-cases of 
the same material and size of the hive. The crates 
are painted, and when set on the hive they form 
pai-t of the same. When I tier up, the cover raises 
and sits on the case the same as on the hive. You 
see such a case protects the sections the same as the 
main part of the hive. It is not patented. You are 
free to use it, if you see any points of excellence in 
it. But it would be difiicult to make one from the 
above cut, without having a sample, as there are 
important points of construction that do not show. 

HOW TO GET BEES TO COMMENCE WORK IN SEC- 
TIONS, AND USE PARTLY FILLED ONES. 

I am stimulated to give my plan, from the fact 
that, when describing it at our convention at Colum- 
bus, no less a person than Dr. Besse said it was 
worth his entire trip to the convention; so it may be 
of use to others, and especially to Bro. Dibbern, 
who. in the American Bee Journal for 1886, page 774, 
recommends, after extracting, to cut out the comb, 
render the wax, and burn the sections. Well, of all 
things such a plan would be too extravagant for 
me. There is nothing new about using half-filled 
sections of the previous year, to induce bees to go 
to work in the sections; but it is generally recom- 
mended to extract the honey, then place a few of 
them in the center of the first tier of sections; in 
this way you get the center of your case filled first, 
the end rows being left until the last, and sometimes 
they are very slow to finish them. My way is, not 
to extract the honey at all. It is too tedious; be- 
sides, it is of more value in the comb than out; but 
when you are ready to put on your first sections, 
uncap some of these half -filled sections, and fill in 
the two end rows of your case. Now fill the two 
center rows with foundation. These freshly uncap- 
ped sections will attract the bees to work inthe ends 
of your case at once, and they will not leave the 
center alone very long. If this is done just as the 
honej--flow starts, at the proper time they will finish 
the entire case about the same time. These half- 



132 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Feb. 



filled sections will be finished out with new honey, 
and be recapped nice and white. You will be sur- 
prised to see in how short a time you will have nice 
new honey tor the market. Now, Some will say 
that that old honej- in there will be inferior, and 
will be notiee<l by my customers; but such has not 
bfeen my experience. If there are any uncapped 
Cells that have granulated, the bees will work it 
Over, taking out the granules. 1 have from 1500 to 
2000 of these unfinished sections, left over from the 
previous year, which I consider very valuable. 
Bluffton, Ohio. Fr.\nk A. Eaton. 



OI*I]SriONATED BEE-KEEPERS. 



Miss nellie i,inswik holds up a looking- 
glass FOR us. 

X= AST May I was called suddenly east: and 
^j though I had expected to return soon, the 
'^^ summer passed and November had been ush- 
■*™ ered in before I walked once more the then 
Quiet aisles of our apiary. One whose sum" 
mer work for fourteen years has been chiefly among 
the blessed bees, can not drop all connection with 
them, and at the same time drop all thought con- 
cerning them. Flowers bloomed and faded the long 
summer through, but evei' with a breath of their 
fragrance came a thought of the bees. The berry- 
bushes among the lovely rock-strewn hills and val- 
leys of New Hampshire grew white with bloom, but 
they brought no thought of the luscious fruit to fol- 
low as I watched the bees that hovered over them. 
Later, 'mid the Green Mountains of Vermont I stop- 
ped to lay my ear against the rough bark of the 
basswood, if so be I might hear murmurous music 
from the nodding blossoms high above me; and, 
later still, in New York, the lovely plumes of the 
goldenrod sent my thoughts flying back to my own 
distant apiary, with a wonder if there the bees 
might not be gathering amber-hued honey. 

But It was in New Hampshire I met my first broth- 
er bee-keeper. He walked in one evening with bus- 
iness written upon every line of his face, and" fixed 
his keen eyes upon me. " Your cousin here says 
you're a bee-keeper, and what you don't know about 
bees ain't worth knowing. 8o I'd just like to have 
you step over to my place, and look at my bees, and 
tell me why they don't work." 

I took the compliment with a grain of salt, doubt- 
ing much if m3- cousin could distinguish between a 
honey-bee and a hornet, but gladly promised to go 
over and see the bees. Better far for my reputation 
had I never gone near them I 

The next morning I opened the neighbor's gate, 
and went up the little rose-bordered path to the 
house; then turning, with a bee-Keeper's instinct, I 
passed around to the rear, and found myself stand- 
ing under wide-spreading maple-ti-ees in whose 
cool shade stood the bee-hives. They were the first 
1 had seen since leaving home; and with unspeaka- 
ble delight 1 sat down on the soft grass by the side 
of a hive to watch the busy workers. The morning 
air was heavy with the fragrance of white clover, 
and the more exquisite fragrance of the wild grape 
that trailed its long branches over the stone walls 
in every direction. In and out in a ceaseless stream 
went the small toilers of the hive, now brushing my 
hair as they passed, now dropping, tired and heavy 
laden, for a moment's rest on di-ess or hands. A 
voice at my side broke the quiet. 



" So you've found them'i' And now I'll be obliged 
if you'll tell me why they don't work." 

"Work I But, indeed, they flrfi working," said I, 
wnth decision. 

A sarcastic smile curled his lips. "Yes," he re- 
turned, glancing from hive to hive, " I'll admit that 
they're going in and out pretty lively; but what 1 
want to know is, why don't 1 get box honey? It's 
time; for there's Meador, who lives down at the 
Corners, has taken oil* I don't know how many 
pounds." 

" HDw long have your bo.xes been on?" Tasked. 

■' Haven't been on at all," he replied; and then, 
seeing my look of surprise, he continued, "you're 
mistaken if you think I know nothing about bees. 
I've kept them for some years; and, though I've got 
precious little honej', I've found out, among other 
things, that there ain't a mite of use in putting on 
bo.xes tilt they begin to lay out. And where do j'ou 
see a hive here where they're laying out thick and 
heavy as they ought? " 

I checked a laugh before it had passed my lips, 
and paused to consider. " How many hives did you 
have i.i the spring?" 1 asked. 

"Two; and good strong ones they were." 

" And now you have six." 

"Yes; and that's not counting the one I gave 
away for the hiving"— -with a retrospective glance 
at a far-outreaching branch many feet above our 
heads. And it was then but the middle of June! 
The trouble and the only remedy were alike appar- 
ent; but there was small chance of my being able 
to nuikc this opinionated man see things as I saw 
them. He was a "bee-keeper," albeit on a small 
scale, and he had made what he deemed some re- 
markable discoveries. And do we not all know 
that, as a rule, beekeepers are blessed with a sub- 
lime confidence in themselves? I freely admit, that 
I have myself two or three pet theories of my" own; 
and, though open to conviction, 1 confess that 1 
should like to see the bee-keeper who can convince 
me that I am in error concerning them' 

To my disappointment and vexation, the hives 
proved to be box hives, with all their secrets close 
locked within them. One hive in particular moved 
me with mingled pity and indignation. It was one 
of the old stands, and the bees were going languidly 
in and out, with none of the stir and enthusiasm of 
the other hives. Perhaps the young queen had 
been lost, and the doomed colony, conscious of its 
hopeless condition, was drifting slowly to annihila- 
tion. Think not that I made no cttort in their be- 
half. The short lecture I delivered then and there 
on the necessity of movable frames, and the conse- 
quent advantage in having colonies in a condition 
for examination and intelligent treatment, if not a 
very brilliant eftort, was certainly an earnest one. 
But my auditor listened with knit brow and an ex- 
pression of disapproval. He did not want to go into 
the business, and he didn't want to be bothered 
with any new-fangled contrivances. All he asked 
for was .lust honey enough 1or his own use, and no 
one seemed able to tell him how to get it without 
more fuss than it was worth. I ventured to suggest 
that he sell his bees, and buy his honey of Meador; 
but I don't think the suggestion pleased him. He 
willingly let me put boxes, six-pound glass boxes, 
over two of the strongest colonies; and when I dis- 
covered in the little workshop a pan of light dry 
comb, taken from a late swarm brimstoned in the 
fall, and asked permission to put in some starters, 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



183 



he watched with evident interest while I pried off 
the top pieces, and, with the aid of the hot kitchen 
stove, fastened two starters to each piece, and then 
pressed it carefully bacif into its former position. 
But this was all that I could do; and wirh the bright 
anticipations of the morning: vanished, 1 went my 
way. 

Should you ever meet him, this brother bee-keep- 
er of the East, and should you chance tt) question 
him, I fear— in fact I am almost sure— he wovild tell 
you that what little 1 know about bees is, in his 
opinion, hardly worth the telling-. 

NELL,IE LlNSWlK. 

Very good, friend Nellie. We are glad to 
hear about our opinionated brotlier down 
East. But quite a lot of us are just hungry 
to know about how that home apiary " pan- 
ned out "' during 188(5; and what has" become 
of your sister Cyula V Did she manage that 
great apiary all" alone while you were down 
East visiting, and the men-folks were busy 
with the farm workV— In regard to being 
set in our own ways, I believe you have giv- 
en us quite a lesson. I can thi"nk of quite a 
number just now who, I am sure, are wrong, 
but they are so obstinate it does not seem 
to be of any use to remonstrate any further ; 
and while I am about it, I have been 
wondering if there are not some things in 
myself a good deal that way; that is, are 
we not all of us in danger of becoming too 
conceited to be taughtV 



THE BINGHAM HIVE. 

SHALLOW BROOD-CHAMBERS VS. SHALLOW HIVES. 

T NOTE your talk about "shallow hives," on 
1^ pages 44 and 45. I see you have not a correct 
^i conception of the difference between Mr. 
"*• Bingham's hive and mj- own. As I have visit- 
ed Mr. Bingham on various occasions, besides 
enjoying visits from him, meeting him at conven- 
tions and eagerly reading his well-written litera- 
ture (including his book, for Mr. Bingham is the 
author of a book), and, at his suggestion, used one 
of his hives seven or eight years, I wish to set you 
right regarding the difference in our hives. I will 
also say, that Mr. W. H. Shirley is one of Mr. Bing- 
ham's students, and used his hive several years be- 
fore he bought my Glen wood apiary, thus neigh- 
boring with me, and working for me winters, and 
many an hour have we discussed the Bingham 
hive and system. Allow me to present it, and com- 
pare with my own. nearly all of which I believe 
will be sanctioned bj- Mr. Bingham, and be in per- 
fect harmony with all be has written upon the sub- 
ject. 

To friend Bingham belongs the credit of demon- 
strating to hundreds of bee-keepers, that a brood- 
chamber of a bee-hive has very many advantages 
when made as shallow as five inches, comb depth, 
and that such a depth is par excellence for early 
breeding, wintering, or any other purpose that de- 
mands the conservation of heat. I wintered a col- 
ony of bees in one of his hives for seven or eight 
winters, always outdoors, with about half as much 
packing a.s my other colonies had, and with perfect 
success, except once. During that most dreadful 
winter of two years ago they came through, the 
strongest in my yard. Mr. Bingham's special 
claims in this direction are true to my experience. 



You speak of it as a " shallow hive." The word 
hive, 1 think, is out of place here; let us say, 
" Brood-chamber of a hive," and understand each 
other. All "hives," nowadays, ai-e as deep as you 
wish to tier them. Now for the difference. 

Many times has Mr. Bingham uttered to me and 
others his detestation of a bottom-bar to a frame. 
Without such, I consider tiering them impractical. 
Even if a break-joint honey-board is used between 
each tier, combs will be fastened to it. I saw Mr. 
B. cutting them loose when he had his brood- 
chambers tiered above each other for purposes of 
extracting. We talked it over at the time. Mr. B.'s 
brood-chamber is composed of a single tier of 
frames, extended in length, to give sufficient 
chamber room at all times. 

One of the new and novel functions of my hive 
is, that its brood chamber is in two horizontal sec- 
tions, only one of which is used during contraction, 
both of which are considered and sold with every 
complete hive. Mr. Binghatn's hive can be invert- 
ed, and so can your Simplicity, as you have told us. 
I claim that neither are made for the i)urpose, nor 
are thej- practically reversible, nor is any other 
hive without a bottom-bar to its frames. No per- 
son interested in reversible hives or frames need 
fear competition from frames without bottom-bars. 

1 agree with Mr. Bingham when he says that his 
shallow brood-chamber needs no inverting. The 
shallower our combs are, the less liability of honey 
being stored in their tops; and whatever honey 
may be found stored in the ends of Mr. Bingham's 
long frames will not be taken out by the bees by 
inverting. If combs of the same capacity of his,, 
but in shape of 10 x 10 instead of 5 x 20, were one- 
third full of honey and two-thirds full of brood, 
that honey would be removed by inverting that 
frame, at the proper time. 

You speak of handling /iii'es instead of frames, 
and the shake-out function. Nearl3^ all hives have 
some little of these functions, even when never 
dreamed of by the maker. You know that Mr. 
Hutchinson and myself have often dwelt upon the 
subject of " readily movable hives," or handling 
hives, rather than frames, when referring to my 
modified Langstroth, and to a great extent we 
so use it. You also know, that when transferring 
from box hives we often pick them up and shake 
out what bees we can, especially when we see 
them clustered near the bottom. Mr. B.'s hives are 
not supplied with handles for shaking, and his 
manner of constructing it makes it very heavy; 
and although I presume, right here, I shall differ 
with friend B. when I say that I never would de- 
pend upon his loop-wire clamp for holding the hive 
together when being shaken. 

It is by virtue of one inversion making the combs 
completely fill the frames, and that the frames 
completely fill the case, that the greatest per- 
fection of the shake-out function is secured. The 
reason Mr. B.'s end-bars do not get " out of whack," 
even though no bottom-bar is used, is not only be- 
cause they are short, but' the top-bar is % square; 
and, I think, in most of Mr. B.'s hives he nails this 
bar corners up and corners down; thus: O This 
gives him a cheap V guide, and a good one too, 
but no bee-space above. 

T am astonished that you should mention his al- 
ternating the sections of hives. His brood-chamher 
is not in sections, and the possible alternating of 
several brood-chambers is just as true of any of 



134 



GLEAN IN G8 IN BEE CULTURE. 



J^ES. 



your Simplicities. It is true, that Mr. Bing-ham 
practiced laying his hive upon its bacls for making 
certain examinations and clipping cells, and he 
illustrated the performance to me in his apiary, 
but he didn't first shake out the bees, nor is his 
construction especially adapted for working from 
both sides, as I have made mine. 

I feel indebted to Mr. Bingham for what he has 
done by waj' of clearing our minds of false im- 
pressions against extremely shallow combs. The 
claims of my invention are on page 14 of my circu- 
lar, and I think both you and Mr. B. will see that 
none of them are anticipated in his hive. If you 
think I am mistaken with regard to his hive satis- 
factorily carrying out the functions of mine, I 
would suggest using some of each, side by side. 
In doing so, please use both styles just as we make 
them. Do not inadvertently wrong us by any al- 
terations. 

I have devised some ten or twelve different ways 
of constructing my hive without the outer case; 
like Mr. B., making the ends of the frames take the 
place of the ends of the ease; and I have abandon- 
ed them all for what I believe to be vei'y good rea- 
sons. You can have the reasons and the models 
any time you wish to print them. 

In the A. B. J. Prof. Cook said: "If any one 
honestly believes it, let him say it is a worthless 
hive and system. But, alack the day when any 
considerable number of bee-keepers say it is not 
Mr. Heddon's." Jas. Heddon. 

Dowagiac, Mich., Jan., 1887. 

VOLATILE OIL IN HONEY. 



THAT WHICH GIVES FLAVOR TO HONEY. 



XN all discussions in regard to ripening honey, 
j^[ one essential fact has been entirely ignored, 
^l and yet the quality, if not entirely, is more de- 
"*■ pendent on it than on any other. That honey 
must be of a certain consistency, is conceded 
by all; so quality first and quantity next is what we 
are all in pursuit of; and how to get the latter 
without failure of the first, is yet an open question. 
Admitting proper consistency, quality, then, is due 
to its peculiar flavor, which is derived from the 
nectar of the flower. 

All flowers and plants possess a peculiar and dis- 
tinct odor, which is due to a volatile, or essential 
oil, peculiar to itself, and this same oil we find in 
the nectar of the flowers; this it is that gives honey 
its distinct flavor. When flowers are macerated in 
water, then distilled, the essential oil of the flower 
passes off' with the steam, and, if condensed, the 
oil is found in minute quantities floating on the 
water; and this, as its name indicates, is very vol- 
atile; and, if exposed to the atmosphere, in time all 
evaporates. Thus the flavor of the honey is de- 
pendent on the quantity of this oil present in it. 
Some flowers possess more of it than others; and, 
as a natural result, we find some honey with more 
of a distinct flavor. If the retention of this oil is 
desirable, then that method by which there is the 
least loss is the one we are in search of. That we 
have not yet attained this, is evidently a fact; but 
that it is attainable is beyond question, and I doubt 
not but that careful experimenting will yet give us 
a standard to go by. G. W. Brodbeck. 

Indianapolis, Ind., Jan. 30, 1887. 

Friend B.. while some of this volatile oil 



is a good thing, I believe 1 should, as a rule, 
prefer that the bees evaporate out the great- 
er part of it. Honey newly gathered from 
basswood has altogether too much volatile 
oil to please most pt^ople, and the same may 
be said of tlie horsemint of Texas, and many 
other kinds of honey. If letting the honey 
get tlioroughly ripened deprives it of this 
volatile oil, I should say let the oil go. 



pa^Meg MB Dwindle? 

PERTAINING TO BEE CULTURE. 



We respectfully solicit the aid of our friends in conducting 
this department, and would consider it a favor to have them 
send us all circulars that have a deceptive appearance. The 
greatest care will be at all times maintained to prevent injus- 
tice being done any on". 



DELOS STAPLES AND THE BLUEBERRY-BUSINESS, 
AGAIN. 

"T^D. GLEANINGS:— I notice that the blue- 
'^^ berry man has commenced advertising un- 
t^'r dcr a new name and address; but when the 
■^"^ circulars come to hand they come under the 
name of L. D. Staples. See inclosed circular, 
just received. On account of new subscribers, 
would it not be best to caution readers of Glean- 
ings? I lost some four or five dollars by investing in 
blueberry plants with Staples. I could get no sat- 
isfactory answer from him. I inclose an advertise- 
ment cut from one of the Jan. monthly agricultur- 
al papers, and have seen it in at least one other. 
Exter, Pa., Jan. 31, 1887. P. Sutton. 

I too, friend S., have noticed the blue- 
berry advertisement, and I judged it was 
probably Mr. Staples under another address. 
Below is the advertisement mentioned in 
the letter: 

BLUEBERRY. A valuable fruit to grow for 
pleasure or profit. Price list free to all. An 
agent wanted in eveiy town. Complete outfit 
furnished free. Address, Willow Ridge Fruit- 
Farm, Portland, Mich. 

I will explain to those who have been vic- 
timized by Mr. I). L. Staples, that he does 
not send "out any plants at all. He sends 
only some dry sticks, with a pretense of 
putting a little moss around them. They 
never grow, and he never makes any thing 
right. Will our friends of the agriculturjil 
press please pass him around ? The circu- 
lar, sent in response to an answer to the ad- 
vertisement above, brings the old blueberry 
circular, signed L. D. Staples, Portland, 
Mich. He was so thoroughly advertised 
under his old name and address that he 
thinks to get new victims by the " Willow 
Ridge Fruit-Farm '" dodge. By the way, we 
are very much obliged to the friends for 
promptly forwarding any thing that seems 
to have the semblance of a swindle. Let 
us help all honest men to live ; but at the 
same time let us help all swindles to die, 
and that quickly. 

Since the above was in type I notice sever- 
al of the agricultural papers have also tak- 
en the matter up. Now, is it not time, dear 
friends, that a complaint be sent to the 
Postmaster-General, and that a protest be 
made against delivering mail matter to Mr. 
Staples? He has swindled enough people al- 
ready. 



1887 



GLEAKtNGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



135 



WHAT TO DO, AND HOW TO BE HAPPY WHILE DOING IT. 



Continued from Jan. 15. 
CHAPTER XXXV. 
For ye are bought with a price.— I. COK. 6: ; 



It is a happy thou,s2:ht to me, dear friends, 
that I am bought with a price— that I belong 
to Christ Jesus. The reason why it is a 
happy thouglit is because 1 have a right to 
feel that he has his plans, even for a poor 
humble life like my own ; that he has some- 
thing for me to do, and is watching me with 
loving care. I have felt that he called me to 
write this book; that it is his wish that I 
should write it, and that he has a message 
that I may, through the book, carry to you, 
my dear readers. '• What to do, and how 
to be happy,'" is a great theme ; and when I 
undertake to tell the people of the world — 
that is, such a part of the world as may be 
interested in listening to what I have to tell, 
it seems to be almost a sacred commission 
intrusted to me. This book is almost con- 
stantly in my mind. When 1 go away from 
home I at once begin to think, " Xow, what 
shall I finil during this trip that will be of 
value to my fellow-men, and that will prop- 
erly come within the province of this 
book?" 

About the middle of January I was called 
to a convention of bee-keepers in Albany, 
X. Y.; and when I started out it was with a 
prayer that God would help me in my feeble 
efforts to grapple with this great problem of 
something for the masses to do. In con- 
sequence of snowstorms we did not reach 
Albany by daylight, as we should have 
done had it not been for delays. For my 
part I was rather glad we didn't, for I could 
look out of the car window and catch items 
in regard to something to do. The first 
thing that met my gaze was crowTls of peo- 
ple and numbers of horses at work on the 
frozen surface of the Hudson River, gather- 
ing the ice-crop. Sure enough, here is some- 
thing to do in the winter time; and, like 
agriculture, the work seems to be a worthy 
undertaking. I have noticed for quite a lit- 
tle time past, that ice is used in many of 
our large hotels and eating-rooms, almost 
as much in winter as in summer. At the 
Globe Hotel, where I stopped for breakfast, 
the first thing the waiter did was to bring 
a handful of pieces of ice, not quite as large 
as a hickory-nut. These were put into a 
clean goblet, which was then filled up with 
w^ater. Every guest was furnished with 
ice-water, whether he cared for it or not. 
The water was pure and soft, and I enjoyed 



a good drink of it, even in winter. If you 
take a drink before the ice has had time to 
cool the water too mucii. it is not unpleas- 
antly cold. 

After V)reakfast. as there was some little 
time before the convention opened, I made 
inquiries for greenhouses devoted to raising 
winter vegetables. The clerk at the hotel 
said he did not think there was a green- 
house near the city of Albany, for sucli 
things. He said they got their lettuce, rad- 
ishes, etc., from the (iity of New York. I 
knew by experience, however, that it is not 
well to give up in such a search, so I in- 
quired for the market. Before 1 got to it 1 
caught a glimpse of great crowds of men at 
work on the river again. Here was a broad 
field for employment, even in the winter 
time, so I decided to investigate. On the 
bank of the river were not only great num- 
bers of sleds drawn by horses, but theie 
were ice-cars drawn l)y locomotives, taking 
the ice away. The huge blocks were car- 
ried up the l)ank by an apron made of end- 
less chains ; and as they struck the plat- 
form, men and boys who were expert at the 
business quickly grasjied the blocks with 
poles having steel points on the end, like 
the cuts below. 




ICE-HOOKS, USED ON THE HUDSON KIVER. 

It is wonderful to see the dexterity with 
which they would make these huge blocks 
fairly spin where they were wanted. They 
seemed to almost run of their own accord on 
to the sleds until the sleds contained all the 
team could well draw. The minute the sled 
was loaded, a trained teamster took it out 
of the way, and another one quickly slid into 
its place. One new at the business, like my- 
self, would say that every movement /happen- 
ed to be a lucky one ; but there was not any 
" happen'' about it. They had learned the 
trade, and knew how. Then I clambered 
down the ladder on to the frozen river. The 



ige 



GtEA:^lKG8 In bee CUlTURE. 



I'eb. 



blocks of ice were swimming ol' their own ac- 
cord again (at least it looked so to me), along 
the narrow channel, or canal, of clear water. 
Of course, they had a little push once in a 
while, from men stationed at intervals, arm- 
ed with these same ice-hooks ; but some way 
It happened that every time the chain apron 
came around it caught a block of ice just 
right, and up went tlie ice on the inclined 
plane. I followed out into the river to see 
what made those blocks sail along just so 
far apart, and in such regular order. Pretty 
soon 1 came to a man standing on a heavy 
plank laid across the channel. In his hand 
was a tool something like the one figured 
below. 




SPLITTING-BAR, SUCH AS IS USED ON THE 
HUDSON RIVER. 

Well, the blocks as they came up to him 
were in pairs — that is, there were two to- 
gether, with a deep groove where they were 
to be separated. As they sailed under his 
plank lie quietly^let his chisel down into the 



that looked very much like cultivators. I 
asked one of them if it was as much fun as 
cultivating corn. He looked at me a mo- 
ment, and then smiled ; and his smile con- 
vinced me that he was one of my neighbors, 
even if he was away off here in Albany, 
while I lived in Ohio. I told him they might 
be thankful for one advantage they had over 
working in a cornfield. He asked me what 
it was, and I suggested that they did not 
have any mosquitoes or flies to bother the 
horses. It was a bitter cold morning, but 
the workmen seemed to enjoy their work 
notwithstanding. They did not have any 
boys to ride the horses. The horses were 
all led by men. Very likely the boys were 
at school, all of them, and may be a boy 
would not use care enough in leading a horse 
so as to mark out the work accurately. The 
cultivator used was something like the figure 
below. 




AN ICE-MARKER, TO BE 

groove, and the double block was separated. 
A little further up stood another man with 
a similar tool. Now, the ice, as it came to 
this man, was in a long strip composed of per- 
haps 40 blocks, say 2 feet wide and 20 feet 
long, something like the diagram figured 
below. 



A STRIP OF ICE BEFORE IT IS CUT UP. 

Well, as this block of ice ran under the 
plank, whereon stood this second man, he 
chiseled off two blocks, where you see the 
light dotted lines in the diagram above. 
The next point to be considered was. Where 
do these long strips come from ? By this 
time I was out in the middle of the river, 
and men and horses were drawing things 



DRAWN BY A HORSE. 

You will notice that one side of the plow, 
or cultivator, is a long plate of steel, having 
a sort of blade on each end. Well, between 
the handles of tlie plow is a rod with a loop 
on the end. The steel blade slides into one 
crease, and guides the plow while it cuts an- 
other; and when you get to the end of the 
row, by means of the rod with a loop on the 
end you throw the steel blade, or guide, to 
the other side, so you can go back again. 
This measures the blocks of ice absolutely. 
After this marker has passed, another horse 
takes the regular plow shown below. 




AN ICE-PUOW. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



187 



This plow will cut in about five or six 
inches; and even if the ice is a foot thick, or 
mt)re, the ice-cliisels already described cut 
it without trouble. After the horses have 
finished their work, the ends of these long 
strips are cut loose with an ice-saw. Then 
a man witli an ice-chisel like the one below 
goes along the gi'oove where he wishes the 
large cake to separate, and strikes repeated 
blows, say at intervals of ten feet. 



ICE-CHISEL. 

After he has struck one or more times, he 
can tell by the sound that the ice has split. 
A click is heard when the crack starts. If 
you have ever heard a pitcher break because 
the water inside was freezing, you will know 
what it sounds like. Finally, before you 
know it, the great cake moves olf into the 
water, and he has no further concern with 
it. The men with the poles start it on its 
march. In loading the ice on to wagons, 
tongs are sometimes used, like those figured 
below ; but the regular ice-men hardly ever 
take the trouble to l)other with tongs. 




ICE-TONGS. 



Occasionally saws are used for a special 
purpose, like the one following. 




AN ICE-SAW. 

Every thing seemed to be going on so 
pleasantly I was wondering if the ice-busi- 
ness was not an exception to many of the 
great industries that spring up and cause 
trouble by strikes and differences between 
labor and capital. Pretty soon, however, I 
had reason to feel that Satan makes his way 
out on the frozen river, as well as into fac- 
tories, mills, and warehouses. One of the 
men was so much intoxicated that it seemed 
every moment as if he would go into the 
water, and 1 was told that a great many go 
under the ice and are drowned. If whisky 
gets among such a crowd, is it any wonder V 
and is it any wonder that strikes and riots 
should come in too y So many ice-houses 
have been bui'ued by mobs and rival iutei' 



ests, I was told that it is a hard matter to 
get them insured. Between Albany and 
New York the river is literally alive with 
ice-companies, and great edifices, or mon- 
strous buildings, loom up to hold the ice- 
crop. A young friend whom I met later has 
furnished me some important facts in regard 
to the matter, and I will here let him supple- 
ment, in his own words, what I have already 
told you. 

HARVESTING ICE ON THE HUDSON. 

One ol the greatest industries that has grown up 
in the Hudson Valley in the last ten years is that 
of harvesting- the crop raised chiefly by the aid of 
Jack Frost; viz., the ice-crop. Immense houses, 
all above ground, are built all along the river, and 
quite close to it. These buildings are usually 
about 40 ft. in height, with a mansard of 10 ft. ad- 
ditional, which is used as a loft for storing salt- 
marsh hay, used for covering ice at top. Each 
house contains from four to sixteen rooms, each 
.50 X 100 ft. on the ground. These rooms contain 
about .5000 tons each. The outside walls and par- 
titions are from 14 to 22 inches thick, and are filled 
from floor to top with sawdust. The bottom is 
laid with plank or boards to keep the ice from con- 
tact with the earth. The rooms have the width 
facing the river, and stand in two tiers, front and 
back. Each two rooms, front and back, are con- 
nected by a narrow opening, and are filled by one 
elevator. These elevators are on inclined planes 
running from the top of the building to the edge of 
the dock. Aprons are then letdown beneath the 
surface of the water, and a pair of endless chains, 
having cross-bars every six feet, catch the cakes 
and carry them up the elevator, one, two, and three 
cakes to a bar. A little way up the elevator is a 
simple contrivance for reducing the ice to a uni- 
form thickness. (The above is a new invention, 
and has not come into general use.) The cakes are 
carried up to certain openings to which runways 
are aflixed, leading into the rooms. After the ice 
passes through the opening in the elevator it is 
carried into the building by gravitation. As the 
building fills, all lower openings are closed, and the 
one next higher is opened. The machinery Is 
operated by a powerful steam-engine. 

The cakes, which are 22 x 32 inches, are placed 
one tier, or course, running lengthwise, the other 
crosswise of the room, breaking joints. No cake is 
allowed to touch its fellow except at top and bot- 
tom, a space of 3 inches being left all round. This 
facilitates taking the ice out. The lossiin space is 
more than compensated by the superior condition 
in which the ice comes out, very little being bro- 
ken by this method of storing. 

When the ice is of sufiicient strength to hold a 
team, should there be a considerable fall of snow 
a force of teams is put at work scraping the ice 
clear of snow. (For a 40,000-ton house a large 
number of acres will be cleared.) This clearing is 
done for two reasons. 1. The ice wJU make fast«r; 
2. Clear water ice is preferable to pt^rt snow ice, on 
account of its superior keeping quality. 

When the ice is of proper thickness, say 10 to 13 
inches, a field of a number of acres having been 
cleared, two sf/-af(y^( lines are laid through the cen- 
ter, and at right angles to each other. A marking ice- 
pjow, which QUtB to the depth of two to three inoh' 



138 



(rLEA^i^Gb iJS BEH: (JULTUKE. 



Pe!B. 



es, Is then run In these lines. The marking-plow 
has an outrigger attachment which makes a 
scratch, or mark, parallel to the first furrow in 
which the marking-plow runs on returning. When 
the field is marked, plows cutting to 6 inches in 
depth are run through the furrows across and 
back. These are followed by plows cutting yet j 
deeper. Two-thirds of the thickness of the ice is 
usually cut with plows, rendering the cutting with 
chisel-bars an easy matter. The plows are worked 
by horse power. Large blocks (13 x 20-feet cakes 
in size) are then sawed clear through by hand, and 
floated into a canal about a foot wider than the 
block of cakes. Care is taken to stop up with 
snow the end of furrows made by plows, to pre- 
vent water running in and freezing. In this wide 
canal the blocks are broken into strips by three or 
four men, with implements similar to a gardener's 
spading-fork. These strips, containing 13 cakes, 
are kept moving by men (armed with pike-poles) 
who stand on either side of the canal. Smaller 
canals, a little wider than the cakes are long, open 
into the larger canal, and at right angles to it. 
There are as many of these smaller canals as there 
are elevators in the building. Here the strips are 
broken into single cakes by a chisel-pointed bar. 
It will be remembered, that the breaking into strips 
and cakes is rendered comparatively easy since 
the plows leave but from four to six inches uncut. 
The cakes are pushed into the aprons where the 
bars of the elevator, above described, catch them 
and take them up the incline. 

A house of 4000 tons' capacity requires 300 men in 
the building and field, and can be filled in 13 days. 

HINTS TO THOSE WHO PUT UP THEIR OWN ICE. 

The great difficulty experienced by many who 
put up their own ice, or, in fact, any who have it 
put up in a small quantity, is to have it keep well. 
A few hints, gathered from one of the most suc- 
cessful practical ice-men on the Hudson River, 
may be of value to some. 

Houses built all above ground are least ex- 
pensive. A wall laid in mortar, reaching below 
frost, and coming just far enough above ground to 
clear the sill from the surface, should be built. 
Sills may be made of two two-inch plank, spiked to- 
gether, or of other material. Sills should be wide 
enough to take 3 x 12 studding. Wide studding 
are used in order to give ample space for sawdust 
filling. 

A house 13 ft. square inside, and 10 ft. high, will 
hold 32 tons; same height, 15 x 15, holds 50 tons 
(45 cubic ft. to the ton). Siding nailed to studding 
inside would be best of hemlock; outside, to suit 



taste of builder. Boards or plank should be laid 
on the bottom to keep ice from contact with earth. 
Care should be taken to get sawdust filling well 
into the corners. A door 13 ft. high, by 3 or 3'4 
wide, in two sections, upper and lower, is cut in 
one end. A cleat is nailed to the studding, just in- 
side the door, and another to the further side of 
the studding, to hold short boards, which are put 
in as the house is gradually filled. As the courses 
rise, a block and tackle are used in hoisting. Swale 
hay or rye or oat straw makes a good and clean 
covering for the top. Get enough on, and settle 
it well. 

Where a number of families in a farming neigh- 
borhood put up ice it would bo economy to have 
an ice-plow. A first-class one, with swing-marker 
attachment, can be olitained for about f.50.00. By a 
number clubbing together, the cost would be in- 
considerable. Getting in ice, like thrashing, re- 
quires quite a force of men to work it to advan- 
tage; and if neighbors go at it together in the 
same way, the labor will be materially lessened. 
With a plow and a couple of chisel-bars, very little 
sawing need be done, and yet have cakes in good 
shape for stowing. About 33 x 33 inches is a very 
convenient shape for handling. 

A nine-inch plow will make a furrow of the same 
depth in ice. One stroke of the chisel-bar will de- 
tach it, and leave a good even face. 

Geo. M. Watkins. 

Cedar Hill, Albany Co., N. Y., Feb. 7, 1887. 

As more people are out of work during the 
winter than at any other time during the 
year, I think it will be an excellent idea to 
lay our plans so as to put in tlie time during 
these winter months, and the ice-business 
can be profitably carried on in almost every 
locality. The market-gardener will many 
times find it quite convenient to have some 
means of preserving perishable products 
(strawberries and the like), and the use of an 
ice-house may save him a good many dollars, 
even if he does not think of going to the ex- 
pense of cold-storage buildings. The young 
friend who furnished me the letter in regard 
to the ice-business above, was also interested 
in market-gardening; and when I told him 
about my searches for greenhouses for grow- 
ing vegetables, he said he thought he could 
help me, and I will tell you something about 
it in our next chapter. 



He that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with bread 
derstanding.— Prov. 13: 11. 

We were on the streets at the time ; and 
when I mentioned it he turned abruptly and 
entered a green-gxocer's, situated a little be- 
low the sidewalk. Just at that moment it 
struck me that one who proposes to deal in 
lettuce, celery, beets, turnips, and articles 
that are apt to dry up if precautions are not 



CHAPTER XXXVl. 

but he that followeth vain persons is void of un- 



taken, is very much better located in a base- 
ment than in a store level with the walk. 
Mr. W. mentioned the purpose of our visit, 
and the proprietor was very courteous and 
obliging. So much for having somebody 
who is acquainted in a large city, to assist 
you. The storekeeper showed uS different 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEf: CJULTTJUE. 



139 



kinds of celerj', and even sjave us some sam- 
ple stalks to taste and admire the flavor. 
No lettuce was in siglit ; but when we men- 
tioned it he opened some round boxes not 
unlike wooden cheese-boxes, Init smaller. 
Each box contained perhaps a peck of let- 
tuce. This quautity is not large enough to 
cause it to heat, and yet when kept shut up 
in a box in the somewhat damp and cool air 
of the basement it kept in excellent order. 
He mentioned several greenhouses in the 
vicinity of Albany where lettuce was grown ; 
but they both agreed that my best place 
would be to goout to " Frost's.'' Afterward 
we found lettuce for sale in the basement of 
the very building of the Glol)e Hotel ; and 
yet the clerk at the hotel didn't think any 
lettuce was raised in or around Albany. 

As our bee-convention was to meet at nine 
o'clock, I was up and had my breakfast long 
before daylight. 1 was on the stand waiting 
for the street-cars at the time they were to 
start ; but after having waited for 15 minutes 
in the cold, and no street-car made its ap- 
pearance, I concluded to be independent and 
go on foot, even if it was about four miles. 
At least one of the four miles was up hill, 
for Albany is "a city set on a hill,'" or, rath- 
er, a sidehill. How I did enjoy that walk ! 
The hill slopes toward the rising sun ; and 
as his rays poured full upon me, my spirits 
began to revive, as they always do when I 
can go on foot, and the sun shines. I fell in 
love with the small boys, and even with the 
dogs and horses as I passed. I even loved 
the saloon-keepers who stood at the doors of 
their places of business, pretty thickly 
sprinkled along the way ; but I did not fall 
in love with the business they followed. 
Finally the broad grand country landscape 
opened before me, and here too I found 
throngs of people busy filling their ice- 
houses. The ice was taken from little 
streams that had been dammed up piu'pose- 
ly, as it seemed, to form ice-ponds. They 
may have been carp-ponds also, for aught I 
know. .Just beyond where these people were 
at work I saw Frost's establishment, sur- 
rounded with evergreens for windbreaks. 
His greenhouses were mostly located on a 
sidehill. There were five of them in num- 
ber. Mr. Frost is a practical man. There is 
nothing of the style of grandeur of Peter 
Henderson's floral establishment to be seen 
in Mr. Frost's gardening operations. I found 
him at work with his boys, among the green- 
houses. The one I first entered was full of 
early Silesia lettuce ; and for once in my life 
I was satisfied with the view of a real live 



lettuce-house. These houses are just about 
as cheap as they can be gotten up ; in fact, 
some of them had walls made by driving 
stakes in the ground, and filling in with 
coarse manure. On to]) of these were ordi- 
nary greenhouse frames, with just enough 
slant to carry off the water. They were 
warmetl by stoves set in a hole dug in the 
ground. In many places the glass is so low 
that one is obliged to stoop to walk through 
the house. This gives the advantage of get- 
ting the glass close to the plants— a matter 
that I have emviliasized strongly, as you will 
remember, in Chapter X. The walks are a 
little below the surface of the beds. In 
many of the houses the beds are simply bank- 
ed up as we would bank up beds in a flower- 
garden. The house that pleased me most, 
however, was an asparagus-house. I have 
tried to give you a picture of it on the next 
page. 

The size of this house is 12.") feet long by 
40 feet in width. The walls are made of very 
cheap material, and rise to the height of only 
three or four feet. It is built along a hill- 
side sloping to the south and east. Along 
the center of the ridge is a piece of shingle 
roof, perhaps four feet wide. This runs the 
whole length of the building. There are 
three rows of 3xH-foot sash each side (jf this 
center-piece of roofing. Now, a short man 
like myself can just walk under the center- 
piece. If he goes out luider a sash he will 
have to stoop a little, and the row of sash 
next to the eaves has a pretty sharp slope 
so as to make the low walls around the out- 
side answer. The sash is supported by 
stakes driven into the ground in rows the 
whole length of the building where one sash 
laps on to the next. These stakes are per- 
haps six feet apart, and they are simply 
cheap stakes split out like rails. Five com- 
mon coal-stoves warm tiie spacious build- 
ing. Each one is placed in a circular pit, dug 
in the ground perhaps two feet deep, and the 
pipes run perhaps fifty feet or more under 
the glass before they go into the open air. 
This takes pretty much all of the heat, with- 
out smoke, before it goes into the open air, 
and is economy in fuel. Now, this sash is 
to be entirely removed as soon as warm 
weather comes, to let the asparagus grow in 
the natural way in the open air. In fact, 
during the greater part of the year this as- 
paragus-house is nothing but an asparagus- 
bed with low walls around it. and the strip 
of roof through the center. The asparagus, 
however, is planted much closer than in or- 
dinary culture. Mr. Frost told me the rows 



140 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



were only a foot apart, and the roots only 
six inches apart in the row. Of course, it 
is manured up to the very liighest notch. 
The soil on these hillsides is a sandy loam, 
and the immense quantities of manure put 
on it have made it black and strong, lil<e the 
Arlington soil. In order to get the roots 
ready for this forcing process, the whole bed 
is covered in the fall with the best strong 
manure. The fall rains and snows are per- 
mitted to cover it. In order to let the 
ground freeze, the manure is raked off after 
it has been pretty well soaked by the rains ; 
then during the latter part of December, 
when every thing is frozen up solid, the 
glass is put in place, and the stoves started. 
Under the influence of the heat of the stoves 



you suppose asparagus brings a bunch here 
in Albany during the middle of January V 
Only one dollar, dear reader. I wonder if 
you can guess who pays a dollar a bunch for 
asparagus in the winter time. Why, no less 
a personage than the President of the Unit- 
ed States. Mr. Frost had been ui the habit 
of supplying the President for a good many 
years; and just a few^ days before my visit, 
the President sent word that he could not 
find a bit of asparagus in Washington or 
Philadelphia, and so he had to go back to 
this old friend. Mr. Frost gets a dollar a 
bunch at wholesale for his first cuttings; 
and by the time it reaches the consumer it 
costs $1.50. I asked him if they hadn't got 
to shipping asparagus from the Southern 




GHEENHOUSE FOR RAlSINCi ASPAUAOUS IN TH K WlNllOR TIME 



and the rays of the sun through this low 
sash, the ground thaws up, and the aspara- 
gus-shoots begin to peep out by the middle 
of January. Great beautiful shoots were 
now peeping forth in a circle eight or ten 
feet away from each one of the stoves. The 
nearer the stoveswere, the larger the shoots. 
To help pay the interest on the cost of 
such a quantity of glass, a crop of radishes 
is put between the asparagus rows. Tliese 
radishes come off before the asparagus comes 
into heavy bearing. 

1)0 you wonder, friends, that 1 inwardly 
thanked (xod for the beautiful sight spread 
out before meV I felt amply repaid for my 
four miles' walk— yes, and for my whole 
trip away off here to York State. What do 



States, as they do strawberries, cucumbers, 
etc. I am inclined to think that, like celery, 
the cold weather of the North is needed to 
bring this plant to perfection ; for Mr. Frost 
said he hud repeatedly sold asparagus in the 
winter time, to be shipped to New Orleans. 
The sun was now shining brightly through 
the sash. I walked up and down that glass- 
covered hillside, admiring the dark ricli loam 
that formed a path uniler my feet— admiring 
the great broad healthy-looking leaves of 
the radish-plants as they pushed forth from 
the dark rich soil, and admiring the aspara- 
gus peeping forth in obedience, as it seemed, 
to God's command. Yes, truly has God giv- 
en us dominion over the fish of the sea and 
the fowl of the air, and, too, every herb bear- 



188? 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



141 



ing seed ; and I felt, too, that it was in obe- 
dience to God's call that I was away off here 
on this beautiful January morning. I asked 
if the same plant would yield a crop year 
after year. He said he had found no trou- 
ble, providing he stopped cutting in time to 
allow them to make a good growtli, and 
bear seed, and then keep the glass off long 
enougli to allow the whole bed to freeze up 
so as to make a real winter of it before 
bringing in the artificial spring. Time was 
passing, however ; and, much as I enjoyed 
this beautiful spot, I should soon be wanted 
at the bee-convention, and I began to feel 
that my good friend by my side feared I was 
a little too much interested. My many and 
eager questions might have made him feel 
that it was not best to give away the secrets 
of his trade too much, for he was evidently 
an old-countryman. 

There was one point about Mr. Frost's 
work to which I wish to call special atten- 
tion. He did not build these five great veg- 
etable-greenhouses all at once. He increas- 
ed his area of glass as the market demanded 
it, and he did not throw away hundreds of 
dollars until he could be sure he was going 
to get it back again. The closest and most 
careful economy was studied at every point. 
When I suggested a steam-boiler in place of 
all those stoves, he declared most emphatic- 
ally that the interest of the money would 
eat up all the profits, and I am not sure but 
he is right about it. The great expense of 
this gardening in winter is the glass. The 
sash were cheap and light, and the panes of 
glass were small — about 6x8, if I am cor- 
rect, so that a breakage could be made good 
at small expense; but even with his rude 
and cheap appliances, the quality of his veg- 
etables was equal to any thing I have ever 
seen anywhere. 

It may be well right here to put in a word 
about extravagant expenditures in business; 
and in advising you how to be busy I should 
make a sad, sad mistake if that advice 
should result in inducing you to get still 
deeper in debt, and end up by having noth- 
ing to do after all. Be very careful about 
making purchases, and purchase a little at 
a time. T often tell young bee-keepers to 
commence with one or two hives of bees. 
When these two hives of bees have afforded 
profit in your hands, then, but not before, 
increase the number. The same in regard 
to sash for raising early vegetables. Try a 
few sash. If they are a paying investment 
in your hands, and under your management, 
then try a few more, but do not enlarge too 



fast. Florists tell us that if a plant is fee- 
ble, and seems likely to die, let it alone. 
Give it sun and air, but don't give it liquid 
manure, nor even water, until it starts to 
grow. Then give it a little water; and if 
that seems to prove beneficial, give a little 
more. When it comes to be rank and strong, 
and if covered with a great amount of foli- 
age, it can take water in abiuidance, and 
not l)e harmed— yes, even strong manure, 
and it is ready to take it up and make great 
strong branches and leaves. So must the 
young gardener start. Giving him money 
or credit would be like the strong manure or 
guano watei' to the feeble plant — it would 
kill it outright. Get a healthy growth start- 
ed first. I would not even buy seeds or tools 
without carefully considering the matter. 

Only last summer a bright intelligent 
young man came to me for vegetable-plants. 
He paid cash down at first, and seemed to 
be enjoying his work, and doing well. Fi- 
nally an opportunity offered for him to do 
quite a business, but he had not the money 
to pay for his plants. Contrary to my bet- 
ter judgment I gave him a few weeks' time 
on them. Then came severe droughts and 
other discouragements, and he was obliged 
to give up the business without being able 
to realize enough to pay his honest debts. I 
meant to do him a kindness when I trusted 
him,l)ut I fear it was an unkindness. Don't 
go in debt, boys. Use wisely what money 
you have got, and use it judiciously ; but 
don't use money you have not got. 

At oiu" teachers' meeting the other even- 
ing the matter of buying lemonade, soda- 
water, and the like, came up. One of the 
teachers siirprised me by a remark some- 
thing like this : 

"My friends, I would almost as soon see 
my boy buying beer and cigars as to see 
him buying soda-water, lemonade, and pop, 
for it is only a question of time. Standing 
aroimd a bar, getting drinks, and treating 
each other, is going through the motions 
that lead to intemperance and crime." 

I was a little surprised, and turned to an 
old gray-headed deacon who has been many 
years of his life superintendent of the Sun- 
daj'-school, and I waited to hear him tell 
our young friend that he must not draw the 
lines too close ; but, to my surprise, he smil- 
ingly said he felt just about as the brother 
had expressed it. I have been thinking of 
it since, and it startles me somewhat. Is it 
wrong to buy lemonade? Well, my friend, 
I feel pretty sure of this : If a young man 
were coming to me for advice, and he were 



142 



GJ.EA.\[NGS i:s' BEE OULTUEE. 



Feb. 



starting in the business of gardening, I 
should feel a little discouraged to see him 
buying lemonade at a restaurant. He can 
not afford it. Ernest just now informs me 
that President Fairchild, of Oberlin College, 
once told the students that they could not 
afford to buy lemonade by the drink. Lem- 
onade is beneficial to the health, without 
doubt, and the use of lemons in the family 
is to be recommended; but you can buy 
them by the dozen, so the expense is not 
more than two or three cents each for nice 
ones, and a good lemon will make a fair 
pitcher of lemonade for a small family. 
When we have strawberries, currants, pie- 
plant, and such like tart fruits and vegeta- 
bles, they take the place, to a great extent, 
of the lemonade. The most dangerous part 
of this practice, however, of buying drinks 
— even temperance drinks — is the fashion of 
treating. I have known farmers' boys to be 
induced to use their hard earnings to treat a 
lot of girls to ice-cream or lemonade, when 
the boys could poorly afford it. Your com- 
rades may call you stingy ; but it is far bet- 
ter to be called stingy than to have it said 
you are not able to pay your honest debts, or 
to clothe yourself decently, and get a tolera- 
ble educaticn. 

Last summer I found that one of the boys 
who went with our fruit-wagon was buying 
lemonade almost every day, and his wages 
was only 7i cents an hour; and I knew that, 
after paying for his board and clothing, he 
could not afford to buy lemonade ; and when 
I heard that he was not only buying it for 
himself, but was treating others, I decided I 
could not keep him. These are little things, 
dear friends ; but it is little things that turn 
the scale between success and failure in life. 

In speaking of the ice-crop on the Hudson 
River, I alluded to the fact that ice is get- 
ting to be a thing of every-day use. Well, I 
believe it is a fact that good drinking-water, 
cool and refreshing, is one of the great 
agents in discouraging intemperance. 1 
was once in the habit of drinking beer to 
some extent. It was recommended by our 
family physician, and I thought I needed it. 
A great many times, when I felt as though 
I must have it, I found that, by taking a 
drink of ice-water, I did not care particular- 
ly for the beer, after all ; and no doubt 



thousands will find it easier to break away 
from these habits where nice cool drinking- 
water is always at hand. The Women's 
Christian Temperance Union is doing a 
great work in providing convenient and at- 
tractive drinking - fountains. Putting up 
and filling ice-houses may greatly help this 
work around our homes ; and what other 
one thing is it that makes a place more 
homelike than sparkling water and a bright 
tin cup, not only to invite the members of 
the household, but the wayfaring man as 
wellV Dear reader, is the nice tin cup with 
the water to accompany it one of the ad- 
juncts of your homeV 

I do not know how my friend Frost stands 
financially, but he is a hard-working man, 
and one who makes his money by the sale of 
fruits and vegetables, and I have never visit- 
ed any one where there was such economy 
practiced in every thing as at Mr. Frosfs. 
Every thing that was not in actual use was 
carefully put away under cover, and yet 
there was no extravagant outlay of money 
anywhere. He has a pretty residence, and 
a nice yard, but nothing to indicate that he 
wished to make a show or any great display 
in the world. The evergieens were beauti- 
ful, but it was evident that they had been 
planted as windl)reaks to his greenhouses, as 
well as for ornament. 

Twenty-four hours after my visit to the 
asparagus-house, I was talking the matter 
over with Peter Henderson. Said he, "Why, 
Mr. Root, you have just given me informa- 
tion on a point I particularly wanted to 
know about. It is this matter of giving 
plants their regular winter rest, t)r nap. 
When your name was handed me I was just 
dictating an article to the stenographer, on 
this very subject. We florists have foimd to 
our sorrow, that if this winter rest is not 
given to plants that demand it, sooner or 
later our stock will run out. I should not 
have thought it possible for Mr. Frost to get 
a good growth, year after year, in this aspar- 
agus-house, but with the brief natural winter 
he allows them before commencing to force 
them by an artificial spring, it is probably 
practicable. We have just decided that 
something of the same kind must be manag- 
ed with our violets that we force year after 
year for early spring bloom." 



To he cantivued Mar. lf>, 18H7. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



148 



TVHAT DOES IT COST PEK POUND TO 
PRODUCE HONEY? 

K. FRANCE TEI.LS US WHAT IT COSTS HIM PER 

POUND.— OTHER INTERESTINO FACTS 

FOR THE TRADE. 

T T is not a very easy task to make out just what 
1^ honey does cost per pound. In the first place, 
^i we have got a {food deal of money invested in 
"*■ bees and hives— buildings, wagons, machinery, 

horses, and fixtures of one kind and another 
that we have to use to run the business. All these 
things cost money; and it takes no small sum, eith- 
er, to run 500 colonies of bees. The interest on the 
money, and the wear and tear of the fl.xtures, will 
be about as much as the actual cost of gathering 
the crop. But let us see about what it did cost us 
to gather our last crop, aside from the above in- 
vestments. 

Kight boys' wages for 37 days S108 00 

Board for the 8 boys, 37 days 80.00 

1 man at $1.50 per day, 37 days 40 50 

117 barrels, at $3.00 each, to hold the honey.. 334.00 
Rent for 5 yards of bees, away from home . . 75.00 

1 hired team at f 1..50 per day, 37 days 40-50 

Oats for 4 horses, SVa bu. per day for 30 days, 

at 35 cts. per bushel 26.25 

Hay for 4 horses, 30 days 15.00 

Total cash paid out for the crop $619.25 

Tf we add $18.00 more to the above figures, the 
cost would be just about one cent and a half per 
pound, as the amount of the crop was 43,489 lbs. 
of honey. Now, besides the apove expenses, I 
have figured up, at one-third less than cost, the 
worth of the investment in materials, such as land 
(one-half acre at home), buildings, bees, hives, wag- 
ons, two horses, extractors, foundation-machine, 
and a great many other fixtures, too numerous 
to mention. On this amount I coini)iited the in- 
terest at 7 ;- . I then added one-half the amount 
of the interest, for the wear and tear of the fix- 
tures. Then put in $300 for the pay to E. France 
& Son for caring for the bees, and overseeing the 
business for one year. To these items I put in 
$50.00 for foundation used. The total of all these 
amounts to over $800, or very nearly 2 cents per 
pound for the cost of land, tools, fixtures, etc., m 
the production of honey for the year 1886. Add to 
this the i;4 cents (the cash paid out for the produc- 
tion of a single pound of honey), and we have the 
total cost of the crop at about 3',2 cents for a single 
pound. But, remember, the year 1886 was an un- 
usuallj' good one for honey. After we have se- 
cured the honej' it is a long way from being cash. 
It has to be sold. But it is not like a bed of straw- 
berries. We can take our time to sell, any time 
during the year, and we can kee]) it over if we don't 
sell the fir^it year. 

BLACK BEES REPELLING JKJTH MILLERS. 

1 will just say, we have no trouble with the moths 
or worms in our hives. As long as a hive contains 
a good strong colony of bees there is no danger of 
moths. Keep the bees strong, and they, whether 
blacks or Italians, will keep clear of moths. I see 
but very little ditterence. All the trouble we have 
with the moth is to keep empty combs from being 
destroyed until we can use them. We winter all 
our bees outdoors, and we are not one of the lucky 
kind who never lose any bees in winter. We always 
lose some. If a colony dies before we are done 
with zero weather, the worms, if there are any, 
freeze to death, eggs and all. Such combs we can 
keep in the hive, shut up tight until .luly. But if a 



colon}' dies, or swarms out in the spring, after the 
cold weather is over, the combs left without live 
bees will soon be wormy. It will be the same, 
whether they were left by black or Italian bees. I 
don't see any difl'erence. We have both kinds of 
bees, and, of course, have a better chance to know 
than we would if we had only one kind. There is a 
great deal said about the Italian bees being moth- 
proof. But a large part of such talk is from those 
who keep only Italians. If they are kept strong 
they are safe, and so would be the blacks. Now, I 
don't want any one to think that I am opposed to 
the Italians. I am not, by any means; but I do 
think they are overrated. Still, I think the bee- 
business has gone ahead faster than it would with- 
out them, for this reason: They are handsome. 

If I buy a queen, and pay a few dollars for the 
one bee, I shall be very likely to give her the best 
of attention, make as much out of her as possible, 
raise several queens from her, and those queens 
have to be supplied with bees. First you know 
there is a nice apiary built up, when, if the same 
queen had cost nothing, there would not have been 
very much interest taken in the matter. As for the 
blacks being worse to rob than the Italians, I don't 
see it. But we scarcely ever have any robbing, as 
we have no occasion to work with the bees when 
there is no honey coming in. 

FRANCE'S HONEY-EXTRACTOR. 

In your notes on my article in Gleanings for 
Dec. 15, page 977, you ask a few questions which I 
will try to answer. First, about my home-made ex- 
tractor. It is essentially the Chapman extractor 
with France's improvements to make it suitalile for 
our work. The first extractor I got was a Winder 
machine, made for me after 1 sent him one of my 
frames. The whole can whirled around. There was 
a hole in the center of the bottom, about as large as 
my finger, for the honey to run out when the ma- 
chine was at rest. 1 got along with it as long as I 
was alone, or had one hand to help me. It bothered 
me a good deal about choking up— the outlet was 
too small. A little piece of comb, or some loose 
cappings, would choke it up, and then we would 
have to punch it out. One of my neighbors has a 
Chapman machine. The can sits in a frame, has a 
gate under the bottom to draw off the honey, and 
has a revolving comb-basket inside. I liked that 
better than ni}' revolving can, so I sent two frames 
to Mr. Chapman to have him make a machine suit- 
able for my frames. As my frames were large, the 
machine would have to be of an extra size. I told 
him to make the comb-basltet out of wire cloth, 
three meshes to the inch. In due time I received 
the machine. It was a big improvement over my 
old revolving can, but it did not fill the bill. First, 
the wire cloth in the comb-basket was five meshes 
to the inch instead of three, as I ordered. The 
trouble was, our frames stand on the bottom, and 
have three heavy nails driven into them to keep 
them apart. Those nails would go through the 
cloth, and bothered me to get the comb out of the 
basket. A three-mesh wire would let the nails out 
easily, and scarcely ever make any trouble. The 
honey-gate was too small — it would choke up as bad- 
ly as our other machine. I took the gate out and 
put in a larger one. I use a two-inch gate. When 
we raise the handle of that, the honey will run, and 
no small matter will clog it up. The comb-basket 
was too small for my frames. A clean frame, with 
no comb built on top or sides of the frame, would 



144 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Feb. 



fit first rate. Those were my olijectioiis. ] make 
the same machine, but inake tlie can one inch deep- 
er and one inch wider; comlj-liasket (wire cloth, 
three meshes to the inch) one inch deeper and one 
inch wider; and put in a two inch g'ate. We like 
the Chapman machine the best for our work of any 
we ever saw; but if I make them I can make them 
to suit me. We make for our own use only, and 
don't make to sell. E. France. 

Platteville, Wis. 

Friend F., you have sj-iveii us an excellent 
summing-up of the cost of liquid honey. 
You say, however, tiie past season has l)een 
an extra good one. Now. it is quite likely 
that, during a poor season, the honey might 
cost as much as you get for it. In that case, 
however, you will have your salary for your- 
self and son, which is worth something. T 
don't believe it is time to stop until the cash 
out exceeds the cash in. In tliat case you 
would have nothing at all for your year's 
labor, and, of course, there must be re- 
trenchment sooner or later, or else a wind- 
ing-up of the business.— You make a point 
in regard to the honey-extractor, friend F., 
that is worthy of notice. If wire cloth with 
only three meshes to the inch, instead of 
four, such as we use, answers every purpose 
of an extractor, I should think it would be 
preferable, because the honey would pass 
out more treely. Is it not true, however, 
that there is more lial)ility of the wire cloth 
sinking into the combs? 



MY BEE-STING THEORY. 

W. F. CL.\HKE'S HKI'KV, 

fAK be it from me to "take it unkindly " that 
friend Savage or anybody else should "ques- 
tion the scientific accuracy " of my bee-sting, 
hibernation, or any other theory, especially 
when it is done in a vein of good-natur- 
ed pleasantry. In fact, 1 rather enjoy that sort 
of thing. But i; fail to see how the title, " Bees 
vs. Beavers," applies to the subject in hand, for 
1 do not know of any antagonism between 
these two industrious races. There is resem- 
blance in some respects. Bees work like beavers, 
with unflagging Industry and indomitable persever- 
ance. Perhaps, also, they work like heavers in 
making use of their tails. But this is the poi?it in 
dispute, not between bees and beavers, but between 
bee-keepers like friend Savage and mjself. 

After a quotation which sets forth my theory in 
part, the writer says, " Now, I wish to know wheth- 
er any company of bee-keepers would receive, with- 
out question, such speculations." Well, I hcpe not. 
I should be very sorry to have any thing of the sort 
received simply on ray i'p.sc dixit. Not even reli- 
gious teaching is to be thus received. The ancient 
Bereans are praised as " more noble than those of 
Thessalonica," because they did not give an un- 
questioning assent, even to Paul's preaching, but 
" seai-ched the scriptures daily whether these things 
were so." This is the i)roi>er attitude of mind in re- 
gard to the entii-e circle of human knowlcdse. 
When any thing is received as apicultural trtith, he- 
cause Cook or Heddoti or Doolittle' or CIleanings 
or Clarke says it is so, we come to the mental slav- 
ery which leads people to believe because the 
priest or minister says so. Away with all this hu- 



miliation of mind! I want nothing of mine receiv- 
ed unless it commends itself to the reason as having 
the stamp of truth upon it. 

Friend Savage asks, " Is the latter end indeed the 
' business end ' of the bee?" Tliat is no speculation 
of mine. It is a common remark about the bee, 
that the sting end is the business end of that in- 
sect. I did not invent this phrase, claim no patent 
on it, and suppose it will continue to be in vogue 
even if my theory about the use of the sting as 
a trowel be shown to be a mistake. Properly speak- 
ing, both ends of the bee are business ends, and so 
also is the middle a place of business. The bee is 
constructed for business all over. 

Perhaps I have too readily assumed that it is the 
fortnic acid which imparts to honey its keeping 
quality. Certainly I have regarded that as one of 
the fixed facts in apiculture. The honey stored by 
the stingless bees in Central and South America 
has no formic acid in it, and will not keep. Friend 
Savage writes as if the formic acid were a foreign 
and poisonous element in honey. Is that so? Is 
not its' total absence, or its presence in too small 
quantity, a source of trouble with honey that is ex- 
tracted before being partially or wholly sealed 
over? If normal honey must have some infusion 
of this acid in it, then surely we are not warranted 
in assuming that it is injected only when bees are 
angered. Admitting this, we must believe that 
they inject what is required "amid the sweet satis- 
faction and exceeding joy " with which they pur- 
sue their " unmolested avocations" within the hive. 
I have not said a word calculated to " create a fresh 
terror and panic " in the public mind as to the adul- 
teration of honey with a poison. There is a trace 
of prussic acid in some fruits, in all stone fruits, if 
I am not mistaken; but I don't see anything in this 
to create " terror and panic." Nature has a won- 
derful alchemj', and uses, in minute quantities, ele- 
ments that, in larger supplj', are known to be poi- 
sonous. Honey is not " evermore unsafe " because 
" poisoned by the bees themselves at the fountain 
head." It is not poisoned by the minute portion of 
formic acid given for the purpose of flavoring and 
preserving it, any more than all the tinctures of 
the druggist are poisoned by the alcohol put with 
them to preserve them. Exaggerated truth is one 
form of falsehood. 

I do not propose at present to go into any proof of 
my theory. All I have said is, that my observations 
and reflections have led to the formation of an 
opinion which I have given to the bee-keeping pub- 
lic for what it is worth— much, little, or nothing. I 
am not a microscopist— the more's the pity; but I 
have seen many drawings of the bee-sting, and 
(luite understand that it is as Ernest describes it, 
with a single exception. It is a " flne-pointed in- 
strument like a cambric needle," in shape only, but 
very unlike it in texture, being remarkably flexible 
and elastic, quite capable of being twisted and 
curved to and fro. Used along with the tarsi, two 
soft fine hairy brushes, one on either side of the 
sting, I do not see any mechanical objection to its 
being utilized in the way I have suggested. Neither 
does Ernest, api)arently, or he would point it out. 
But ns to the offices of the sting in curing the 
honey or capping the cells, he has nothing to say, 
either pro or con. Perhaps he will, after further 
investigation. I hope he will, and others also. 
I do not know why tongue and mandibles may 
not aid the sting and tarsi in the offices referred 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



145 



to, g-ivingr a joint eo - operative action of both 
business ends of the bee. And if friend Savage 
can extract any more fun out of nij- speculations, 
it is ail right; only I think he should back up his 
supposition with something based on observa- 
tion and reflection in regard to the habits of the 
bee. Wm. F. Cf-akkk. 

(iiielph, Ont., Can., .Ian. 7, 18ST. 



EliLISON'S VISIT TO THE S. C. STATE 
FAIR. 

THE POISON OF BKK-STINGS, ETC. 

T HAVE taken \our advice, "Write only when 
§K you have something to write about." Well, I 
^l have been to our State Fair; and, more than 
•^ that, I have been an exhibitor. At tir.'^t it look- 
ed like a big undertaking to ine. I have been a 
" honey-man ■' and queen-breeder for ten years, 
and this is the first that 1 have been able to get 
away from home at this season of the year, my 
health iiot permitting. 1 can assure you it was 
pleasant to meet so many birds of the same feather 
as flocked together there. Many whom I had well 
known from their writings and theories, 1 had 
a very nice time exchanging opinions with, as 
to the different modus operandi of getting the 
most honej', the best bees. etc. Of course, we have 
not as yet such an extensive premium list as you 
have in the North. There were only five premiums 
given by the agricultural .society. I got three; viz., 
for best comi) honey, best extracted honej', and 
best Italian queen. The latter lvalue most, as I 
boast of raising the best kind of Italian queens. I 
had your Simplicilj hive there also, but the pre- 
mium on hives was given to friend Fooshe, of this 
State, who exhibited one of the same kind. I had, 
besides, smokers, veils, wax, and a Novice honey- 
extractor. 1 tried the plan of cutting up sections 
and selling pieces at five cents each, but found it 
did not pay well. We have but few bee-keepers in 
our State who use the movable-frame hive, and a 
great deal of injury is done to the honey-trade by 
box-hives and their owners. 

THE EFFECT A BEE-STING HAS ON SOME SYSTEMS. 

A few weeks ago my wife was stung on the foot. 
Tn a few moments she was covered from head to 
feet with a scarlet rash, very much like scarlet 
fever. She complained of violent pain in the chest, 
and a dreadful feeling" of suffocation. We placed 
her feet in hot water, and gave her a large dose of 
bromide of potash; and after an Interval of an 
hour we repeated the dose. She was very ill for 
two days from the effects of the poison. One of my 
boys is affected in the same way when he is stung. 
It would be a great boon if some of our bee-keeping 
fraternity who belong to the medical profession 
would study a remedy for cases of this kind, and 
give it to us. Some say the jioison is formic acid. 
We will say, then, if an acid, use an alkali as an an- 
tidote; but liovv many have used soda, ammonia, 
etc., for stings to no purpose I 

I should very much fear the consequences if 
either my wife or little boy were stung by more 
than one^bee at the same time. 

KKVEUSIULE FRAMES AND HIVES. 

1 have been compelled to think, that, if you can 
adopt them in the North, your bees do not use so 
much propolis asours do. Even with the Simplicity 
hive, right side up, I find great trouble to lift the 



upper story off, on account of its being gummed 
down so fast. 

I am sorry to hear of the bad state your l)ees are 
in on account of foul brood. I don't know whether 
you have tried saving fertile queens in cages with 
a dozen or mors of their own bees placed in the 
center of a large colony, or not. I make the cages 
by partitioning off a wide frame, and placing a bit 
of honey in the comb in each for food. You can 
then hang it right in the hive, and in summer it is 
good for two or three weeks. T don't know what 
you can do with it in your cold winters. 

W. J. El.MSON. 

Stateburg, Sumter Co., S. C. 
I atn not so sure that the friends in the 
North will like reversing? any better than 
yon tio. It i.s a matter that is not yet decid- 
ed.— We have tried caging surplus queens 
in the hives during cold weather, in the way 
you describe ; but from the severity of the 
weather here, the (jueens so caged "died in 
a week or ten davs at the most. 



BLACKS VERSUS ITALIANS, AGAIN. 

Ml{. FRANCE COMP.VKES THE LARGE REPORTS 
OF E. .1. BAXTER, AND OF P. H. FELLOWS. 

fN page 53, 188;, Mr. E. J. Baxter, of Nauvoo, 
111., claims to have an apiary of Italians that 
beat the record of my student (Mr. P. H. 
Fi-llows. of Brodhead, Wis., whose report for 
1886 I find in Gleanings, page T4i. Well, 
Mr. Baxter, you obtained more honey, it is true; 
but you went back to the fourth crop to find it. 
That is all right. But do you know that the Ital- 
ians did any better than the blacks would have 
done in the same location, at the same time':' Ac- 
cording to your own statements, your bees had a 
great deal better chance than those of Mr. Fellows. 
First, your bees were very strong, by your help, at 
the commencement of the honey-harvest. So were 
Mr. Fellows' bees. So far you are even. But now 
turn to Mr. F.'s report, page 74, and you will see 
that his honey was all extracted between May 29th 
and July (5th— a period of 38 days, while your har- 
vest commenced the middle of June and lasted 
until the 20th of September— a period of tt7 days, or 
21 days more than double the time that Mr. F. had. 
Even then you secured only 80 lbs. more on an 
average per colony. You did not increase j-our 
stock. Mr. F. raised 32 new colonies. You had 63 
surplus-boxes with frames full of empty combs— 
about a set and a half of empty combs for each col- 
ony. Mr. F. had none. Y'ou used full sheets of 
foundation, while Mr. F. used only half-inch strips 
—just enough for a guide. Lastly Mr. P'ellows had 
the long-to-be-remenibered drought of 1886 to con- 
tend with, while you have gone back to a more 
fruitful season. Now, I don't see where you can 
claim any superiority for the Italians, in compar- 
ing ihosetwo i-ecords. I believe the blacks would 
have done just as well under the same circum- 
stances. It simply i>roves ray statement, that the 
location and the man have more to do with success 
than the race of bees. 

But it is my candid opinion, that a half breed be- 
tween the Italians and the blacks is better than 
either race pure. They may do a little more sting- 
ing, but 1 can handle any of them. K. 1''kance. 
I'latteviUe, Wis.. Jan. 24, 1887. 



146 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



BLACKS AND ITALIANS. 



ALSO SOMETHING ABOUT THM DESTKUCTION OF 
EXThA QUEEN-CELLS. 



T NOTICE in Gleanings that quite a number are 
^ talking: about the black and hybrid bees being- 
^l superior to the Italians as honey-gatherers. 

■*■ This may be so in some localities, but not in 
mine, of which fact 1 was convinced last sea- 
son. I keep in my apiary two colonies of pure black 
bees, and had a very good opportunity of testing 
them as honey-gatherers beside my Italians. 

About June 20, 1886, the white clover failed,. on ac- 
count of the drought. Now for the result: The 
Italians switched off on to red clover, and worked 
from morning till night, while the blacks were try- 
ing to rob. For some reason, the window to the 
honey-room was left open, and the bees swarmed in 
by the hundred. I closed the window to keep out 
those that were out, and darkened the room all but 
this window. In a few minutes the bees in the room 
were all on the window, perhaps two hundred in 
all, and not one had a band. Now, friend R., why 
should so many black bees come into this room, and 
no Italians, if the blacks were as good honey-gath- 
erers as the Italians ? 

Does the newly hatched queen tear down the un- 
hatched cells ? Yes, the young or first queen hatch- 
ed will bite a hole in the unhatched queen-cells, and 
bite and pull the doomed queen to death. This I 
saw last season, with my own eyes. L. J. Tripp. 
Kalamazoo, Mich., Jan. 17, 1887. 

Friend T., the question of blacks and Ital- 
ians has been discussed over and over for 
perhaps twenty years past, and I think there 
is no question but that the rule is as you 
give it. There are also occasional excep- 
tions, owing, perhaps, to peculiar circum- 
stances ; and of late we have been gathering 
up these exceptions, and it is quite likely 
that hybrids many times produce more hon- 
ey than either race pure, especially comb 
honey. It has also been abundantly proven, 
that the young queen herself bites a hole in 
the side of the unhatched queen-cell. As to 
whether she pulls the unhatched queen out, 
or whether the workers do it, is not so well 
settled. The workers some times assist in 
tearing the cell down, for I have seen them 
do it. 



UNITING BEES, AND ALL ABOUT IT. 



WHEN, WHY, AND HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE. 



"I^^^OTHING is simpler, if the process is properly 
IIJ|' understood. I am perpetually surprised at 
in* *^^ cumbersome methods practiced by some 
"*■ ^ old bee-keepers. Tf done properly, I see no 
occasion to cage the queen if she belongs to 
either one of the colonies united. I have never lost 
one yet that I wanted to keep. If each colony has 
a queen, either one of which you are willing to sac- 
rifice, pay no attention to them. One will die, the 
other survive. If there is only one, naught will hurt 
her: she is as safe as any queen in the bosom of her 
own family. You will generally find this to be the 
case, even though the bees may do some fighting; 
always, in case they do not. As a rule, bees can be 
united in safety any time when other bees are not 



flying. The only case in which I have known the 
rule to fail is during a dearth of honey in hot weath- 
er, when I find they will sometimes fight consider- 
ably. There are cool cloudy days in spring and fall, 
any time during which the uniting can be done. 
Generally, however, it is necessai-y to do the work 
early in the morning or in the evening. Evening is 
the best time. Bees manipulate better then than 
in the morning, and they are more apt to stay in 
their new quarters. Unite contiguous colonies if 
convenient, but you may unite one with another 
anywhere in the apiary if you have reason to do so. 
Some time in the day, remove about half the 
frames from the two hives. Then in the evening 
set a hive near where you want the colony to stand, 
and put into it a frame alternately from each hive. 
This mi.xing-up is the very best way to make the as- 
tonished and mystified little things form the ac- 
quaintance of their new home and each other. If 
you do not in any case want to use all the frames in 
the two hives, shake the bees from the extra ones 
on a sheet or wide board in front of the hive, fixed 
so that they can crawl readily into it. It the two 
colonies are verj' far apart, set your empty hive 
near one of them and siiii))ly carry the frames from 
the more distant one to it. Tf the work is done in 
the evening, very few (often, I think, none) will ever 
return to the old stand. Those that do will dis- 
tribute themselves among surrounding hives, in 
case you remove the old hive. To load the hive of 
bees on to a wheelbarrow, and take a run to the 
stand of the colony with which you want to unite, in 
order to get the bees stirred up, as directed by Mr. 
Dooliltle, may be a good expedient; but it is a hard- 
er way than mine, and by no means necessary. 

WHEN AND WHY. 

The when and the why are interdependent. The 
reasons for uniting are not always the same in all 
seasons. There is, however, one ever-present rea- 
son to one who runs for honey chiefly; viz., to pre- 
vent undue increase of stocks. 

UNITING IN THE SPRING. 

I do not favor that plan very much. If you want 
to diminish the number of your stocks at that time, 
it will do. In case one's capital and stock of fixtures 
are limited it is sometimes well to do this. It is 
seldom profitable, I think, to unite weak colonies in 
early spring, except in case of queenlessness. Pack 
them up warm and dry on three to five frames; set 
the hive in the sun, and half a dozen of them are as 
apt to pull through as that one would if they were 
all united into one. Inmates of weak colonies are 
generally weak from dysentery, or are in some way 
unhealthy. Uniting them stirs them up and causes 
them to move out and go to work. Their puny en- 
ergies are unable to stand the drain upon them, and 
the bees die off much more rapidly than if left in 
quiet, and they dwindle down to another weak col- 
ony before the honey-harvest commences. 

UNITING IN SUMMER. 

Mr. Doolittle practices uniting weak colonies at 
the beginning of the honey-flow. I think I know a 
" kink " worth six of that for most localities, if not 
for his. I hive the first swarm that issues on the 
old stand, and set the old hive off'. In the evening 
of that or some early day I carry the frames of 
brood and adhering bees to one or more of my weak 
colonies, and in a few days they are ready for work. 
Where they loill swarm all through the honey sea- 
son, this is much the best plan. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



147 



UNITING IN THE FALL. 

To a bee-keeper who winters out of doors, one of 
the best safeguards Is to have every colony well 
packed with bees. 1 usually reduce my stock one- 
fourth to one-third. There is another reason for 
this. Brood combs are ever accumulating- out of 
proportion to our desired increase of stock, while 
we are still wanting many pounds of fdn. every 
year. Hence we must cull out and render into wax 
all imperfect combs. Drone combs, crooked combs, 
combs filled with pollen, etc., all are condemned to 
the wa.x-extractor. Look over your stock late in 
September or in October; and all such frames, con- 
taining brood, put behind a division-board until the 
brood is hatched. If you want to unite any stock 
with another, insert those frames behind the di- 
vision-board of that other colony. The latter may 
be thus strengthened at different times, while the 
two that are drawn from may be united at conven- 
ience. I often divide one colony between two others 
by means of frames. Or I sometimes shake the bees 
off in front of a colony containing its full or nearly 
full complement of comb, and give most of the 
frames to another. Of course, these processes may 
be modified to suit the wishes of the apiarist. I neg- 
lected to observe in the proper place what will occur 
to every one, that uniting in the fall helps us to 
weed out inferior queens. Autumn is the best time 
to do this culling, as a rule. Geo. F. Kobbins. 

Mechanicsburg, 111. 



BROERS' REPORT. 



DOES THE COLOR OF HIVES MAKE ANY DIFFER- 
ENCE WITH THE BEES? 

PRIEND ROOT:— As the honey season is past, 
and I have had time to figure up results, I 
will proceed to send in ray report. I started 
In the season of 1886 with 24 colonies of Ital- 
ians and hybrids in fair condition; increased 
by natural swarming to 39. I sold and doubled the 
rest of them back to 24, and fed to keep from starv- 
ing. One colony deserted in May. I took in all a 
grand total of 240 lbs. of honey, about one-half 
comb. I got six swarms in September from the 11th 
to the 34th, making in all 29 colonies in the fall, in 
good condition. 1 sold 5 colonies in the fall, which 
leaves me 24 to begin another season with. 

ARE BEES COLOR-BLIND? 

I will give you an item right here which goes to 
show that bees are not color-b'ind. I gave my 
brother a colony of bees; and as he had a hive of 
his own I just took the frames and bees from my 
hive and placed them in his. Jan. 12 we moved 
them over to his place, about l.")0 yards distant; and 
as the weather remained too cold for bees to fly, for 
about a week after moving, of course they could 
not come back; and to prevent trouble I had moved 
their old hive about I.t feet away, and cleaned off 
their old stand so they would not return to it. When 
the weather did turn warm, a great many of the 
bees returned; and on going out next morning I 
was surprised to find about .50 bees that had found 
the old hive, although it was placed among a pile of 
other hives all painted white, except that the hive 
referred to had the portico trimmed with blue. 
The poor little fellows had clustered in the portico, 
and some few had gone inside the hive; and they 
Vere as forlorn a looking lot of bees as I ever saw. 



ROBBING, HOW TO PREVENT. 

A plan that works well with me is to throw a sheet 
over the colony being robbed; and if the robbers 
are mostly from one colony, throw a sheet over 
that also, and Just see how quickly they will change 
their tune. Leave the sheet on the robbed colony 
until after sundown, and then contract the entrance 
so it will adroit only one or two bees at a time, and 
they will protect themselves by morning, if they 
have a good queen. If they have not, unite with 
some colony that has. M. Broers. 

Gonzales, Tex., Jan. 2.5, 1887. 



l^EPBws ENC()a^^ei]\[6. 



WIFE AND i; $360.35 cash for THREE MONTHS' 
TIME WITH THE BEES. 

HEN I received Gleanings for Dec. 15th 
you said you would take the liberty of 
sending it. etc. We are very glad you took 
that liberty. (By saying we, I mean wife 
and I, for wc are partners in the bee-busi- 
ness—and, bj' the way, I do not believe any man 
can keep bees successfully without a good wife to 
help him). Here is our report for 1886: 

May 1,40 swarms; sold 6 (without hives) S30.00; 
sold 13 (with hives) for $65.00; sold honey, 3000 lbs., 
for $330.00; total, $425.00. Our honey is all sold now. 
Bought 25 Simplicity hives, ready for use, except 
painting, $50.00; 3000 sections, 9.75; 9 lbs. fdn., $4.90 
—a gain, in one year, of $360.35. 

We have .56 swarms in the cellar now; wintered 
last winter without any loss whatever. We spent 
about three months' time altogether; peddled 
most of the honey, and got cash for it, 10 to I2Y2 
cents. I never saw a section of honey until I pro- 
duced it four years ago. What success we have 
had we owe to A. I. Root. We have taken Glean- 
ings, and have had his ABC book and no other. 
E. R. A. & B. Brainahd. 
Postville, la., Dec. 27, 1886. 



.\N average OF 95 LBS. PER COLONY. 

Bees are in fine order for winter. This year the 
average number of pounds of honey per colony 
was 95; but little is sold up to date. 

Thos. H. Trice. 

New Providence, Mont. Co., Tenn. 



from 35 TO ,55, and 3000 LBS. OF honey. 

I commenced the season with 35 swarms— 20 good 
ones, 10 poor, 5 very poor. I increased to .55, and 
made 3000 lbs. of cap honey, very little basswood. 
Besides this I have more than enough natural 
stores to winter on. Wm. P. Abel. 

Vienna, Oneida Co., N. Y. 

from :i9 TO .52, and 1100 LBS. OF HONEY. 

The season has been a poor one. Basswood was a 
failure. I took 1100 lbs. in lib. sections from 39, 
and increased to 52 by division during goldenrod 
bloom. Each has from 15 to 20 lbs. for winter. 1 
placed them all in my bee-cellar Nov. 13. The tem- 
perature was .50, and they seemed to be very quiet. 
There was an average shrinkage last winter of 9 lbs. 
in 42 cokuiies in the cellar fom Nov. 1st to Apr. 15th 
—165 days. Temperature was about .50. 

N. A. Blake. 

Smith's Mills, Quebec, Can. 



148 



GLEAJ^Jl^'GS LN BEE CULTUllE. 



Feb. 




Ul> 



Every boy or (Jfirl, under 15 

years of age, who writes a 

letter for this department, containikg 

SOME VALUABLE FACT, NOT GENKHALLY 
KNOWN ON BEES OR OTHER MATTERS, 

will receive one of David Cook's excel- 
lent live - cent Sunday -school books. 
Many of these books contain the same mat- 
ter that you find in Sunday-school books 
costing from SI. 00 to $1.50. If you have had 
one or more books, give us the names that we 
may not send the same twice. We have now 
in stock six ditt'erent books, as follows; viz.; 
Sheer Off, The Giant - Killer, The Roby 
i ' Family, Rescued from EKy|it,.ind Ten Nights in 

.( B.ir liooni. We have also Our Homes, Parti., and 
Our Homes. Part II. Besides the above books, you may h,ave a 
photograph of our old house apiary, taken a great many years 
ago. In it is .i picture of my.self, Blue Eyes, and Caddy, nnd a 
glimpse of Ernest. We have also some pretty little colored 
pictures of birds, fruits, (lowers, etc., suitable for framing. 
You can have your choice of aiiy one of the .^bove pictures 
or books for every letter that gives us somevahnMp piece of 
information. 



CONDUCTED BY ERNEST R. ROOT. 

TIIK hoys' AMATEUR BEE-HIVE FACTOHV. 

fllE beiicli-vises, which you lemeinher 
the ]);)>, s sent for, were"^duly received, 
Tliey were now fully equipped to 
m;ike any thing which yoiithtnl gen- 
iuses can turn out. After school, dur- 
ing evenings, Mr. Green taught the l)0.\s in 
the rudiments of carpentry. He showed 
them how, by the use of a try-square, they 
could make" every thing perfectly square. 
By piac^tical examples, he instructed them as 
to the mortise and tenon. raVibet, dovetail, 
and miter. The latter, he said they would 
often have occasion to nse. He then made 
them a miter-box which he explained as 
being so useful in a good carpenter shop. 
The keen zest and enjoyment with which 
the boys took hold of the work made them 
apt scholars, and they soon became quite 
proficient in the use of tools. In the mean 
time Mr. (Tieen had loaned them a copy of 
the A B C of Bee Culture, and had directed 
them to read caiefiilly the chapter on Hivk- 
.MAKINC+, which the boys did. Though tlie 
instructions there given were designed to 
accompany the buzz-saw, they tlioiiglit they 
could make use of some of the instructions, 
even for hand-tools. 

One evening after school, while tiie boys 
were talking and planning in their work- 
shop they discovered thatthey liad iiisutli- 
cient light. Jimmie proposed to Sain that 
they make a Utile window just over the 
work-bench so they could have "lots of 
liglit " just where they wanted it, Sam read- 
ily agreed, but said he must first ask his 
father's permission to cut a hole. When the 
boys presented the matter before Mr. G. the 
latter readily consented, and at the same 
time explained liow it could be done. 

A pane of glass, lOxlo, was purchased. An 
oblong hole was made through the side of 
the barn, one-quarter inch smaller all around 



than the glass. This was ingeniously let 
into the wood and then held there by strips 
of wood nailed around the edge of tlie glass. 

Finally Saturday, which was a good while 
coming to the boys, arrived. They had pre- 
viously had some experience in making one 
or two hives, and now they felt confident 
that they could make a larger number with- 
out so much waste in lumber as in the first. 
Mr. Green had given them a little talk on 
the division of labor. He explained how it 
would be economy of labor and time to make 
several hives at once. Accordingly the boys 
had decided to make a "'batch of six hives." 
The first thing to be done was to saw the 
boards up in proper lengths. 

When they had been sawing for awhile. 
Jimmie exclaimed, "By cracky! this is 
mighty tough work." As he said this the 
perspiration began to stand out on his nose. 
and his arm and back began to ache. 
Straightening up and throwing back his 
shoulders he said, " This is more work than 
play — almost as bad as sawing wood." 

"You are right." said Sam, "Sawing 
hives with these little saws is too hard work." 

" rd just like to shake hands with the man 
who invented the buzz-saw. Say, Sam, don't 
you s'pose w^e could get up one V" 

"A small mandrel that would answer our 
purpose would cost only $2.25, and a couple 
of small saws could be had for about !i?l.')0. 
I don't know how we conld get the power." 

" Why can't we make awindmill ? We've 
made little ones," said Jimmie. 

" So we could I" said S;ini, brightening at 
the idea. " Let us talk with pa about it." 

The boys commenced work on their hives 
again with renewed energy. 

That evening the matter was brought be- 
fore Mr. Green. After some reflection he 
thought tiie boys might manage to make a 
windmill for running a buzz-saw for light 
work ; but then tiiey would need his assist- 
ance. It would have to bequite large to run 
a buzz-saw — considerably larger than the 
boys had ever made. He advised them to 
wait until he could talk to a friend who was 
a machinist. 

{('outinued.) 



JaVENmE liEWE^-B6^. 



" A ehiel's amaug ye takin' notes; 
An' faith, he'll prentit." 



A LITTI.K GtKIi WHO "BEAT HEfl P.\PA AM. 
HOI.LOW," 

My papii gave me sonio bees. They Imve nuuie 
me 67 His. oT nice extracted honey, aiirt I traded my 
honey for ii nice hat and a wax doll, f'apa says my 
bees beat liis all hollow. Mamik. Hkokks. 

CJonzales, Te.xas, Jan. 'I, 18S7. 

Thank you, friend Mamie, for your re- 
port. We have known your pajni real well, 
and we are glad to know he has a little girl, 
even if she did beat him all hollow. 



i A LITTI.E UiRl/S REPORT IN REGARD Tt) THE BEES 
I GATHERING POLLEN IN TEXAS. 

This is the third letter I have given you on the 
' subject. In 1885 they commenced bringing in pol .. 



Ib87 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



149 



len on Sunday, the first of Feb. In iy86 they com- 
menced on Sunday, the IMst day of Jan. In 188T 
they commenced on Saturday, the ~;.'d day of Jan. 
Our earliest bloom is the water-elm tree. It is very 
white pollen. Bees are ail healthy and stronfs" to 
date. Papa has si.xtj- colonies; not one has died. 
Lizzie L. Mui.i.iN, ag-e 11. 
Oakland, Texas, Jan. 'M, 1887. 



VEST.4'S LKTTEK. 

My mother has 'iO hives of bees, and she puts 
them in the cellar in the winter. She had 10 hives 
last spring-, and got about 400 lbs. of honey in two- 
pound boxes. What the bees don't finish up we 
extract. My sister and I turn the extractor. Ma 
sent to Mr. Root for the extractor two years ag-o. 
Last week Thursday it rained so hard 1 could uot 
go to school, and I tacked muslin on to the frames 
for chaff cushions to put over the bees. 

Last summer my Sunday-school teacher gave me 
a Bible for learning perfectly the ten command- 
ments. When I had them learned we found that 
my little sister Frances, seven years old, had learn- 
ed them just by hearing nie say them. We are in 
the same class, so our teacher gave her a Bible too. 

Oweg-o, N. Y., Nov. ^7, 1886. Vesta Padgett. 



BANKING UP SNOW FOR WINTER PROTECTION. 

My brother has had pretty good luck with his 
bees, as he has not lost one swarm this winter. 
The way he keeps his bees in winter is this: He 
puts boards up around the hives so as to keep off 
the wind, and when it snows he shovels the snow 
up all around the hives, but leaves the entrance of 
the hive open, so that they can get air. He says 
that this warm weather is hard on them, for they 
go out and try to tly around, and the snow blinds 
them so they can not see, and they freeze to death. 
He built a shed foi- them last winter, and they did 
not do so well, lor he had 86 stands and lost half of 
them. He likes to work with bees, and he likes 
the honey also. He has now r,'2 stands of bees, 
and he has been talking of buying some more of 
one of our neighbors, who wants to sell them. He 
made a great deal of money selling honey last 
summer, and, besides, he kept enough to use, and 
he kept enough to use all winter. Rose Custis. 

Gillem, Ills. 

I hardly tliink the bright snow blinds the 
bees so that they die from the effects of it. 
Bees flying out on these warm days are lia- 
ble to "become chilled. If they olice alight 
in the snow they scarcely ever rise again. 
It is the chilling and not the blinding them 
that plays mischief with our pets. 



not always be on hand when a swarm issues. 
Instead of niiining to tell him that the bees 
are swarming you can tend to tliem your- 
self. Little boys and girls, you can all do it 
if you will only try. I was"awfid "fraid '" 
when I iirst tried it ; but the offer of a whole 
dollar made me bold, and 1 succeeded, as 
some of our old readers may possibly re- 
member. After that I did not have to be 
liired to catch swaims when •'my pa'" was 
away. That was ten years ago. If you 
wisli to know more about it, see last pages 
of the ABC of Bee Culture. 



.JUVENILE SWARM-CATCH EKS. 

My pa'has 'A stands of bees in the cellar. We had 
33 colonies last spring, and got 1~00 lbs. of honey, 
and increased them to 5a. I like to help work with 
bees. I help to tend them in swarming time. I 
watch them and catch the gueen, and put her in 
a cage and lay the cage in front of the hive and let 
her be there until the bees comeback: then 1 let 
her out of the cage and let her run in the hive. 
We have our queens all cropped. We have had a 
cold winter so far. The thei-moraeter was down to 
26 below zero on the 7th. 

Aaron A. Knoll, ajic Ir'. 

Salamonia, lud., Jan. 17, 1.S87. 

Boys and girls make capital swarm-catch- 
ers, tlon't they, friend Aaron V Papa can 



OUR FRIEND CHARLIE .\SKS SOME .MOKE QUESTIONS. 

AVe commenced in the spring with 8 r;olonies— .5 in 
box and 3 in h. hives. I increased to 3i) by swarm- 
ing. The box hives did nearly all the swarming, 
while the Langstroth hives made the honey. We got 
only 2 swarms from the frame hives. The box h\\es 
made but very little honey. We took 3illl lbs. of 
comb honey. This was a good season for bees. It 
opened up April 17. with the blooming of golden 
willow. This, although lasting but a short time, 
produced lots of honey; and during its blooming, 
bees filled their brood-chambers. Locust also pro- 
duced a great deal of honey this year. Basswood 
yielded lightly on account of rains; but whitejand 
sweet clover lasted foi- several weeks. Red clover 
produced some honey during its fall bloom. Honey 
cauie in so plentifully all summer that we could 
work with the bees any time in Augi:st without any 
danger of robbing. Drones remained until after 
the middle of August. 

How long can our bees be confined in winter 
without being troubled with dysentery '! Are anj- 
of the bees destroyed that are out at work during a 
heavj' rain ? Will a little clover chaff mixed with 
wheat chatf draw dampness? In swarming, will 
bees always cluster up in a tent that is set over 
them y What part of the spring is the best time to 
Italianize"? Charljk L. Gheenfielu. 

Somerville, Butler Co., O., Jan. 3, 1887. 

With favoral)le conditions, friend Charlie. 
I think the bees may be confined four or 
live months, withoutany trouble whatever. 
Where the stores aie not of the best kind, 
however, it may be quite desirable to give 
them a fly every three or four weeks. I pre- 
sume some bees are lost during a heavy 
rainstorm that comes up suddenly. If the 
sun comes out shortly afterward, however, 1 
believe they usually dry off and get home.— 
I do not tliink that clover chaff would do 
aii>' iiarm, and 1 think we have had reports 
wliere bees v»eie wintered nicely with clo- 
ver chatt' and nothing else.— We have never 
tried controlling swarms by setting a tent 
over a hive after the l)ees have started to 
come out. I presume they would cluster 
somewhere on the tent.— The sooner we 
Italianize our be<is in spring, the better; 
but the weather, however, would probably 
make it uncertain l)usiness before the latter 
part of si)ring, in our latitude. 

BEES ALL RIOBT SO I Ali. 

My papa has 1:^0 colonies of bees He has part of 
them in the cellar. The thermometer stands about 
34 degrees^ down cellar. The bees seem to have 
wintered all right so far. They seem to be very 
quiet. That is a sign they are wintering well. It is 
not very cold here now. The thermometer is .id 



loO 



ULEANl^GS 1^ BEE (JULTUUE. 



Feb. 



to-day outdoors. Papas bees are in chaff hives. 
He packed them with cut straw. Papa hived all of 
his bees double to keep down the increase, except 
one swarm which he put in the new Heddon hive 
last summer. Last year was a poor season. We 
g-ot but a few hundred pounds of honey. 

Lucy Huki,btit. age 11. 
Linden. N. Y., Jan. 2a, 1887. 



A boy's report fob three VliARS. 

I commenced bee-keeping in 1884. Pa had a man 
hired to cut brush, and one day I went down where 
he was at work. He went to take a drink of water, 
and he saw a swarm of bees in the tree. He gave 
them to me, and I put them in a cracker-box. I 
watched them all summer, and that winter Mr. Hall 
went down to New Orleans to the E.xposition, and 
he bought a 9-frame Langstroth bee-hive. That 
winter I would look at them about everj' two weeks. 
When spring came they were all dead. That was 
the first lesson I learned. 

In the spring of 188,5, Mr. Hall and I bought 3 
hives of bees, and we took 15 lbs. of honey from one 
new swarm. 1 increased to 8 colonies, and in the 
spring 1 had 6 colonies of bees. In 1886 I increased 
15, lost one; two got away; and I caught one. 1 
took 50 lbs. of honey from one hive which did not 
swarm. 1 divided one swarm, and sent and got an 
untested Italian queen for $1.00, which did well. I 
have now 14 colonies of bees. This evening Mr. 
Hall found a colony of bees in the hedge. He said 
there was about half a bushel of comb, and the bees 
are dead. Did you ever hear of bees settling in a 
hedge ? Paul. M. Francis, age 14. 

Mulberry, Bates Co., Mo., Dec. 13, 1886. 

It doesn't pay to tinker with bees during 
the winter, does it V Old veterans some- 
times manage to do it without liilling the 
bees ; but boys and beginners had better let 
them alone. — Bees frequently do swarm and 
cluster in hedges, l)ut I never before heard 
of their being found in such places at this 
time of the year. No wonder they were 
dead when they were found ; that is, if you 
are having as cold weather as we in Ohio 
have been having. 



5f0B^CC6 C0MMN. 



SHALTj grocers SEIiL, TOBACCO ? 

T WISH to say to you, that I have prevailed on 
(mP ray brother-in-law to agree to give up the use 
^t of the filthy weed, tobacco; and he says that, if 
■^ you will send him a smoker, if ever he takes 
to the use of tobacco again he will pay you 
double price. He keeps bees. Having just read Ter- 
ry, in Gleanings, on the use of tobacco, I must ask 
you a question, though I know what your answer 
will be. I am 61 years old; have never used a bit 
of it in any shape, except to smoke seed-ticks with 
it, to get rid of them. Well, I have a little (me- 
horse store, and the country is flooded with stores. 
All sell tobacco. I have to sell it also, against my 
will. I have tried to prevail with the young to give 
up the use of it, telling them I would quit keeping 
it. The answer is invariably, " We will go to other 
places and get it, and you will lose our custom." 
What am I to do ? To quit selling tobacco is to (fuit 
business. Charles L. Gouoh. 

Rock Spring, Mo. 



Friend G., we have had just such a case in 
our own town. A young man owning a gro- 
cery became a Christian. He thought it his 
plain duty to give up the selling of tobacco, 
although the profits from his sales of the 
weed were large. Some of his former cus- 
tomers did go to other grocers for their to- 
bacco and provisions ; but in spite of this, 
and in spite of the fact that there are seven 
other groceries in our village of a little over 
1500 inhabitants, his business has prospered, 
and his grocery store ranks among the two 
or three of the kind in town that are doing 
the most business. 



has conquered the habit. 

1 promise never to use tobacco any more. If I do 

I will send you 70 cts. for the smoker. If you see fit 

to send me the smoker, I shall keep my pledge. 

Pawlet, Vt., Dec. 14, 1886. S. H. Harrington. 

If my husband uses any more tobacco, I will see 

that you have the 70 cts. for the smoker. 

Mrs. S. H. Harrington. 
Here is what friend H. says after giving 
up the use of tobacco : 

The smoker is nice, and I am much obliged for it. 
It was rather hard to go without tobacco at first; 
but, thank the Lord and you, I have conquered. 

Pawlet, Vt., Dec. 28, 1886. S. H. Harrington. 



Many thanks for the smoker you sent me; if I 
ever use tobacco in any way I will pay for the 
smoker. I received your ABC, and am highly 
pleased with it. W. C. Swetnam. 

I am a reader of Gleanings. I have been a 
ehewer of tobacco for 40 years. I wish to place my- 
self under bonds to discontinue the practice, for 
which send me a smoker. I. A. Presnell. 

St. Louis. Mo., Dec. 29. 1886. 



1 gave up^ the use of tobacco last spring, and 
haven't used any since. If I am entitled to a smo- 
ker, send it along. If I begin again, I will pay for 
smoker. Fred Eldredge. 

Sharon Spa, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1887. 



W. C. Sweasman says he has quit the use of tobac- 
co; and that, if you are willing to send him a smo- 
ker, you may do so; and if he- ever uses the weed 
again he will pay you for the smoker, postage and 
all. Send it to him; and if he breaks over I will see 
that it is paid for. A. T. Doyle. 

Berthaville. Mo., Dec. 28, 1886. 

two give up the habit. 
Here is another party coming, pledging them- 
selves to henceforth abstain from the use of tobac- 
co, if you will send them each a smoker. Should 
either of us hereafter use it in any way, I will pay 
twice the price of smoker or smokers. 

J. A. and H. A. KiME. 
Fairfield, Pa., Jan. 1, 1887. 



increase in weight after giving up tobacco. 

My father is now 74 years of age, and has not 
used tobacco for 2 years. He had used it for .52 
years. His average weight when using tobacco 
was 150 lbs. ; it is now 195. He promises never to 
use it again, and asks you to send him a smoker. 
If he ever uses it again he will pay you for the 
smoker. John C. Pierce. 

Grotin, Vt., Jan. 2. 1887. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



151 



0ai^ }l0MEg. 



When a man's ways please the Lord, he maketh 
even his enemies to be at i)cace with him.— Prov. 

16: 7. 

"ETOW, I am going to presume in my 
1*1' talk to joii to-day. tliat we have en- 
«PI emies even in our homes. It is a sad 
■*- * thing to contemphite, but facts are 
often sad. I have particularly in 
mind the relationship existing between 
father and mother, and son and daugh- 
ter; and if there Is any relationship in 
this world tluit is sacred, it seems to me 
it is the relationship between parent and 
child. What does that have to do with the 
matter of enemies ? Well, I suspect if Sa- 
tan liad never obtained a passageway into 
the human heart there might liave been 
perfect peace and harmony under all cir- 
cumstances, and for all time, between par- 
ent and child. Let me illustrate what 1 am 
thinking of, by a little chapter from my own 
experience. 

I am (jue of seven children. There are 
three older and three younger. My past 
recollections of my mother are, that she was 
a hard-working, burden-bearing mother. 
Her trust was in the Savior always, but she 
had many trials and difficulties. In addi- 
tion to the large family, we were at one 
time in rather straitened circumstances. 
Father \\as a carpenter by trade, and did 
not always get employment. At other 
times sickness threw liim behind. I re- 
member when affairs got to such a point 
that things really looked dark for father 
and mother and a family of seven, and that 
mother had been praying that God would 
open a way for father to earn an honest 
livelihood. The prayer was answered, bnt 
the conditions of it were that he should be 
away from home perhaps more than half of 
the "time. This threw the management of 
the family upon mother. Now, father was 
stern and severe. He was of the old Con- 
necticut type, and did not believe in sparing 
the rod. Every one of the seven, from the 
baby up, learned to obey, and a good many 
times they obeyed with fear and trembling. 
We obeyed mother also, but no child was 
ever afraid of her. If she punished, her 
loving hand was restrained by a loving 
heart from making the punishment any 
thing very much to be dreaded. When 
father was at home we obeyed her some- 
what through fear of him, if we did not 
obey with alacrity ; but when he M'as away, 
some of us fell into loose ways. 1 myself 
remember with feelings of sorrow my self- 
ish and disobedient acts and ways ; and 
when my elder brother was away I was the 
eldest boy in the hotisehold, and my serv- 
ices were much needed. But I got lazy 
and listless about getting up mornings. My 
mother would call me twice, and sometimes 
the third time, l)ut T didn't get up then until 
I got ready. I was also in the companionship 
of bad boys more or less— boys I shouldn't 
have l»eeii with had my father been at home, 
and from them I learned examples of dis- 
obedience. A neighbor would call one of 
the children two or three times. The chil- 



dren, without making move to obey, would 
"• sass back," as we boys used to term it, in 
an undertone. The conversation might be 
sometliing like this : 

" Charlie, I have called you three times ; 
now come here this hn^tant." 

Charlie replies in an undertone, " Well, 
suppose you did call three times — who cares?'' 

At this the other boys would titter and 
laugh, which incited Charlie to further acts 
of disobedience. By and by Charlie would 
get whipped for bad behavior. When he 
came back he would have over something 
like the following : 

"Scolding don't hurt any, whipping don't 
last long, and kill you they dare not." 

Now, friends, I never did as badly as the 
above ; l)ut I might have done so had I had 
the same kind of training and encourage- 
ment in badness. I can not remember 
positively, but 1 presume likely my mothei' 
used to speak sometliing like this : 

" Amos, I have calle<l you three times 
now, and you really must get up at once." 

1 do not rememlier of ever talking back 
when my mother called me, but I do re- 
member that I grumbled to myself, as I got 
up in a sullen way, '' Well, "suppose you 
have called me three times — who cares V and 
who wants to l)e scolded at and found fault 
with for everlasting?" 

Of course, I got up surly. If the dog got 
in the way before my eyes were well open, I 
kicked him. If my younger brothers or 
sisters, who were up and washed, and 
bright and happy, half an hour before I was, 
came in the way, I felt angered at them. 
Perhaps I gave one of my sisters' dolls a 
kick. After 1 had been up a while these 
surly, peevish feelings wore off, and I was 
a tolerably bright happy boy, and most of 
the time we were a pleasant, happy family. 
But I am saddened to be obliged to admit, 
that sometimes the surliness seemed to be 
contagious, and got among several of us at 
once. We pained our tired, patient mother 
by wrangles and disputes; and when she ex- 
horted us to godliness and loving-kindness 
to each other, we rejected her Bible and her 
religion. Now, mind you, we didn't often 
do this openly to her face, if we ever did. 
It was a sort of undercuiTcnt ; and had we 
been called to task we would have said, may 
be, we were ''just in fun."' Poor mother 
was sorely tried with many cares as well as 
fatigue, and it would be nothing strange if 
she sometimes forgot just a little, and re- 
proached or complained, in a way that was 
not just the wisest. Dear father and moth- 
er, whose eyes are resting on these pages, 
have you never had any trouble by disobe- 
dience among the children ? Have you nev- 
er been tried to see them growing up selfish 
and indifferent V and have you never felt 
any discouragement, and felt that talking 
was of no use V JSIay be you do not say it 
out loud, but did you ever feel. " I declare, 
I have talked and talked to that boy .John 
until it seems as if there were not a bit of 
use in talking any longer. If the boy goes 
to ruin, he will have to go. I actually beT 
lieve I have told him twenty tunes to put 
his muddy boots out on the porch ; to hang 
up his hat, and to shut the stair door after 



152 



GLEANINGS lii BEE CULTURE. 



t^Efi. 



him. Just look there, will yoii ? There are 
the boots on our best carpet ; there is the 
best hat on the tloor, and there is the stair 
door wide open, with such a draft through 
here that we have probably all caught cold. 
I have told him of it kindly and patiently; 
but if he does not say outright that he does 
not care, his looks say it plainer than words 
can speak it. What "shall I do ? " 

Now, friends, am 1 not right in saying 
that enmity is growing up "between this 
mother and sonV Botli parties are getting 
calloused and case-liardened, as it were. 
The mother lias got to the point where she 
says if the boy goes to ruin, he will have to 
go — she can't do any thing more for him. 
The boy has been so long disobedient, self- 
ish, and unfeeling, that he can say outright, 
'' Well, who cares if I did? what are you go- 
ing to do about it'r"' Now, I don't mean to 
say that I got to be as bad as that, but I was 
growing stronger that way, and had got 
pretty well along. I knew my mother was 
overworked, but other l)oys' mothers were 
overworked also, and we couldn't be tied up 
to mother's apron-strings, so we laughed it 
off as a joke, and let it slide. I do not know 
how' common such things are. You can tell, 
dear friends, better than I whether Satan 
has made any such inroads into your own 
loved home. I hardly need tell you that 
boys, when they get to the stage I have pic- 
tured, are i-eady for strong drink and games 
of chance. A cigar will come pretty soon, 
unless something interposes. Perliaps some 
tired mother or discouraged father feels like 
saying, "For God's sake, Mr. Root, tell us 
what we are to do when children won't obey 
us." Dear friends, it is with joy and grati- 
tude to God that I undertake the task of 
telling you what to do in cases like these. 
It is with joy and gratitude that I tell you 
what saved me from— who shall say whatV — 
and placed me here to write these Home 
Papers for the help and encouragement ])oth 
of parents and children. 

I do not know how old I was at the time- 
perhaps ten or twelve. A series of revival 
meetings was held in our town of Mogadore, 
Summit Co., O. I do not know what church 
was instrumental in starting the revival, for 
I did not go; 1 did not like "meetings." 
Mother went, I believe, regularly, and I 
heard something: of the outpourings of the 
Spirit, as some of the brethren and sisters 
termed it. I did not know much about the 
meetings, and cared less; but this I did 
know : That a change had come over my 
mother. She was always a Christian, but 
now she was a happier and more hopeful 
Christian. It shone from her face, it rang 
out from the tones of her voice, and it over- 
flowed from every act and motion of her life. 
I believe my mother in her younger days 
was a rather handsome woman ; but as my 
memory goes back this morning it seems to 
me she was a beautiful mother under the 
influence of the outpourings of God's spirit 
into her heart. Notwithstanding her cares 
and the hard work that lay before her, she was 
at this time constantly breaking forth into 
snatches of those grand old hymns. Occa- 
sionally I woke up in the night and heard 
her voice in prayer. This was nothing new. 



but just now the tones were hopeful and 
joyous. She prayed as if the blessing had 
already come. She prayed for my poor self, 
as if she Ine^v I was going to l)e a better boy. 
W^e began to get acquainted, and it was 
about this time that she began to teach 
me and interest me in gaidening ; then 
she told me in a way that did not have any 
severe reproach about it. that father was 
having a hard time to get along, and that 
she and I together could help a good deal by 
having a nice garden. Poor mother ! she 
was already doing more work than any hu- 
man being ought to do, and yet she planned 
to help me make garden. Finally she spoke 
one evening about the trouble of"getting me 
up mornings. She told me that, in father's 
absence, I was almost the man of the house, 
and thati it would be a great help to her if I 
could get up in good season, or, at least, the 
first time she called me. She had struck 
the right chord, and I was disarmed. When 
a drunken man or a highwayman gets a re- 
volver in his possession, the first thing to do 
is to disarm him ; get out of his hands that 
murderous weapon, by hook or by crook ; 
and, my friend, when Satan makes an in- 
road in your child's heart, the child must be 
disarmed— not by might nor by power nor 
by reproaches, nor by telling him that you 
have called him three or four times already, 
but by Christ's spirit ; by throwing away 
bowie-knives and revolvers, or, if the ex- 
pression is too strong, by throwing away re- 
proaches and harsh feelings out of your own 
heart; you must do it in the language of our 
text : 

When a man's ways please the Lord, he maketh 
even his enemies to be at peace with him. 

I remember the very morning after this 
when mother called me. I remember the 
tones of her voice better than the words, 
but they were something like these : 

" Amos!" She spoke just my name, and 
nothing more, until she had roused me to 
consciousness, so that 1 remembered the 
conversation of the night before. Then she 
said, in gentle, loving tones, " The sun is 
shining; you Mill get up now and help me, 
will you not?" I don't think I replied back, 
" Yes, mother, to be sure I will," but the 
look in my face said it better than words, 
and I was not only up and dressed quickly, 
but I was bright and cheerful. Mother had 
conquered — Satan was cast out, and that, 
too, in the name of Jesus Christ, just as Pe- 
ter bade the lame man get up and w alk ; but 
mind you I had not accepted Christ at all ; 
there was no thought of Christianity direct 
in my boyish heart. I got up for my mother. 
It was Christ's spirit that moved me, but I 
saw that spirit through her ; and, dear par- 
ent, if your child is to be led to Christ it 
must be to Christ through t/ou. When he 
can see Christ embodied in "your daily life, 
then he will accept Christ. You may ask if 
there is no limit to this. God only knows 
where the limit is ; but we read in his holy 
word (Lev. 2(i:8), " Five of you shall chase a 
hundred, and a hundred of you shall put ten 
thousand to flight." I can not remember 
that my mother had any trouble afterward, 
in getting me up mornings. Neither can I tell 
you how much we enjoyed the gardening 



1887 



ULEA.Ni.NGS iN BEE (CULTURE, 



153 



that summer; nor ran I tell you how much 
father was pleased to s<i around Avith mother 
and to see how much tiiihgs]had grovVn dur- 
ing his absence. As an illustration of the 
change that came over her boy, I will men- 
tion a little circumstance. 

Motlier was the only one of the whole 
family who knew how to milk a cow, and in 
father's absence she milked the cow winter 
and summer, and oftentimes when the older 
ones sat around the stove. One stormy 
morning, I think it was when snow and 
sleet came with the rain, she started to milk 
the cow as usual. I jumped up and took 
the pail, saying, '" Here, mother, you have 
milked tluit cow long enough." 

Siie expostulated gently. " Why, Amos, 
yon have not learned how. Let me milk 
"this morning, and when we have more time 1 
will teach you to milk, if you really want to 
do it." 

Now, I had begun to have quite an idea 
by this time of being a man and being man- 
ly, so I toi)k the pail from her with a good- 
natured smile. 1 told her that, if I did not 
know how to milk, I guessed I coiild learn. 
I had been taking care of our big red bossy, 
winter and summer, so that she knew nie 
and I knew her, and there was not very 
much trouble on that score ; but before I 
^•ot the pail full I concluded it was a bigger 
job to milk a cow than I had ever supposed. 
1 was ashamed to go back and tell motlier, 
so I stuck to it ; and, if I remember correct- 
ly, mother never milked the cow any more. 
I hardly need tell you that the experience 
of thatVinter and summer has had its ef- 
fect on my whole life; nay, further: it has 
produced a marked effect on the lives of 
every one of those seven children. My poor 
father was not blessed with mother's natu- 
ral hopefulness, but he seemed rather 
given to doubt and darkness. He once 
made the remark, that he should have had his 
name taken from the church records more 
than once had it not been for his wife. The 
good ])astor to whom the remark was made, 
replied. " Brother Root, you may thank God 
for your good wife who has pulled you 
through so many seasons of darkness ; and 
by his grace we hope she may yet pull you 
into the gates of the eternal city.'' And I 
believe the prediction has been fullilled. 

You may say, " But, Mr. Root, how are 
we to get* that overflowing spirit of trust 
and faithV Must we go to revival meetings, 
and go forward, and get up an enthusiasm V'' 

I do think, my friend, you should make it 
a point to attend the revival meetings held 
in your vicinity ; but besides this 1 think it 
is the duty of "every Christian to attend the 
regular prayer-meetings as well as the 
preaching services: not only be on hand, 
but take up the cross and do your part. If 
you have met discouragements and trials, 
just such as I have pictured to-day, get up 
among your brothers and sistei-s and tell 
them you want to be nearer to Christ, and 
ask their prayers ; and when you do this, 
be sure your daily conduct is in keep- 
ing; examine your own heart well, and see 
whether you are fulfilling the commands of 
the Scriptures. Read your Bibles, and see if 
they don't touch on" the point of your 



troubles. I told you about our friend Rob- 
eit. in jail, a short time ago. Robert says 
lie is a menil)er of tlie church ; he says 
he wants to be a Christian ; but when 1 
read those passages to him about loving our 
enemies, and doing good to those who hate 
us, he declared flatly, that, if that was what 
the Bible taught, he didn't want any of it. 
When it came right down to the plain teach- 
ings of the Bible, he refused to obey, point 
blank. Now, then, has your child seen you 
repeatedly love your enemies, and do good 
to those who hate you ? When you get ui) 
in the prayer-meeting, and say that you are 
hungering and thirsting for an outpouring 
of the Holy Spirit, does every one who hears 
you say it know that you are complying 
with the conditions laid down in (ioiFs ho- 
ly word ? Another thing, that I know is 
helpful : Go often to your pastor; tell him 
your ditficulties, and ask him to pray for 
you and with you. You may object, and 
say that he is already overburdened, and 
will not care to know about it. It is a mis- 
take — it will help him in writing his ser- 
mons, to know the needs of his flock, and it 
will help him to talk over these things. 
You can not be a Cliristian and keep it all 
to yourself. No such baptism of the Holy 
Spirit would have been poured out upon my 
mother's life had she not been among God's 
children, and habitually gone around through 
the neighborhood in scenes of sickness and 
death. 

The great point is, to get Satan out of 
your own heart, and the great danger is 
that you may be misled to thinking you are 
doing a Christian duty when jou "are al- 
most wholly in the bonds of Satan. Be- 
ware of how you get into a set and formal 
way of reproaching the child over and over 
again. I once heard of a boy who was ask- 
ed what his name was, and he replied that 
it was " Willie Dont.'' He was probably 
a boy of an inquiring turn of mind, and had 
heard it over and over so much, " Willie 
Dont,'''' that he thought it must be his 
name. Sometimes a parent says, "Why, 
do you suppose a body can stop his Avork, 
and go and take time to have a long palaver 
with that child over some trifling matter?" 
My friend, the molding of the mind of the 
child, and the fashioning of a Christian 
character, is the most important work God 
ever gave to any human being to do. If 
there is any work in this world that is of 
any more consequence, let us hear what it 
is. Instead of standing at the foot of the 
stairs, and calling your child to get up, in 
hackneyed phrases "that liave been used over 
and over again, go patiently clear up stairs, 
no matter if you are wearied and in a hurry; 
stand by the"^ chiWs bedside; wait until he 
is fully awake, then win good-natured ac- 
quiescence before you go down. Win him 
with Christ's love in your heart. Go up 
with a i)rayer and go down with a pra>er. 
and yours shall be the victory over the 
schemes of the Lvil One, and the victory 
shall be through Clirist .lesns. And to him 
be all power and glory and honor for ever. 

When a man"s ways please the Lord, ho maketh 
even his enemies to be at peace with him.— Pkov. 
16: 7. 



154 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



i^EB. 



NEW" IMPEOVEMiENTS IN HIVE-MAK- 
ING MACHINERY. 

SAW-TABLES, ETC. 



ip FTER Mr. J. S. AVanier, our foreman, 
|, had got our uewbuildinio- with itsjiew 
¥ machinery nicely in running order he 
^ set to worlv to devise some improve- 
ments in some of our wood- working 
machines, to render them safer to the sawyer 
as well as to make them accomplish more 
and better work. Below we give you a view 
of one of the machines which he has devised 
and improved. 



Fourthly, should the saw get out of line, as 
it is apt to do, the set-screw holding one of the 
spur-wheels to the long screw may be loos- 
ened. By a slight turning of the screw, in- 
dependently of the other, the gauge may be 
made exactly parallel to the saw. The set- 
screw, before mentioned, may then be tight- 
ened. We can furnish this machine, when 
desired, at the old price ; i. e., $25.00, includ- 
ing the miter-board shown on top of the 
machine, and one of our heavy mandrels. 
Formerly we have sent out one of the small 
mandrels in one of these machines. For 
50c extra we will put in a mandrel that will 
take 9 groovers. 




SAW-TAULE, \VITH WAKNEl 
MENT. 

This machine is for general-purpose work, 
such as we propose to send out. The im- 
in-ovement consists in having the distance 
from tlie ripping-gauge to the saw regulated 
by an endless chain and screw arrangement. 
The cliahi, as shown in the right of the en- 
graving, passes over two toothed wheels, or, 
technically, spur-wlieels. The latter are at- 
tached to the end of the two rods having 
square-cut threads eight to the inch. To 
each end of the parallel gauge is fastened a 
nut through which the long screws pass. 
Now, when this gauge is exactly i)arallel to 
the saw, any width required for ripping stuff 
may be quickly obtained by grasping the 
chain in the middle and pulling it one way 
or the other. Both screws will, under neces- 
sity, travel at the same rate of speed, as the 
chain can not slip. In obedience to the 
screw, botli ends of the gauge will travel at 
the same rate, and the gauge wall, in conse- 
(inence, remain exactly parallel. 

This is a great improvement over the old 
parallel gauge, for the following reasons: 
It permits of a very fine adjustment, even to 
the "■ splitting of a liair." if the stuff ripped 
is discovered to be a little '' scant" or a little 
"flush,'" a sliglit pulling or pushing of tlie 
chain will secure the exact width. This 
could not be easily done by the old plan. 
Secondly, the gauge is held much more se- 
curely, there being no possibility of a shuck. 
Thirdly, when the required width for rip- 
ping is secured, the gauge does not have to 
be fastened down, the nut-and-screw ar- 
rangement holding it perfectly stationary. 



WARNER S AUTO3IAT10 MACHINE FOR CUT- 
TING INSETS IN THE SECTIONS. 

The next to which we invite your atten- 
tion is an autDmatic machine for cutting the 
insets to the bolts, or pieces of planks, prior 
to being ripped up into strips. The bolts 
are simply piled in the tray shown in the 
rear of the machine. They are then auto- 
matically shoved through and thrown upon 
the floor' in the foreground. This is done by 
a pair of endless chains with now^ and then 
a raised link so as to catch the blocks. The 
pile of blocks then drops down, and the bot- 
tom one is shoved out as before. The chain, 
together with a pair of raised links, is shown 
in the front of the machine. The device for 
holding the blocks firmly over the cutter- 
head as the blocks pass over is a series of 
four wheels mounted on two one-inch shafts. 
They are shown in the cut together with a 
pair of cutter- heads. 

This machine will accomplish in three or 
four hours what would require a whole day 
by the old way of shoving blocks over a cut- 
ter-head by hand, cutting out l)ut one inset 
at a time. Not only that, but- it is operated 
with entire safety to the one feeding it. 

Bight here it is proper to remark, that this 
machine was the outgrowth of an accident 
to one of our old trusty men while cutting 
out the insets in the old way. A little knot 
was the cause, it having caught in the cut- 
ter-head, revolving at a high rate of speed. 



1887 



GI.EANINGS li\ HKE CUI-TURK. 



155 



The bolt was thrown suddenly out from un- 
der his hand, allowing^ it to fall upon the 
cruel knives. To prevent a rei)etitiou of 
such a thing we told our foreman. Mi-. War- 
ner, and our machinists, that we wanted them 
to get up an automatic machine which would 
preclude the possibility of an accident, and 
the foregoing is the machine. 

We can furnish tliis macliine. when desir- 
ed, put up complete, for ST.'i.Od. 

P. S. — By way of caution, we wish to sug- 
gest to all of >ou who have to do with saws 
or cutter-heads, be careful ; saws are treach- 
erous things, rather more partial to the inex- 
perienced. You will not api)reciate the im- 
portance of being careful until you have 
mutilated your fingers. Several of oui' men 
have beeii hurt recently, and we speak 
whereof we know. Ernest. 



Gleahihgs in Bee Coltdre, 

Published Sent i - Mo n th li/ ■ 

BDITOR AND PUBLISHER. 
MEDINA, O. 

TERMS: $1.00 PER YEAR, POSTPAID 

99 dtbUaz Bates, See First Page of Beading Matter. 

Shall not the Judge of all the eavth do right!— Gen. 18: 25. 
CONTRIBUTIONS FOR GLEANINGS. 

I BELIEVE there has never been a time before 
when so many good articles were waiting for a 
place. As the winter is now about past, let us drop 
long essays, and get into practical work. Bright 
practical thoughts, expressed in few words, seem 
to be the demand now in journalism. 

A BEE OR A cow— WHICH? 

We clip the following from the Rural Caniulian: 
None bvit those who have studied the subject have any idea 
at the enormous waste of honey that goes on from want of 
properly qualified insects to collect it. Here, for instance^ is 
a striking fact : " (Jiven two lleUls cjf clcivcr nf equal size, side 
by side, one of which you pasture with cows ami the other of 
which you pasture with iiees, the one pastured l)y l>ees will 
produce a greater weight ff honey than the Held pastured by 
cows will of butter and cheese, and tlie cows will have eaten 
every blade of clover that is in the field." . 

The above statement may be true, but it seems a 
little astounding. 

TERRY AND TOBACCO. 

We are pleased to notice that the N. V. Trihunc of 
Feb. 9 has copied the greater portion of friend Ter- 
rj-'s article from Gleanings, and also stronglj' in- 
dorses the position taken by your humble servant 
and others. Maj' God be praised, that a paper hav- 
ing the moral weight of the Tribune has thrown its 
influence against tobacco. 

THE POTATO-BOOK— AN APPENDIX. 

By my request, friend Terry has written (juite a 
lengthj' appendix, giving all that is valuable that 
has come up since the book was wi-itten, two years 
ago. This appendix will be furnished free of charge 
to all who have purchased the book, by application 
on a postal card, and it will be included with the 
book to all future customers. We willfurnish the 3 
little han(J-books— viz., Terry on the Potato, Terry 



on the Winter Care of Horses and Cattle, and Prof. 
Cook's now book on maple-sugar making, for an 
even dollar, postpaid. 

MR. THOMAS HORN. 

As we go to press, Feb. 1(1, we have received let- 
ters from about fifty individuals who have sent Mr. 
Horn money. The greater part of the fifty have 
received no returns whatever. A few have had a 
part of the order filled. The amount claimed foots 
up to soraethiug like .1f37.">. Mr. Horn fears it will be 
impossible for him to settle all claims this season. 
It was an error of my own in so stating it in our 
editorial last month. As the notes he proposes giv- 
ing are paj-able in two •years, he expects to take 
them all up before they are due. 



A honey-apiarv. 
As soon as the weather shall permit, we propose 
to locate a honey-apiary a few miles from the 
home apiary, for the purpose of more carefully 
testing some of the new appliances for producing 
comb and extracted honey. The large number of 
colonies in our own locality during past seasons 
has made it almost impossible to test some of the 
new systems of honey-production with any degree 
of satisfaction— the nectar of our locality being 
divided among five or six hundred colonies. None 
of our stocks have been able to secure more than 
enough to fill the brood-chamber, to say nothing 
aliout going above. Should foul brood reappear 
in the home apiary again this season, since the 
prices have been reduced it may be necessary to 
establish still another out-apiary. In any event 
our friends may rest assured that all who send for 
queens and bees will receive nothing but perfectly 
healthy stock. 

OUR AGRICULTURAL PERIODICALS. AND DO THEY 

PAY y 
OuH esteemed friend " Sam," in the Ohio Farmer 
for Feb. 13, makes the following point, which was 
gathered during the institute work during the past 
winter in Wisconsin: There is one township in that 
State where not an agricultural paper is taken, and 
the average price of butter for the year was lO'.j 
cents. In another township, ai4 agricultural papers 
are taken, costing about $2.')0, and their butter sold 
at an average of SSy., cts.. the same year. As the 
anvinni sold in each townhsp was not greatly diflier- 
ent, it shows that, by paying $250 for intelligence, 
they received for it the dividend of $8100 over the 
township that takes no papers. In other words, the 
farmers who saved ^..^O by not taking farm papers 
actually paid $SUn by being too smart to take such 
papers. Besides the matter of butter, how much 
benefit did the others receive in other crops ? And 
besides the crojis, regarded from a dollars-and-cents 
view, what has been the etfect of those 214 periodi- 
cals on the boys and girls ? Still further, our agri- 
cultural press, as a whole, is striking heavy blows 
for righteousness and godliness (excepting a few of 
them on the tobacco question, but it is only a very 
few). The time is mostly gone by when it was fash- 
ionable to sneer at " book farming." I hope the 
agricultural press will pass this item around; and 
if it shall happen to fit townships in other States as 
well as Wisconsin, let us have it widely copied. 



CONVENTION NOTICES. 

The Pan-Handle Bee Keepers" Association will hold its next 
meeting at Wheeling, W. Vn.. No. 1138 Main St.. in K. of P. 
Hall. March 3 and 4. 1887. W. L. KiNSEY, Sec. 



15H 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Feb. 



6uR 0WN ^Pi;q^Y. 

CONDUCTED BY ERNEST R. ROOT. 



THE T SUPER— ITS USES AND CONSTRUC- 
TION. 

EVER since the first appearance of tlmt 
practical little work by Dr. Miller, 
A Year Among the Bees,'' we* 
have been discussing here in our es- 
tablishment the merits and demerits, 
if any, of the T super. We have made 
several models upon a plan different from 
Miller's ; but after carefully considering all 
tlie pros and cons of the various plans we 
have at last gone back to very nearly the 
original one as described in "the doctor's 
book. The sliglit change was made with 
a view to simplify the construction of the 
T super as well as to secure one or two 
additional advantages, as it seemed to us. 

Tlie one figured below does Jiot represent 
exactly the one which we projiose to bring 
before the public, as we made a little change 
in it after we put it into the hands of the en- 
gravers. However, it will serve our purpose 
to illustrate the principle of the T super. 



(►^ 




::-'k?- 



THE T SUPER. 

The T tins, from which the super derives 
its name, is shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the 
latter a cross-section. Friend Miller, in his 
book, says it would be desirable if the T 
tins could be made of one strip of tin, but 
that his tinner informed him that, with ordi- 
nary tools, this could not be done. His tins 
were accordingly made by placing two tins, 
bent at right angles, together, as n 
in Fig. 8. They were then sold-' 

ered. These are just as good " — - 

when finished, but are rather ex- ^^^^^- ^• 
pensive to make. We now have a machine 
which makes the T tins of one strip of tin, 
as seen in Figs. 1 and 2. 

We next were undecided as to whether we 
should make these T tins at fixed distances. 



*"We" means Mr. Warner (our foreman), Mr. 
Calvert. A. I. R., when he is not off in the lots, and 
your humble servant. We're the " bosses," you 
know. 



or whether we should make them movable, 
as in the Miller super. The engraving 
shows the tins as stationary. We had then 
decided to make them as in the cut, for the 
following reasons : First, the tins would al- 
ways be in place, and, as a consequence, 
would not require to be spaced when putting 
in sections. Second, the T tins would not 
get lost. 

After carefully reconsidering the matter 
we came to the conclusion that we ought not 
to deviate to any considerable extent from 
the plan given by so good an authority as 
Dr. Miller. We accordingly decided to 
make the super with the T tins movable, 
in spite of the fact that our engravers had 
illustrated the supei' as originally intended. 
The manner of construction which we have 
finally decided upon is as follows : 

The two end-pieces of the shell of the su- 
per arel3*x4ixi; the two side-pieces are 
18ix4ix-5-16. We next get out two strips of 
tin, i inch wide, and in length equal to the 

inside length of the super; also 
I B two strips of tin i inch wide, in 

length equal to the inside width 
— !q of the super. These strips of 

tin are bent at right angles along 
FIG. 4. their entire length. These are 
nailed along tlie inside bottom edge of the 
super, as in Fig. 4. A represents a section 
of the wooden side near the liottom edge, 
and ij, C, the tin bent at right angles. Up- 
on B rests the flat edge of the T tin, the 
edge C coming flush with the bottom of the 
wood. 

ADVANTAGES IN HAVING THE SUPER MADE 
AS ABOVE. 

Let US now consider one or two of the 
necessary advantages accruing from the use 
of movable T tins. Tliey permit, first, not 
only the use of the 4ix4i section, l)ut also 
the (i to the L. frame, and the 4 to the L. 
frame. Where it is desirable to use either 
of the two latter, one or two of the T tins, 
as the case may be, may be dispensed with, 
and the others spaced so as to receive the 
sections. That is, this super will take a 
1-lb., li-lb., and 2-lb., section, and, as we 
shall see, several widths of these sizes. 
Right here the reader will observe that the 
Moore crate, by reason of the partitions be- 
ing at fixed distances, does not permit of 
the foregoing valuable function. Again, 
the T super, M'ith movable tins, permits the 
removal of the sections en masse, l)y means 
of a follower, in tlie easiest manner possi- 
ble. It is true, the Moore crate possesses 
this feature to a certain extent, but it does 
not seem to me that the sections can be re- 
moved as easily. Those partitions present 
a considerable amount of surface to the sec- 
tions ; and this, together with the added 
amount of bee-glue, makes a consequent in- 
crease of friction in removing the sections. 

There is another very important advan- 
tage which the T super has over the Moore 
crate; namely, the former may be used 
either with or without separators", while the 
latter can not be so used. Last of all, the T 
super costs less. 

The foregoing are the differences between 
the two surplus arrangements. In other re- 
spects they possess about the same func- 



1887 



GLEAiSl^Ub lx\ liEE CULTURE. 



157 



tions. One is, that they will take other 
widths tlian the 1 iri-l(j— an advantage 
which cau not be said of the combined ship- 
ping and honey crate. By the application 
of a little arithmetic we find that tlie T su- 
per and the Moore crate will take tlie follow- 
ing-named widths : 1 l.l-ui. 1 ll-l(i. U, and 
If scant, and the numl)er of tliese required 
to fill a crate is, respecti^'ely, 28, ;52, ;>(i, and 
40. Tliese sizes are figured without the use 
of separators ; but our foreman says that all 
of the above will shrink after leaving the 
saw, to permit the use of separators if de- 
sired. The sizes above do not include tlie 
7-to-tlie-foot secticm, but the latter may be 
made to fit the super by piecing it out with 
another width of section. 

The T super and Moore crate can l:)oth be 
tiered up ; l)ut the combined shipping and 
honey crate is not so coiistriictcd as to ad- 
rait of this feature inside the Siruplicitij hive. 

We can furnish the T super, made as de- 
scribed above, in the flat, including T tins 
and the L. tins, for 15c each; 10 for .fl.lO, 
and 100 for $10.00. T tins when desired sep- 
arately will be 12c for 10, or $1.00 per 100. If 
desired by mail, double above prices. L. 
tins, separately, oOc per 100. 



^PEci^ii pieq^icEg. 



SOME IMPORTANT CHANGES IN THE 60TH 

EDITION OF OUR PRICE LIST NOW IN 

THE PRESS. 



PRici:s iti:Di'<i:i>. 



YUCCA BKUSHKS, TINNED WIRE AND SIMP. FEEDERS. 

The wholesale prices on all these have been g-reat- 
ly reduced. 

BEES BY THE POUND, NUCLEI, AND COLONIES. 

We have reduced the prices of bees to where they 
were live or six years ago. Bees, $1.0(1 per lb. in 
July, or 7.5c for K lb. Colonies, f 8 (10 in July. 

WIDE FRAMES. 

Wide frames for 8, 6. or 4 Mb. sections, will be $2.00 

Ser 100, or !?15.00 per 1000; 3 or i box cases, for the 
'oolittle surplus arrang-cnient, $l.M per 100, or 
$12.00 per 1000. 

ALSIKE. 

We have reduced the price of alslke to $7.00 per 
bushel; $3.60 per half-bushel; $1.90 per peck; 15c 
per lb. Our seed is all clean and fresh, havfng- been 
grown in 1886. 

L.A.WN-MOWERS. 

We sold so many of these last season, that, not- 
withstanding: the advance in all iron g-oods, the 
manufacturers have g-iven us better prices, and we 
reduce the price to you .50c on each machine. Prices 
will be. 10 in., $5.(Kt;']3 in., $,5..50: and 14 in., $6.00. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

We have made some new mills to run by steam- 
power, and are turning out better fdn. tlian ever 
before. We now offer four grades: Heavy brood, 
from -1 to 6 ft. per lb. ; light brood, 7 or 8 ft. per lb. ; 
thin, about 10 or 11 ft. per lb,, and extra thin tlat- 
bottom, about 13 or li ft. to the pound. Send for 
samples, and a new price list with revised prices. 

BROOD F({AMES. 

The price of our regular all-wood dovetailed 
brood-frames, including comb guides, is reduced to 
$1.30 per 100. The same, pierced for wire, without 
the conib-guidcs, same jn-ice: wire and tin bars in- 
cluded, 40c per 100 extra. Metal-cornered frames, 
$1.00 per 100 more than all-wood. Frames with re- 
versing devices and metal corners, .*3.3J per lUO 
more than all-wood; without the metal corners, 
80c lesg. 



/' UHES A n VA .V< ' ED. 

It always gives us more pleasure to reduce prices 
than to advance them; but we are sometimes com- 
pelled to advance to get cost. 

SCREWS, BESSKMER STEEL. 

The price of wood-screws has advanced so much 
that we are comi)elled to withdraw prices in coun- 
ter list, and advanced prices appear in next edition 
of price list. 

WIRE NAILS. 

We have revised the wholesale rate of wire nails, 
making a slight advance; but the retail price re- 
mains the same, except 'a inch, which will be 18c 
per lb. instead of 17. 

HON BY-TUMBLERS. 

The manufacturers of glass honey-tumblers have 
advanced their price to us because of the general 
advance in glass goods; and as we sold these very 
close we are comi)elled to advance also. 

GLASS. 

(Jlass has been hard to get for some time, and 
prices have been advancing; and from the present 
outlook they are liable to advance still more. We 
hope it may not last long, and we have not marked 
up the prices of glass in our price list yet; but if 
there is any more advance we shall have to charge 
more than our list price; and if we do you will have 
this notice in advance. 

SMITH'S FORCE-PUMP, OR SPJIINKLEH. 

We have for some time been selling these pumps 
at wholesale lower than the manufacturer himself, 
though we did not know it, and it has caused him 
no little trouble in the way of complaints from his 
customers. He came to see us a few days ago, and 
we agreed to make our pi-ices the same as his and 
other wholesale dealers'. This necessitates some 
advance in prices, and we hereby cancel all quota- 
tions and printed prices, and substitute the follow- 
ing: 

Price of one pump, $1.00; 3 for $l.?tO, or 3 for $3 7.5. 
A crate of 13 for .$9.00; a crate of 34 for $16.00; a crate 
of .50 for $30.00, or 100 for $55.00. 

Now, to compensate for this advance the pump 
has been gi-eatly improved. The plunger is made 
dilTerently, and these improvements make the pumj) 
cost more; hence the advance in price. There vvi II 
be no deviation from these prices, except the cash 
discounts quoted from time to time. When ordered 
with other goods they will be shipped from here, 
and thus you will save freight by ordering of us. 

AinnrioNs Axj) iji I'uoj EMJjyrs. 

We have made quite a few additions and improve- 
ments which appear in the 6iith edition of our price 
list, first among which is our 

ONE-STORY CHAFF HIVES. 

We have added to the price list a cut of this hive, 
with table of prices. 

T SUPERS. 

These are to be used to tier up inside the Simp, or 
chaff hive. They are illustrated and described else- 
where in this issue. 

SAW-T.\BLE FOR HlVE-MAKING. 

'fhis is illustrated and described elsewhere in this 
issue. The table of prices of hives in the Hat has 
been revised, and a new table of 

HIVES IN FLAT, INCLUDING INSIDE FURNITURE, 

Has been added. This we hope will be a help to 
many in making their orders, and in seeing at a 
glance the cost of different hives camplctemthe 
Hat, without figuring it all out from difi'erent parts 
of the list. 

Many other changes have been made too numer- 
ous to mention here, and that you may be posted 
you had better drop us a postal "for a new list and 
samples of our comb foundation. 



GOSPEL HYMNS. 

We arc now able to furnish Gospel Hymns con- 
solidated, in paper covers, without music, for only 
5 cts., and the little book contains all of the Gospel 
Hymns that have ever been published in numbers 
1, 3, 3. 4. Sent by mail for 6 cts. These are especial- 
ly intended for revival meetings, and will probably 
prove to be a great convenience. We can furnish 
10 copies for 48 cts., or 100 copies for $4.60. 



1-58 



GLEANmGS m BEE CULTUKE. 



Feb. 



We will give 2Uc for May, 1875, Gleanings, not 

1885. 

Our catalogue of seeds for the greenhouse, 
garden, and farm is now ready, but it will be mail- 
ed only on application. It also contains prices of 
all kinds of vegetable plants — cabbage, caulitlower, 
tomato, pepper, kohlrabi, etc. 



PHOF. COOK'S BOOK ON MAPf-E-SlUtAK MAKING. 

The book is now out, and is being mailed every 
day. If you have only a couple of dozen trees, I 
think it will enable you to save enough to pay the 
cost of the book. Price of the book, 3.5 cts.; post- 
paid, 38 cts. 

G.\LVANIZED WIKE CLOTH FOK SEPARATORS. 

We have .iust had an offer from the manufactur- 
ers, which enables us to furnish wire cloth, four 
meshes to the inch. No. 23 wire, for 5(4 cts. per 
square foDt. Where wanted in quantities less than 
a roll, the price will be cts. per square foot; but at 
this price you must take it in pieces clear across 
the roll— that is, 3 feet wide. If cut to order, for 
separators, we shall have to make an extra charge 
for cutting, and whatever waste remains belongs 
to the purchaser. This wire cloth is the same size 
recommended by friend Betsinger, as nearly as I 
can recollect. You will notice, by a little figuring, 
that it costs considerably more than tin or wood. 
As to how much better it is than either tin or 
wood, experiment will have to determine. 



W-iTERlUIRY watches. 

The last series of Waterbury watches, which have 
been on the market nearly a year, are giving such 
surprisingly good satisfaction that it seems to me 
hardly right to omit mention of it. Every watch we 
send out is tested by the heads of the establishment; 
\'iz., I carry two every day, and John and Ernest 
each carries one. I rather think those I carry have 
the most severe test; for the young man who giv'es 
them to me, and takes them away again, sometimes 
has to chase out of doors after me to get them. 
Well, day after day the watches, when taken from 
my pocket, after having been carried 34 hours, are 
found to be right on the dot. One day one of the 
workmen found one in the mud where I dro]>ped it, 
in jumping across the creek. Even that did not 
harm it. 

A new edition of gardening for profit. 
While the above embodies all that the old book 
contained, it also includes every thing that Mr. 
Henderson has written for the agricultural papers 
since the old edition was out, besides bringing in 
all the improvements in the way of varieties in cul- 
tivation up to the present date. It also contains 
the latest discoveries and improvements in the mat- 
ter of greenhouses; and it seems to me it is a book 
that any one interested in these industries can not 
well get along without. Peter Henderson is now 
one of the leading minds in market gardening in 
the world. It was my good fortune to have a visit 
with him a few dajs ago; and, although he is 63 
years of age, he is as full of enthusiasm in every 
thing pertaing to vegetable and plant growth as he 
ever was in his life. Another thing that greatly pleas- 
ed me was to see him so earnestly devoted, heart and 
soul, toward thisproblem of interestingthe youth of 
the present age in honest, legitimate outdoor indus- 
tries. The new book is so luuch enlarged, the price 
has been advanced to $3.00, postpaid by mail. We 
can send it to you by express or freight, with other 
goods, for f l.s.5. 

PROl'ITS IN POULTRY. 

This is the title of a new book, just received 
from the O. Judd Co., New York. As usual with 
their publications, it is well printed (3.50 pages) and 
profusely illustrated. As one mind can not well 
cover the whole range of experience and knowl- 
edge of an industry, O. Judd Co. have selected sev- 
eral of the best poultry-writers in the country to 
write the book, eacli writer upon his special branch 
of the industry, so that we have the cream of the 
various departments of the subject. Its whole 
tenor seems to discourage going too heavily into 
poultry at /ir.st. Its motto seems to be, " Economy 
all through." It tells how to make a coop for a 
small amount of money, just such a one as the 
average farmer feels he can afford. In its dis- 
cussion of poultry-diseases it recommends only 
simple treatment — no expensive doses or tonics 



which can be purchased of Mr. So and So. In short, 
the instructions all through are very simple, aided 
by different cuts For instance, after one has read 
the chapter on " Caponizing," he is made to feel 
that he is already master of the art, so clear is the 
description. The book seems to be especially well 
adapted to the farmer and others who have no 
desire to spend their money in fancy blood, fancy 
coops, etc., but who wish to make poultry on a 
small scale pay. We have decided to put it in our 
booklist. Price by mail, .*1.00. If sent with other 
goods, by freight or express, 90 cts. 



CIKCULABS BECEIVED. 

The following price lists have been received at 
this ofBce: 

An advertising slieet from Ezra Baer. Dixon, Ills. 

A 14-page circular of bee-supplies from Chas. H. Smith, Pitts- 
liekl, Mass. 

A S2-page circular of apiarian supplies from E. T. Lewis & 
Co.. Toledo. O. 

.\n 8page ciri'ular of .supplies in Keiieral from F. M. Atwo<>d, 
Rileyville. III. 

A i-papre list of bee-keepers' supplies from E. C. Long, Wil- 
liamsville. N. Y. 

A leatlet—" Facts About Honev." from Samuel Cushman, 
Pawtucket, R I. 

A IS-page list of bee-supplies from J. W. Bittenbender, 
Knoxville. Iowa. 

An 8 |):ige list of bees, queens, and poultry, from Jno. A. 
Thornton, Lima. 111. 

A ■1-page sheet of bees, potatoes, etc., from Ernst S. Hilde- 
niann. Ashii>iiun, Wis. 

A 12-pai;e list of bees, queens, and supplies, from Jas. M. 
Hyne. Stcwartsville, Ind. 

An 8-page circular of bee-keepers' supplies, from A. D. D. 
Wood, Rives .lunctioM. Mich. 

.\n advertising sheet of Quinbv smokers and bee-hives, 
from W. E. Clark. Oriskany.N. Y. 

An S-jiagc (large size) circul.ar of bee-keepers' supplies and 
poultry, from C. M. Dixon, Parrish, 111. 

A.32-i)agc list of fruit - boxes, bee - supplies, etc.. from The 
Berlin Fruit-Box C<>.,B.Tlin Heights. O. 

An 8-page jirii'c list i large sizei. of jioultrv and bee-keepers' 
supplies from A. H. Dulf. Crcighton. (). 

A 14-page list of bees and queens, garden seeds, small fruits, 
etc.. from Christian Weckesser. Marshallville. Ohio. 

,\n 18-page list of bee-supi)lies. Specialty: the Richardson 
hive and fixtures, from M. Richardson & Sou, Port Colborne, 
Out. 

.\ 4-page circular of supplies from J. H. Martin. Hartford. 
N. Y. Among the special features of this we notice his chro- 
mo cards. 

An advertising sheet— specialty , the Eaton section-case, from 
Frank A. E.aton, Blutfton, O. He also sends a 4-page circular 
of bees, queens, and poultry. 

A 32-p.age lisl of bee-supplies from E. Kretchmer, Coburg, 
Iowa. The circular also contains consideralile information 
upon hives made invcrtilile. sectional, etc. 

A 36-pagc catalogue of bees, hives, lixtures. and general sup- 
plies, from Edward R. Ncweomli. Pleasant Valley. N. Y. The 
appearance of this tastily gotten-up catalogue is neat and 
novel. 

A 32-page list of supplies- -specialty, bee-hives and crates, 
from (i. B.Lewis & Co., Watertown, Wis, They put out this 
season new anil desirable styles of hives, such as the present 
season will demand. 

A 12-page list (large size) of ajuarian supplies— spei'ialty. 
chatr and Sinii'Hcitv hives, from A. F, Rtauffer. Sterling. Tils, 
We notice in the above, that Mrs. A. F. Stauffer advertises 
eggs from tliat much-prized breeil, Plymouth Rocks. 

.\ 32-page circular of apiarian supplies, Bee-Keeper's Guide 
.and Men\<>r!nidum, from .I(,>s. Nysewander. Des Moines, Iowa. 
Jlr. N. was one of ovir former stenograjihers and clerks in the 
ortice i>f the Home of the Honey-Bees. We are glad to note 
his evident success. 

.\ large-size ."id-ijage circulai- of every thing i)ertaining to the 
apiary, from .Vbbott Bros.. Southall , London, England. These 
gentlemen .-ire probablv the l.aigest apiarian-.-upply dealers in 
England. They illusti-ate nunierous styles of hives, quite 
varied in design— crates, honey -bottles, etc. 

The following were printed at this office: 

A leaflet of ajiia rian supplies for L. Purdy, Killbuck, Ohio. 

.\n IS-iiage eirciil.ar of treneral bee-supplies, bees, queens, 
etc.. for.Iohii Xebel & Son, HiL-h Hill, Mo. 

.V12-pagc list (.f aiii.arian implements, comprising (piite a 
complet<- lisl, for .M. H. Hunt, Bell Branch. Mich. 

An S-iiage list of supplies— spccialtv, Fo>ter"s Adjustable 
honey-case ami hives for Oliver Foster, Mt. Vernon. la. 

An'8-page circular of bee-keepers' supplies for E. C- Kepner, 
Dunlap, Tenn. Mr. K. proposes to take students in apiculture. 
Wi-ite him for terms. 



ESTABLISHED 1855. 

BEESWAX HEADQUARTERS, 

We ha\e constantly on hand a large stock of Do- 
mestic and Imported Beeswax in original shape, 
which we offer to manufacturers of Comb Founda- 
tion at lowest prices. We guarantee all our bees- 
wax absolutely pure. Write to us for prices. Ad- 
dress R. ECKERMAMV & ^«^IIiIi, 
Boeswax Bleachers & Eeflners, 4-13db S7EACUSE, N. Y. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



163 



Contents of this Number. 



Apiarv, Hcacock's 177 

Bfc Li'Risliition ISO 

Bits Ni'a r a Kiiill'oad 186 

Biis. Yimiitr. Development. 165 

Bees, Moving- 185 

Be(■^wa^•, MakiiiK 172 

Biiiicliam's Comments 186 

Biukwheat. Japanese 166 

Bumlile-bees 181 

Cellar Waiiiieil with Water 18B 
Chart' Hives. 1 and 2 Story . .189 



Cl< 
Comh 



.170 
168 



, Emiitv. 173 

Oof lull. Mrs.. Letter from... 178 
Kdilorial Responsibility. ...175 

Kditoiials 190 

Ka Ise .Statements 169 

Kt-edins in Collar 178 

Koiil Biiiiid Preventing... 180 

Frames. Kiiiptv 173 

Heudsi.lMiiain 185 

Hives .Stovrrs Tall 176 

Hoiiev roliimn 164 

Hoiie'v Used for Wax 171 



Honey, Peddling 183 

Hcmev. Price of. 182 

Horn: Thomas 175 

Humbugs and Swindles 170 

Kind Words 191 

Legislation. Bee 190 

Myself and My Neighbors.. 187 

Our Own Apiary 189 

P. Benst.n 170 

Peavine Clover 170 

Proti<lor for Queen-oe]ls...l74 
Uueeii, Kespiratory Organs 169 
Queens. Italy to Australia.. 185 

Question. A Moral 166 

Reports Discouraging 18S 

Reports Encoura.ging 184 

Saliva. Function of 179 

Sections. Half-pound 182 

Separators , 182 

Sowing Clover-seed 170 

Super, The T 190 

Swarming-box, Felton's 168 

Thomas Horn 175 

Vinegar Ironi Honey 179 

.186 



vinegar Iron) Honey. 
Yields, L.irge. Stolen 



Eggs 



AT KANSAS CITY, JVIO. 

«PUREflTJLIANIBEESffORtSALE.-J> 

Untested queens, in May $1 50 

" " " June 125 

" " after " 1 00 

Tested queens, double the above prices. 

Full colonies, before Jub' 1 S13 00 

" " after " 10 00 

Bees per half-pound, same prices as untested 
queens. My untested queens are 

Warranted to be Purely Mated. 

My bees are in fine condition ; no " foul brood " ill 
my yard or neig-hborhood. 
3tid. E. M. HAYHURST, P. O. Box 60. 



ALL DOVETAILED SECTIONS, 

One and two pounds. Langstroth Hives, etc.; 50 
colonies Italian Bees, Nuclei, Queens, Brood and 
Section fdn. Ash kegs for extracted honey, frames 
of brood and bees. M. IS BELL, 

3 6db. Norwich, N. Y. 



CHEAP*. 

12 <'oIouieH of Pure Italian and Hybrid, 
at I'l otii $3.50 to $5.50. Some are tested queens, 
reared by Wm. W. Cari'. After Mar. 15th, Wyan- 
dotte Eggs at $l.oO per 13. My stock is from 
the l)est strain of Geo. A. Preston's, Bing-hamton, 
NY C. C. FENN, 

•'>-Td Washington, Conn. 

100 Colonies of Italian Bees for Sale. 

Italians, .iKe.Oii; hybrids, $5.00. Frames IOHXI514 
outside measure. Address 

W. H. HOBSON, in. D., 
o-fid Irving, ITIontgoiuery Co., Ills, 



FnP ^3lP ^^'^ colonies of Italian bees. 



From 
$5.00 to #8.00 per colonv. Tested 
(nicctis, in May, $2.00; after June 1, *1.50. Tntested 
qu« ens, in May, .$1.00; six, $5.00; after June 1, T5c, ; 
si.\, #4.00. Also bees by the pound; 3 and H frame 
niiclcj: liives, sections, fdn., etc. Circular free. 
.Virdb Address JNO. NEBEL & SON, High Hill. Mo. 



COMB FOUNDATION. 

i Dunham Brood Fdn., 40c. per lb.; e.xtra thin Van- 
I dervort Fdn., 45c. per lb. Wax made into fdn. for 10 
I and 30c. per lb. 10% discount on ail orders received 
before the 15tb of April. 

3-tfdb. F. W. HOLMES, Coopersville, Mich. 

Extraordinary Exchange ! 

Having- disposed of my bee-supply business, at 
Des Moines, Iowa, to Jos. Nysewander, I hope my 
friends and customers will be as generous with him 
in orders and good will as they have been with me. 
I am no longer in the supply trade here after March 
1st, 1887. .1. M. SHUCK. 5-6d 



HAVE YOUR WAX WORKED NOW, 

By ('. H. McFadden, cheap, first-class fdn., on 

Vandervort Mills. Box 35, 

5d Clarksburg, JTIoniteati Co., Mo. 

I'litil March 30th I will offer 

Four-Piece One*Pound Dovetailed Sections, 

smoothed on one side, for $;5.00 per lOOit; sample 
tree. With each order I will give a section-box 
former free. M. A. LOHE, Vermontville, Eaton Co,, Mich. 5d 



P|\p ^alp Italian-Albino Bees and Queens, by 
rui OalC. the pound. Nucleus, and full Colonies. 

Address OTTO KLEINOW, 

5tfdb (opp. Fort Wayne Gate, Detroit, Mich. 



Brr Ull/rC two simplicity hives, 10 brood- 
^^"••IVtO. frames, 7 wide frames, 3 covers, 
and 56 1-lb. sections, all for Si* 1.20. Pecan duck 
eggs and Plymouth-Rock chicken eggs, 13 of 
each for $1.00. T. A. Gunn, Tullahoma, Tenn. 5d 



DO YOU WAI4T TO BUY BEES? 

If so, send for my circular and price list. lam 
selling out mv bees at just one-half my regular list 
prices. JAS. ERAVIN, Smith's Grove, Ky. .5tfd 



Krk COLONIES OF ITALIAN BEES FOR SALE, 
t3\f ready for shipment the last of April or first 
of May. L. frames, 6 frames in light shipping-box, 
one, $7.00; 3 to 5, $6. .50 each ; 5 or more, $6.00 each. 

L.. HKINK, 
5-7d Bellmore, Queens Co., N. Y. 



1887. 17tli Year in fiueen-Rearing. 1887. 
ITALIAN AND SYRIAN QUEEN-BEES 

AND THEIR CROSSES. 

Tested queen in Aju-il, May, and June $3 00 

Untested " " " '• " " 100 

After June 15th. tested, $1.00; untested. 75c. each. 
Sent by mail, and sale arrival guaranteed. Also 
nuclei and full colonies. No circulars. Address 
57itd W. P. Henderson, ITIurrreesboro, Tenn. 



(K enward- H all H phry.) 

20() untested queens readv for mailing; prices: 
March, $1.00; doz., $13.00; April, $1.00; doz., $10.00; 
May, 90c; doz., $9.00; June, 80c; doz., $8.00; July, 
7.5c; doz., f7.00. Write for information and price 
list. J. W. K. SHAW & CO., 

5tfdb Loreauville, Iberia Parish, La. 



* SECTIONS. * 

First quality, white basswood, dovetailed, or to 
nail; 4 pieces, 414x414; price, $4..50 per M.; 5000, $30. 
Sure to please you. Any size of section made to 
order, and shipping-crates in season. Sample sec- 
tion sent for a stamp. 
5tfdb F. GRANGER & SON, 

Harford Mills, Cortland Co., N.Y. 

HOW TO RAISE COMB HONEY. 

Price 5c. You need this pamphlet, and my free 
bee and supply circular. IStfdb 

OLIVER FOSTER, Mt. Vernon. Linn Co.. Iowa. 



OADAKT'S FOUITBATIOIT FACT0B7, WHOLESALE and RETAIL. 
See advertisement in another column. 3tfbd 



164 



GLEANIIMGS in bee OULTUliE 



MAR. 



pe^EY 0@MMN. 



CITY MARKETS. 

St. Louis.— HoHejy.— Honey still drags; the de- 
mand is very light; and to effect sales we have to 
shade prices. 

White-clover, 1-lb. sections, 11@ia 

Wild-flower, 1-lb. section, 10@10V4 

Broken comb, 7@.9 

Extracted, white-clover, tin cans, .5@5i4 

White-sage and wild-flower, cans, ' i@5 

White, In bbls , Southern, 3@Ali 

Beeswax, choice yellow, 25; medium lots, 22@.23; 
dark, 20. W. B. Westcott & Co., 

Feb. 21, 18S7. 108 and 110 Market St. 

Boston.— Ho/iejy.— No change in prices, and de- 
mand is for one-pound sections of fancy white 
honey. Bi.ake & Ripi.ey, 

Feb. 21, 18S7. 57 Chatham St., Boston, Mass. 



Chicago. — Honey. — Sales small and not fre- 
quent. Commission houses are being urged to sell 
out consignments sent them some time ago; and as 
these are ottered at buyers' figures, the market may 
be called weak. E.vtracted, ver.>' little being- sold. 
Beeswax: 35. K. A. Burnett, 

Feb. 34, 1S87. 161 So. Water St., Chicago, 111. 



Detroit.— Honey. —Very few sales reported, with 
large supply on hand, and prices some lower. Best 
white, ll@12c. Beeswax, 23c. 

Feb. 21, 1887. M.H.Hunt, 

Bell Branch, Mich. 

Cincinnati.- HojiPj/.— We quote extracted honey 
at 'K5i7c on arrival, t'hoice comb honey, at 12@15c 
in a jobbing way. Demand slow. 

Beeswax.— There is a good demand for this, which 
brings 20(rti23c on arrival for good to choice vellow. 

Feb. 23, 1887. Chas. F. Muth & Son, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Kansas City.— f/oxcy.- There is no change to re- 
port since our last to you. 
Feb. 21, 1887. Clemons, Cloon & Co., 

Cor. Fourth and Walnut Sts., Kansas City, Mo. 



Cleveland.— Hrmej/.— There is no material change 
in honey. Demand continues very light with val- 
ues unchanged. Best white in 1-lb. sections sell, at 
13c; 2-lbs., 11@12. Dark 1-lb., 10c. Extracted, 6c. 
Beeswax, 2;')C. A. C. Kendel, 

Feb. 19, 1887. 115 Ontario St., Cleveland, O. 



Milwaukee.— Honey. —The demand for honey is 
very fair, and supply amjjle. We will quote white 
1-lb. sections. 11@12; white 2-lb. sections, 10@11; 
Dark, not wanted. Extracted white, in bbls., and 
kegs, 6(a.(j;2; in small q\iantities, 6i(ai7V^. Dark, in 
bbls. and casks, 3@5. iiccywax. nominal, 25c. 

Feb. 23, 18ST. A. V. Bishop, 

142 W. Water Street. 

Philadelphia.— Worie?/. — Honey continues dnll 
at the declinf noted. White - clover, fancy 1-lb. 
glass sections, 10c; same, fair to good in glass sec- 
tions, and 2-lb. lair to fancy, 7(5'!>. 

Buckwheat, 6(5j8c, as to condition. 

Strained, ."^iSe. 

Beeswax sells on arrival. Choice white, 37@28; 
choice yellow, 23@24; dark, 20@23. 

Feb. 14, 1887. Pancoast & Griffiths, 

242 South Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

CoLi^MBUS.— Hovicy.- No material change in mar- 
ket. White-clover in 1-lb. sections, 15(^il6c. Ex- 
tracted, 10@12!4. California honey, slow sale at 
8@10c. 

Beeswax, fair demand, selected yellow, 22@2.5e; 
dark, 18(g!20. 

Feb. 31, 1887. Eakle Clickengeb, 

117 S. 4th St., Columbus, Ohio. 

For Saf/E — 600 lbs. of very nice light-colored 
buckwheat honey, in kegs of 160 lbs. each, 5c per 
lb. Chas. T. Gerould, 

East Smithfleld, Bradford Co., Pa. 



For Sale.— 1 have about 3(.KI lbs. of fall honey and 
honey-dew mixed, which 1 will sell to the highest 
bidder. F. W. Stevens, 

Moore's Hill, Dearborn Co., Ind. 



For Sale.— Six 48-gallon bbls. of choice white- 
clover honey at 6c per lb., and eight 10-gallon kegs 
atC^c; 4 bbls. fine Spanish needle at .5c, and three 
2.5-gallon kegs of fine mixed honey (Spanish needle 
and heart'sease) at 512C per lb.' here on board of 
cars. Send 3cent stamp for each sample. 

Emil J. Baxth'.r, Nauvoo, Hancock Co., 111. 



QUEENS, B^Ss. QUEENS, 

MV ITALilAN BEES AINI> QLEKINS can 
not be excelled in BEAIITV and WORK- 
ING QUALITIES. JS"] make a specialty of 
Reariu" FBNIil KEESX and ttlEKNS. Frioes 
Kediii-ed Kor 1887. Be sure to send tor my NEW 
Catalogue before buviug. Address 
56d FRANK A. EATON, Bluff ton, O. 



U 



ENGLISH YOU KNOW." 

How the genuine Bingham bee-smoker is looked 
upon in England, where we have no patents, and 
any one can make or use or sell just such smokers 
as he pleases or thinks best. The editor of the 
weekly British Bre .Imirual, Thos. W. Cowan, after 
using five full columns and nine good cuts in il- 
lustrating the Bingham bee smoker (space and cuts 
that would have cost us more than one hundred 
dollars), says, " A real Bingham will send a greater 
volume of smoke, and that to a greater distance, 
than any other smoker we know. We have had 
such a smoker in use since 1878; and although we 
have been obliged to renew the bari-el, which be- 
came worn through from constant use, nothuig has 
been done to the bellows, which is just as good as it 
was on the first day we had it. A smoker like this 
will burn almost any sort of fuel that will produce 
smoke when smouldering. We use old rags, brown 
paper, or sacking; but peat, decaj'ed wood, or even 
ordinary firewood, will do when it is well kindled." 

For the lowest and the highest priced smokers 
sold in the United States, and the genuine Bingham 
& Hethcrington uncapping-knives, send card for 
circulars to Bluj^Iiaiu & Hetlteringtoiij 
5tfd Abronta, mich. 



PLANTS. 



Send a postal card and get 
mv prices of all of the lead- 
ing varieties of STBAW- 

BERRIES, KASl'BRK- 

RII<:S, BL.A4KBi:RRIES, CIRStANTS, and 
GRAPE^i. Prices very low. All stock warranted. 

EZRA G. SMITH, 
5d Manchester, Ont. Co., N> Y. 

NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, 

MASS., BEE-KEEPERS i CONN. 

—SEND FOR MY NEW PRICE LIST,— 

E. R. Newcomb, Pleasant Valley, Dutchess Co., N.Y. 

4tfdl> 



ARTHUR TODD, 



1910 OERMANTOWN AVE. 
9 PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Dadant Brood Foundation, 4(lc; (cr wiring. 45e; thin 
surplus. .50c. Extra thin. 6iJc. BEKS, QUEEMS , 
SECTI4»INS, SUPl'LilEK OENERALLiY. .5d 



FOR SALE 



AT $1.00 EACH, 

20 or 25 good Italian 
queens bred from a pure 
select tested mother, 1 and 2 years old. They were 
mated n ith lilack drones. Ready at any time. 

H. C. I»UTY, 
5tfdb Walnut Hill, l.a Fayette Co., Ark. 

ITe^wr Bee - Hi^ire 

Takes either Eclectic or Simplicity frstmes, the lib. 
sections, etc., and is cheaper and better than any he 
hits before brought out. He sells all supplies cheap- 
er ihnn ever, and guarantees satisfaction EVERV 
TIJTIE. You will save money by writing him for 
particulars. 5tfdb 51 Barclay S., N. 'V . 




Vol. XV. 



MARCH 1, 1887. 



No. 5. 



TERMS :»i.oo Per ANNTJM, IN ADVANCE; 1 T? ,,+ nh1-i oh o r] I'-n 7 J? '7 ^ 



10 or moie, 75 cts. each. Single mini- i 
l)ti-.5fts. Additions to clubs maybe | 
made at club rates. Above are all to 
be sent to one postoffick. 



f Clubs to different postoffices, not less 
I tli;in 90 cts. each. Sent postpaid, in the 
J U. S. and Canadas. To all other coun- 
j tries of the Universal Postal Union. 18 

A. I. ROOT, MEDINA. OHIO. V.%^il^''d!v%Td.l':^^y^^^^^ 



PUBLISHED SKIII-MIIXTHLY BY 



DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG BEES. 

SOMETHING FURTHER FROM FRIEND DC)()I.1TTI,E. 



youuf 



ATELY 1 saw the statement that " bees seem 
I to possess the power to retard the develop- 
r ment of both egg's and larva^, as also to has- 
ten this process," which may be true or it 
may not be true. That the development of 
bees is greatly retarded at times and accel- 
erated at others, no close observer will deny; but 
the question in doubt is, whether the bees have the 
power of thus hastening or retarding the develop- 
ment, or is it a condition or state of things over 
which they have no control? I believe, as has been 
lately given in Gleanings, that the egg is changed 
into larva only as it is touched by the pabulum 
from the nurse-bees, and thus far consider that the 
bees have perfect control over the hatching 
of the eggs; but further than this I think that 
the time of year, temperature, etc., have more 
to do with the matter than the bees. Extreme heat 
will so hasten development that I have known 
perfect young bees to hatch in less than 10 days, 
while vei'y cool weather so retards development 
that several cases of worker-bees being in the cell 
for 24 days have come under my notice. In this 
connection I wish to give some experiments which 
rather go against my own conclusions, and favor 
the statement at the commencement of this article; 
yet as this i-etardiug of development, which is to 
bespoken of, happened only at the closing of the 
season, 1 am not sure that such as comes in mid 
season is produced in the same way. 

For two springs past I have experimented to find 
out the tine terapcrMtnrc reqtiired lor brood-rear- 
iiig, by placing a .■-eli i.gistering thermometer in- 
side the cluster of brood and bees. It is no hard 



matter to get the highest temperature ever reach- 
ed in a hive; but to get the lowest is quite another 
thing. As the outside air is always colder than that 
in the hive, unless in rare instances, all there is to 
be done to get the highest degree of heat is simply 
to place the thermometer in the hive, leaving it 
there as long as you wish when it is taken out, and 
the degree noted. 

Before going further 1 will here state that 98° is 
the warmest I have ever found it to be in the hive 
in our hottest summer weather, when the mercury 
was but a very few degrees colder in the shade out- 
side. How the bees can so keep down the temper- 
ature of the hive by ventilation is more than I can 
see; for a hive with no bees in it becomes so hot 
that animal life can not exist, as I once found by 
confining a hen for a few hours in a box about the 
size of a hive, which sat on the ground in the hot 
sun; for when I went to get her she was dead and 
nearly roasted. Do we know that the bees do so 
keep down the temperature by ventilation'] May 
they not have some other means of doing it? But, 
to return: To get the lowest degree ever fallen to, 
we have to place the thermometer in a very warm 
place, so as to make it go up to 110° or over, when 
the steel registering-bar on the cold side is drawn 
down to this degree. If we now start for the hive 
with it, the cool outside air will cause the mercury 
to sink, so that our object is thwarted; and after a 
little thought I overcame this trouble in this way : 
I heated a piece of iron to 140°, and placed it in a 
box. A cloth was laid on the iron, and another over 
this, when the box was closed for a few minutes, so 
as to warm the cloth. The thermometer was now 
slipped between the cloth, and carried to the hive 
so that nocooling-otr of any amount occurred, while 
the frames were being put in place to receive 



166 



GLEANINGS IxN HEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



It. In this way I was able to get the lowest point 
reached during- cool nights, on some of which there 
was nearly a frost. This proved to be at the lowest 
92° in all colonies having four frames and upward 
of bi'ood. In a small colony having brood in only 
three combs I found 90° registered after a very cool 
night. From this we see that there is only 8° varia- 
tion inside the brood-nest during the height of 
brood-rearing, if my tests are any criterion to go 
by. During all of these tests so far mentioned, the 
bees were as activ^e as we usually find them in June 
and July, so that the activity of the bees may have 
much to do with this matter. 

Now for the last experiment, which was made the 
last of September. For several years I had noticed 
that queen-cells in a queen-nursery, used on the 
Alley plan, would not hatch regularly after Sept. 
1, the time varying from the usual 16 days to 24, 
and sometimes more, while later they would not 
hatch at all, and I found much the same conditions 
existing with frames of worker brood. A sin- 
gle experiment gave a temperature at this time of 
year of only 81° as that now maintained inside the 
brood-nest. At this time all that activity manifest- 
ed early in the season was gone, and the bees were 
sluggish and idle, which might account for the 
whole matter, were it not that brood-rearing is re- 
tarded during the season of activity. Reader, here 
is a subject for study and experiment; and this 
somewhat (jUsponnected article is written with the 
hope that such an interest may be taken in this im- 
perfectly understood matter that we may soon 
know all about this interesting part of our pursuit. 

Borodino, N. Y. G. M. Doolitti^e. 

Thanks for the facts furnished, friend D 
Although temperature is a very necessary 
item in the matter, I am inclined to think, 
from the experiments I have tried, that it is 
by no means the most important element. 
In trying to get a small cluster of bees to 
rear brood, I failed entirely, even when I 
had the temperature exactly where you place 
it. The activity that comes, say when fruit- 
trees are in bloom, is, I am very sure, an 
important element. I think I can see how 
the bees may lower the temperature ; in 
fact, I knew of this before, for I have seen 
bees right in the blazing sun, where the en- 
trance was large enough, keep the interior 
of tlie hive comparatively cool; and my 
opinion at the time was. that it was done by 
the evaporation of the thin, newly gathered 
honey. Converting any liquid into vapor 
carries oil the heat very rapidly, and advan- 
tage is taken of this fact in ice-machines, to 
be seen at onr expositions. No doubt the 
bees knew all about it long before it was 
discovered by human beings. 



A MOEAIi QUESTION. 



ONE THAT COMES FROM A YOUNG SUPPLY-DEALER. 



R. ROOT: — I wish to ask your opinion about 

a little matter concerning sections. My 

trade in them is not very extensive. On 

account of the very low rate at which I 

can get poplar here, and with my facilities 

for making them in the winter time, I am sure I 

can furnish them, freight paid to any point in the 

Eastern and Middle States, at a lower price than 



they are now offered. My inquiry is this: Would 
it be right for me to lay my plans to do so next 
winter, as being the " greatest good to the greatest 
number" (of bee-keepers), or should 1 join with my 
brother-manufacturers in not injuring their trade, 
which they may have woi-ked hard to get? 

I admit, this may be a rather funny question, 
but I am young in the ways of the world, and per- 
haps Dr. C. C. Miller might want another act of 
"special legislation" on the ground of "priority 
of trade." H. P. Langdon. 

East Constable, N. Y., Feb. 18, 1887. 

Friend L., 1 am exceedingly glad to have 
you ask such a question before going ahead. 
1 do not mean that I am able to answer it, 
for I am not — I can simply suggest. If you 
can furnish sections as you say, and your mo- 
tive is a right and proper one, I do not know 
why you should not sell them at whatever 
price you can honestly afford to. You should 
remember, however, that we are having fail- 
ures in business almost constantly, because 
some one new to the work undertakes to sell 
things lower than he can afford ; that is, he 
fails to take into account the necessary ex- 
penses incident to doing almost any kind of 
business. I hardly believe, however, that I 
would agree to pay freight to all parts of the 
country. Some manufacturers advertise that 
they will allow a rebate of from 25 to 50 cts. 
per lOU lbs., in order to equalize freights. It 
seems to me the safer way for you would be, 
however, to advertise at a moderate price ; 
then after you have done business a while, 
and have carefully kept account of expenses, 
come down a little if you can do so safely. I 
think it is very neighborly and kind to talk 
over the matter with other supply-dealers or 
manufacturers of sections, and avoid ruin- 
ous competition as much as maybe. I would 
also avoid getting into so-called "rings," to 
keep up prices, especially where they are 
managed so as to keep prices above what 
they ought to be. The greatest good to the 
greatest number of bee-keepers is a very 
safe rule, I think, always remembering to 
be just and fair in all your transactions. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN BUCK"WHEAT. 



HENDERSON'S NEW JAPANESE BUCKWHEAT. 



J'{^ S buckwheat is one of the few honey- 
I plants that can be raised by bee-keep- 
K ers with a great probability of paying 
^ expenses on the grain alone, without 
any mention of the honey, we are 
ready for any improvements that may be 
made in the grain ; and even should the im- 
provement be justaslightone,it will amount 
to quite a sum in the aggregate, for we can 
just as well plant the best as to plant the 
poorest. When it comes to the matter of 
seeds, even if the first expense should be 
four or five times the price of the common 
variety, we can in one year, or, at the most, 
two, liave the improved seed as cheaply as 
the poorest. Over we give you a cut of a 
new buckwheat illustrated in Peter Hender- 
son's catalogue. We shall test it at once, 
and shall be glad to have it tried extensively 
by bee-men. 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



167 



As we know nothing whatever of the 

Slant except what Henderson says, we copy 
is description from his catalogue. 

As far as we know, and so far as careful inquiry 
goes among- men likely to be posted on such sub- 
jects, this Japanese Biichwheat is not only entirely 
distinct from all other varieties, but has never be- 
fore been seen in this country, except in the limit- 
ed area that we will shortly refer to. A thimbleful 
of this buckwheat was sent by a .lapanese gentle- 
man to a friend residing in New .Jersey in 1883. 
The most of the product of that thimbleful met 
with a calamity, but enoufih was saved to enable 



tic over it, as, sown on the same da}' with the silver- 
hull, it ripened a week sooner, and yielded almost 
as much ag-ain. To show what a .vielder it is, we 
may mention that one firain was planted in a gar- 
den, and from that was obtained 860 ripe kernels. 
This variety can be planted as far north as New 
Hampshire. 



I had a small quantity of th<" New Japanoso Buckwheat 
troiii you last year, which I planted on 5th day of .July, 1886, 
and from thisfeut, and hatf. in trood clean buckwheat. 1392 
pounds, which ri|>cne(l earlier, and has produced more than 
three times the yield of the silverhull with the same cul- 
tui-e. David Beam. 

MlIiVAI.K. N. J.. Nov. 12, 1886. 




THE NKW JAPANESE BUCKWHEAT. 



the grower to sow in 18S.5 half a bushel, and the 
result of that sowing was fnriy Jmshels of good seed. 
A glance at our illustration will show that the 
kernels are at least twice the size of those of any 
other variety, and of a .shape peculiar and distinct 
from all others. The color of the kernels is also 
most distinct, being a rich dark shade of brown. 
The grower of this buckwheat finds that the straw 
is heavier; that it branches more, and does not 
need to be sown as thickly as the other kinds. The 
flower made from it is equal in quality to that of 
any other buckwheat, and, as the yields show, is 
enormously productive. The party from whom we 
bought the stock, distributed in 1886 ten bushels 
among farmers in his neighborhood, and, on the 
let of October, he wrote to us that all are eiithusias- 



I The New Japanese Buckwheat ripened about one week 
sooner than the old-fashioned kind, and produced more th.an 
i as much again to the same amount of sowing the past season. 
1 Pompton. N. J., Nov. 16. 1886. LEMUEL Van NESS. 

! We have purchased one bushel, and can 
furnish it to our readers in five-cent pack- 
ages, as we do all other seeds. In larger 
quantities, 10 cts. for i lb. ; 85 cts. per lb., or 
$2.00 iper peck. If wanted by mail, add 5 

. cents for each i lb., or 18 cents tor a whole 
pound. If you want further particulars 

I from those who have raised it, write to the 

I parties whose testimonials appear above. 



16S 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Mak. 



A CABT FOR MOVING COMBS ABOUT 
THE APIARY. 



AN INVENTION THAT COMES FROM AWAY DOWN IN 
CUBA. 



fRIEND ROOT:— 1 send you a diagrarn of our 
ooiub-cart. The cart is desig-ned for carrying- 
combs to and from the honej'-house while ex- 
tracting. The box. or body, of the cart, is 41 
inches long, inside measure, and of ordinary 
store combs it will hold just 30. The box is made 
the right depth for the comb you are using. The 
top edge of the side board is rabbeted, to receive 
the projecting- end of the top bar of the frame, and 
a full comb of honey haugs in the cart as nicely as 
it did in the hive. The wheels are cast iron, 33 
inclies high, with a tire, or face, 2% inches. The 
body of the cart, when the handles are lield up, is 
just .5 inches from the ground. The wheels are 
fastened to the side of the box by means of a tlang-e; 
that is, screwed fast to the box by 7 screws. The 
flange is 7 inches across, and the a.xle upon which 
the wheel turns is cast fast to this flange. You will 
see by this arrangement we can let the box down 
near the ground, thus doing away with the use of 
leg-s on either end, and still have the benefit of a 
pretty good-sized wheel. The wheels ?ire placed in 
the middle of the box, so that, when it is loaded, 
there is little or no weight upon the hands; and the 
perfect ease with which we handle 30 full combs of 
honey with this cart would beat the oldest bee-man 
if he had never tried it. When we start out in the 
morning- we have the cart full of empty combs, and 
the work of exchanging combs begins— exchanging- 
empty combs for full ones. As fast as we take out 
a full one, we put in an empty one. We never 
open a hive more than once. Now, friend Root, 
this cart is my own get up, and it is not patented; 
and if you wish to make and use it you are free to 

do so. A. W. OSBURN. 

Havana, Cul)a, W. I. 




A BOY'S SWARMING-BOX 



FKIKND ObBURN S COMB-CART. 

We are very much obliged indeed, friend 
O., for your very ingenious arrangement. 
The only trouble that I can see is, that the 
combs might swing while being wheeled, 
but I presume not more than tliey would on 
an ordinary wlieelbarrow. Your idea of 
getting the shaft out of the way is an ingen- 
ious one, but I should think it would neces- 
sitate liaving the boxes made pretty strong ; 
and with Ijoxes so near the ground, it is 
rather necessary to have tlie ajiiary i)retty 
well leveled and graded. I should think the 
cart might be extremely handy for other 
purposes, where the ground is even and level 
— say on the sidewalk, for instance. One 
could carry a great weight, and not feel it 
very much. Very light strong wlieels are 
now made of steel, the same as are now used 
on our new wheelbarrow. Many thanks for 
your liberal offer. 



DESCRIBED BY THE BOY HIMSELP. 



R. ROOT:— As I see swarming- boxes ad- 
vertised in Gle.vnings, I thought 1 would 
send you a sample of my s warming-box. 
It beats the Kaler bo.x, in my opinion. 
There is no standing and holding a box up 
in the air for the bees to go in; no taking combs 
out of the box and putting them in the hive. Sim- 
ply place your hives just where you want them, 
with your empty comb in the hive. Put your sec- 
tions on, if you want them on. VVhen the swarm 
commences to settle, hang the box over them. 
About nine times out of ten they will cluster in the 
box. If they are too long going in, take your smo- 
ker and smoke them a little on the under side. They 
will run into the box very quickly; then lift the 
box off' the limb, carry them to your hive, pull out 
the pin at the top end of the handle, turn the han- 
dle to one side, dump the bees in front of the hive, 
and let them run in, and your work is done. 




2\ 



FEIjTON'S SWAIi.MlNG-i;0.\. 

Now, Mr. Root, please jusL take the little box and 
hang- it on some of your shrubbery, and see how 
nicely it will haug. Tiie handle will be supported 
by the limbs, so that it will hang almost anywhere. 
The little block on the side of the box, under the 
handle, is to keep from smashing bees. The notch- 
ed piece on top of the bo.x is lor a handle. There is 
no better method for catching (jueens from after- 
swarms that I know of, than to catch them in this 
box and dump them on a sheet. Set the box back a 
couple of feet, and catch the queens while they are 
going- to the box again. 

My papa says it is the lazy man's swarnjing-box. 
When the bees commence to cluster, just hang the 
box over them, and sit down in the shade till they 
are in the box, in place of holding the box up in the 
air. S E Frt.ton. 

Newtown, Forest Co., Pa , Jan 31, W-iT 
Very good, my young friend. No tloubt 
your swarming-box will answer as you de- 
scribe, but will not ours also V May be, 
however, yours is handier and easier \x\ man- 
age. If you have tried both. 1 presume very 
likely you are right a))out it. I am sorry 
you did not tell us how old you are. I think 
tlie engravers have made a pretty good pic- 
ture of your device^dou't \ou think so V I 
will explain to our leaders, that a little 
model was sent in a papei' box, with a letter, 
and the engravers made this cut from the 
model. 



1«87 



GJ.EANINCiS IN BEE CUJ/rUUE. 



169 



FALSE STATEMENTS IN EEGARD TO THE HON- 
EY BUSINESS OF OUR COUNTRY. 



As a protection to our bee-ki^eping population, we propose in 
this department to publish the names of newspapers that per- 
sist in publishing false statements in regard to the purity of 
honey which we as bee-keepers put on the market. 



0NE of our readers sends us the follow- 
ing, clipped from the Detroit Free 
Press of Jan. 2S : 
The artificial honey now made in New 
Vork is so close to the ^"-enuine that only the 
e.xperts can detect the ditference. It is in racks, 
the same as the natural product, and now and then 
the wiiiKS and leffs of a lew dead bees are to lie 
found to further the deception. It can be sold at a 
profit for ten cents per pound, and the houey-liee 
may go. 

On receipt of the same I inclosed it to the 
editor with the following letter: 

Editor Detroit Fkee Press:— 

Dear Si/;— Permit me, friends, to call your atten- 
tion to the fact that you are doing- g-reat harm to a 
larg-e class of people by the publication of items 
like the inclosed. We, as bee-keepers, have been 
following- this matter up foi- more than two years, 
and I think you have been written to in regard to 
this matter, but perhaps you have forg:otten about 
it. The statement i.s absohitely false in regard to 
comb honey, or honey in racks, as your item terms 
it. It is true, genuinecomb honey of second quality 
has been sold as low as 10 cents per pound, but not 
one pound of manufactured comb honey has ever 
been brought forward in answer to the offer made 
in our journal, of ipUkiO, over a year ag-o. You can 
easily ascertain our responsibility; and to convince 
you that you are uncjuestionably mistaken, I will 
now pay $1000 to be told where such spurious honey 
is manufactured. 1 think I should be safe in offer- 
ing $101)0 for a single sample, were it not that some- 
thing- might be gotten up for the occasion, to make 
some sort of a semblance to artificial comb honey. 
We have been following the n)atterupfor sonio 
time, and very many of our periodicals have public- 
ly recalled, or contradicted, the false statements 
the.v have innocently made. The statements are 
greatly damaging the sale of real honey. Believ- 
ing you are anxious to have truth aiid not er- 
ror prevail, I have written you this letter. Will you 
not kindly return inclosed slip with 
your replyV 

Yours truly, A. I. Root. 

A prompt answer came to 
the above, as follows : 

A. I. Root; — Such items get into 
print without any intention of doing 
anyone an injury. A correction will 
appear to-morrow, and I will send 
you a copy of the paper. 

C. B. Lewis. 

Detroit, Mich., Feb. 3, 1887. 

And in due time the following 
from the pages of the Press: 

It was mentioned in this column the other day 
that "artificial honey now made in New York was 
so close to the genuine that only e.xperts can de- 
tect it." Letters from apiarists in Michigan and 
Ohio warmly deny the statement, saying- the artifi- 
cial can easily he detected, and that its manufac- 
ture and sale is a miserable fraud which should not 
be tolerated. We did not intend to either advertise 
or bolster up the fraud. Pure honey is cheap 
enough so that all can afford it, and the artifical 
would be dear at any price. 

The above is somewhat of an apology for 
the erroneous statement, It is true ; but I 
confess I felt saddened because we do not 
see a frank, fiee acknowledgment that 
the former notice was an error. Why can't 
the Free Press say there is no such thing 
made, neither in the city of Xew York nor 
in any other city ? I ain sure that neither 



apiarists from Michigan nor Ohio stated 
that the artificial comb honey could be 
easily detected, for there is no such stuff, 
and never toas. 1 have heard it stated 
from the pulpit, that the way to ruin is 
broad antl easy because it is down liill; and 
our experience in this line seems to indicate 
that it is exceedingly easy for newspapers 
to catch on and push aliead in tlie line of 
telling lies; but it is terribly narrow, close, 
and up hill to tell the bare naked truth, es- 
pecially when truth demands that the edit- 
or of a newspaper should fairly and square- 
ly acknowledge he has lieen mistaken, or 
tliat he has iinconscionsly done anybody a 
wrong. May (lod help us to be bold and 
fearless in stating the truth wiien it comes 
our turn to apologize and retract. 



THE TW^O METHODS BY "WHICH BEES 
PRODUCE SOUND. 

AN INTERBSTINO ITEM FROM ONE OF OUR GER- 
MAN COTEM FOR ARIES. 

f^HROUGH the kindness of Mr. C J. 
I*" II. Gravenhorst we are enabled to 
I present our readers with the beauti- 
ful engraving of the queen's respira- 
tory apparatus as below. The re- 
marks accompanying were taken from the 
Illustrierte Biemnzeitung , of Dec, 18S(3. of 
which Mr. Gravenhorst is tlie editor. The 
Germans are keen observers and close stu- 
dents ; and we doubt not, that, as tliis ques- 
tion as to how the queen emits sound has 
recently been discussed, our readers will 
take pleasure in reading the following 
translation : 

The Biefienw/fer contains a very fine article from 
the pen of the editor, in regard to the voice of 
queen-bees, which has greatly interested us. As is 
well known, the different views in regard to this 




RESPlRATOltY ORGANS OF QUEEN. 

point do not agree one with another. Ac<;ording 
to Mr. Treflfs theory, there is no doubt that bees, 
especially queens, have not onlv one voice, but 
also a second method of producing tones— the first 
by the movement of the wings, and the other by 
the respiratory organs. In the .first case we speak 
of the tone given out in fiight; in the latter, of a 
voice. The piping and teeting of the young queen 
is familiar to every apiarist. The first one is in- 
distinct on account of the inclosing cell. The voice 
of a fertilized (jueen, like that of the drone and 
worker bees, is less noticeable. Bees do not 
breathe by means of a mouth and lungs, but 
through openings, or air-holes, called stigmata, of 
which there are two pairs on the under side of the 
thorax, and Ave pairs on the abdomen ^isue a, b, c, 
d, e, in the cut). Through these stigmata, the air 
enters through curiously made tubes, called tra- 
chea-, which, in the abdomon, expand into sacks of 
ooasiderable size, la the midst of this bi-eatting- 



170 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



apparatus the voice of the bee is produced, similar 
to the way a tone is produced in whistling. The 
trachete constitute the pipes, and the eurtain- 
lilse film of chitin, which lies around the alr-open- 
ing-s, represents the tong-ue. By means of the ex- 
pelled air, the Jilm is caused to give forth a tremu- 
lous tone. Now, the alidomen of a perfect queen is 
more strongly developed than is that of drones or 
workers; hence queens are able to give out a loud- 
er and stronger tone, piping and teeting; and even 
in a virgin state this tone is much stronger than 
when the body is distended by a full ovary and 
swollen oviduct, as shown at E and V in the cut. 
This is the reason why we hear weaker and less 
frequent tones from fertile queens. 



pafiBaeg ;«]\[d gwi^DiiE^ 



E notice by the Western Rural, that 
Mr. F. E. Fross, the man who gives 
away corn, is starting up again. This 
is what they say: 

f . -E. ?')■«.¥.».— F. E. Fross, of Ohio, sends 
to the Rural for its advertising rates. Our rates are 
a million dollars an inch to such people as you, Mr. 
Fross, and if that should not be high enough to 
keep you out of our columns, we should raise our 
rates. We have no use for you, your corn, or your 
methods. 

That is the talk, good friends of the Rural, 
and we hope every paper will follow suit. 
We are willing to do almost every thing in 
the world to accommodate square men, but 
we have not space for a fraud, no matter 
how much money he has to pay for the space. 



NEIGHBOR H. GIVES US A TALK ON 
CLOVER-SEED. 



WHEN AND HOW TO SOW. 

TTp S this is the time of year when every bee- 
qM^ keeper begins to inquire, " What shall I sow 

J^w or plant for bee pasture? " I will try to give 
■*•"*■ you a few pointers. I recommend clover. 
It is the greatest honey-plant of America, 
and alsike stands at the head. We don't half ap- 
preciate it. 

We should sow it everywhere— sow it on the 
roadside where tbe teams have cut up the sod, 
to keep out of the mud; sow it where the pigs have 
rooted up the sod in the orchard or pasture; give 
the boy a pocketful when he goes fishing, and tell 
him to scatter some wherever he sees a piece of 
bare ground on the creek-bank; put an under- 
drawn in the cat-swamp, and sow some there; burn 
up all the brush-piles and old stumps, and sow al- 
sike in the ashes. Kemember that it make^ the 
best pasture and hay of any plant that grows. 
Don"t forget to mix a little white clover with it. 
They grow well together, and, at the price it is sell- 
ing now, it is the cheapest grass-seed in the market. 

PEAVINE CLOVER. 

This, as a honey-crop, comes the last of July and 
the fore part of August, just the time when we 
need it most. It is the great crop to reclaim worn- 
out or poor land. There is no clay land too poor 
to raise a good crop of it. With 1.50 or 200 lbs. of 
good phosphate or bone-meal per acre, you are 
very sure of getting a good seed of clover after 
oats, on the poorest clay soil, and you will get oats 
enough at 2.5 cents per bushel to pay for your fer- 
tilizer, and get your clover-crop extra. If you 
have oorn-stubble on last year's sod-ground you 
will get a better clover njetKiow by oultivatiag it 



with a disk or Acme harrow, or a two-horse culti- 
vator, and drilling oats both ways, than to plow 
the ground. I have tried it by plowing every oth- 
er narrow land, and I get the best meadow every 
time where the old sod is left down. If you wish to 
raise seed, you must save the first crop of peavine 
or alsike. H. B. Hakkington. 

Medina, O., Feb. 31, 1887. 



OUR P. BENSON LETTER. 



BEE-KEEPIN AS A OCKYOII I'ASHEN. 

TT is no ockyoupashen in life more condoocive to 
jM employment. Evry 1 in the land shood keep 
^1 bees from the l.OOU.OOO air a goin around with 

"*■ his gold-hedded cane to the tramp which brakes 
into Pringgal's skewl hous every iiite to sleep. 
If evry man wooman & chiled hed a swarm of bees, 
whatasoarce of happyness it would be. Besides 
these they ar sum uther classes whiteh it is verry 
appropreS to keep bees. 

For instants, the farmer. Woarn out. fateeged. 
weary and tired with the care and toil and fateeg 
of hayin & harvestin, as he cums in all hot and 
played out, whot a releef it is to hev his mind di- 
verted and his boddy refreshed by the soothin in- 
flewents of hivin a swarm. Also the preecher. 




BEE-KEEPIN AS A OCKYOUPASHEN FOR THE PARMER 
AN HIS FAMLEV. 

Now if ennybuddy in the wurld ot to keep bees its 
a preecher. Whot ennoblin thots arises in the ex- 
pansiv vishensof the mind of 1 whiteh contemplates 
the vass abiss of nacher in whiteh floats dreemily 
backerds & forrerds a baskin in the solar light of 
the sun a 1,000 or may by a 1,000,000 tiny creechers 
stiled insex a floatin on thair gozzy wings, a dartin 
& a flyin. now here, now thair, a storin thair hun- 
nied sweets in thair waxen sells, whiteh they will 
store more into 1 of mi noo hives than enny uther 
kind or variety. Under sitch intlewentses they is a 
sighlent charm & the thots Hows in his hed & brain, 
and wurds of silverr.v toned elloqnents exhails in 
hunnied a.xsents of bammy mildness and limi)id 
sweetness from his mellifioowus tung. * * * * * 

(Printer poot sum stars or sutliin to make a poz 
logg enuff to taik in the buty of that air last.) 

Then if the preecher gits boath ize stung shut, 
heel be blind to the faults of the peapel & look with 
a more leanyent i on thair fuilins, whiteh sum pea- 
pel has a good menny. If he is stung into 1 i, when 
he goze into the poolpit a little girl will snicker, and 
that will help to keep people awake. 

Also the invalid is espeshelly faverrable for the 
bizness. I think I have saw this stated hrfour. 
The invalid wants sum lite bizness & hede otto 
keep bees for life. Il's a veny lite bizness. The 
bees will lite all over him. P, Benson. 

Apiculturistioal Bee-Keepin Sigheutist. 



1887 



GLEAN 1:NGS lis BEE CULTURE. 



171 



NEW EXPBHIMENTS 



To Determine the Proportion of Honey Used 
by Bees in the Production of Wax. 

THE PROPORTION OF HONEY CONSUMED TO MAKE 

A POUND OF WAX IS AS SIX OF THE FORMER 

TO ONE OF THE LATTER. 

ITp S the iliscussioii of foundiition or no 
^Kj foundation, and economy in the pro- 
j^l dnction of wax, is now before our 
■^^ readers, our friend Dr. Miller has re- 
ferred us to an article in one of our 
foreign exchanges, the Bulletin d' Apiculture 
de la Suisse Bomande, wvitten by that shrewd 
observer G. de Layeus. Our proof-reader, 
W. P. Root, translates it as follows : 

In the following- experiments I was not altogether 
occupied with the idea of ascertaining wliether 
bees build combs more or less mechanically with 
this or that Jiiud of sugar; 1 simply tried to keep 
track of the quantity of honey the bees disposed of 
in working in the apiary, unrestricted, at a time 
when they chose to do that work. 

The experiments made up to the present time 
differ so much one with another, that all methods 
are deceptive, and this is why it seemed to be in- 
teresting and profitable to recommence them on a 
ditferem line of procedure. 

Two questions, which have often been confound- 
ed in practice, and which should be carefully dis- 
tinguished, present tliemselves at the outset. 

First, when the honey-How is heavy it is never ad- 
vantageous to let the bees make wax, even when it 
costs but little to produce that wax; for, on the one 
hand, if one gives to the bees a few frames to 
build out, among a great number already built 
out, in order that, in building them, they may lind 
sufficient room in the finished combs to store all the 
honey they gather, they will nearly always build 
drone combs. On the other hand, if one gives them 
frames only, to bring them to the condition of 
swarming, they will then build a large number of 
worker-cells; but not being able to place in these 
new frames for storage all the honey they gather, 
the prosecution of the work in wax will not go hand 
in hand with the harvest. 

We see, then, that at the time of a heavy flow it is 
alwai s preferable not to allow any work on wax to 
be done; but when, on the contrary, the flow is fee- 
ble, is it more or less advantageous to allow bees to 
work on wax? That is the sole question I shall try 
to answer. 

The processes of experimenting, which, up to the 
present time, appear to be the best, are, in short, to 
choose two co'ouies, A and B, of equal size, of which 
the one. A, contains frames to be filled, and the oth- 
er, B, the finished combs. After a certain time, the 
honey gathered by B is weighed, then that by A, 
then the quantity of wax produced; the difierence 
between the weight of honey, compared with that 
of the wax produced, gives the proportion of the 
honey to the wax. 

This method is subject to various errors. 

1. When the queens are of exactly the same fe- 
cundity they do not lay, in the same number of 
days, exactly the same quantity of eggs, because, 
in one of the hives, there is, after the first day, all 
the room necessary to lay— room which does not 
exist in a colony that builds little by little. Then 
at the end of the experiments there will be more 
brood in the one than in the other, as the one uses 
ditferent honey from the other — a difierence which 
has not been taken into consideration. 

2. It is generally believed, that if one selects, 
from an apiary, two colonies of the same strength, 
and of the same apparent activity, he can, without 
great error, compare the work of the two colonies; 
but it is often quite otherwise, as I am about to 
prove. 

Having visited two colonies, Nos. 1 and 2, of 
which No. 1 was about twice as strong as No. 2, 1 in- 
creased the two colonies to the swarming condition. 
The bees thus becoming free to gather the crop ac- 
cording to their respective size, as they had no 
more brood in their hives, I weighed accurately the 
honey gathered by each of them at the close of a 
good day for honey. No. 1 had gathered 2 kilo- 
grams 140 grams* while No. 2 had gathered 2 k. 030— 

*A kiluvriam may be reckoned as a little more than 2 ll)s. 
5 oz. A tliousaud grams make a kilogram. 



that is to say, nearly as much, while it should have 
gathered at least a half less. 

This year Mr. Bertrand proved to the contrary 
these same results. One colony gathered '61 k., 
while another, of about the same lorce, gathered, in 
about the same time, 18 k. The question here is 
not to explain these facts, but to prove that all ex- 
periments which depend upon a simple comparison 
of the work of two colonies of the same force, can 
inspire no confidence. Here are the circumstances 
under which I made my experiments: 

1. The colonies worked freely in the apiary in the 
ordinary way, in order not to change the normal 
condition of their work. 

2. The experiments were made at a time of year 
when the temperature was high— the highest at least 
20 degrees Centigrade (70 Fahr.)— a temperature at 
which bees show a preference for a free state in 
order to make wax. 

3. I selected, for my experiments, a time when 
the honey-flow was poor, in order to be sure that 
those colonies which built, as well as those that did 
not build, could find sullicient room in the combs to 
store all the honey they gathered. 

4. I selected from the apiary two colonies of bees 
dittering in the number of worker bees and brood, 
but which seemed, apparently, to work with the 
same energy. These two colonies, which I will des- 
ignate by A for the stronger and B the weaker, 
were the only two which were brought up to the 
swarming condition. 

A received T finished combs; then I inserted 
among these combs some frames for them to fill out. 
In this way I was sure to compel the bees to finish 
the combs, and that room should never be lacking 
for stores in the finished combs, in order that the 
queen might not be hindered in the least in her 
laying. 

B received eight finished frames, so that the bees 
could not make wax in the wrong place. 

5. I made two experiments in succession, each 
one lasting exactly eight days. At the end of the 
eighth day all the frames were taken away from the 
hives and replaced by others, but in a contrary 
way; that is, B then built combs, and A was kept 
from building. This method of increase was very 
important, for it permitted one, in working with 
any two colonies whatever, to obtain comparable 
results, summing up at the end of the experiments 
ail their mutual diflerences. 

6. At the end of these experiments, the honey 
gathered by A and B was added (these colonies 
made wax); at last the wax produced by the two 
colonies was added; but on account of great damp- 
ness the honey gathered during the IB days of ex- 
perimenting contained much water, so that at the 
end of the two periods none of the cells were yet 
sealed. The very thin liquid honey contained more 
water than sealed honey; and in order to eliminate 
this source of error I ascertained the density of 
the sealed honey and that ol the honey which had 
been gathered. Alterward, in adding a sulficieut 
quantity of water to the sealed honey, so as to give 
it the same density as that which was not sealed, 1 
could easily find the quantity of water which the 
thin liquid honey contained in excess, which had 
been gathered, and subtracted this quantity of wa- 
ter fiom my calculations. 

To sum up, the difierence of honey gathered by 
the colonies which built cells, and those which did 
not build, indicated the weight of honey used to 
make a certain amount of wax. 

7. During the iti da.\ s of experimenting, the 
queens laid unequally, as they were of unequal fe- 
cundity; but it might have been that, during this 
period, the egg-laying did not go on constantly In 
the same proportion of inequality. That was, in 
ettect, what took place. In the hives which did not 
build, the queens laid I(i,0ti4 eggs; in the hives 
which did build, the queens laid lb,tj3f eggs. This 
slight difierence in brood represents the consump- 
tion of honey, of which the weight should be added 
to that gathered by the colonies which built; but as 
the eggs did not hatch till the close of three days, 
and as it was only at this moment that tliey com- 
menced to use feed, only 358 larvti^ were fed, whose 
consumption of honey it is necessary to determine. 
According to the experiments of Berlepsch, the 
consumption of honey and pollen sluiuld have been 
47 grams, to furnish sutlicient feed till the y.5(< larva* 
should hatch out. According to other experiments 
which I made on this subject, 1 found that the bees 
used, to feed the larva', nearly as much honey as 
pollen, of which 25 grams of honey was the maximum 



172 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



amount used in order that the bees might feed a 
part of this brood, in which only a part of the cells 
were hatched. 

To sum up: The ditfereuce in honey g^athered was 
1 k. 203 grams. 

The wax produced was 191 grams. 

The bees used 6.!! grams of honey to produce one 
gram of wax. 

In the preceding experiments, the bees com- 
menced to build combs in eight frames; and as the 
honey-flow was feeble, except the first day, they 
could build little else than worker-cells; I say little 
else, for in the corner of a large finished frame they 
built some drone-cells. These cells were built the 
first day, when the honey-flow was strongest (about 
3 k. per day). 

In practice, it happens that one can make work- 
er comb for the bees economically enough bj' fur- 
nishing them honey at a low price. We find, for in- 
stance, that foreign honey in the Havre market can 
be had for from 50 to 60 francs per 100 k. (or f 9.37'/3 
to .¥10.3.5 per 3.50 lbs.); but to obtain these results, 
three conditions are necessary: 

1. A light honey-flow. 

3. Take away the frames of brood from a colony, 
and replace them by unfinished combs, inserting 
them between the full ones. These frames of 
brood should be given to feeble colonies. 

3. Don't let them build, except at a high tempera- 
ture. 

We are exceedingly obliged to our friend 
across the water, for his suggestion of using 
two colonies, and then make them change 
about occasionally. A series of experiments 
conducted in this way must give us some 
pretty accurate facts. Perhaps we had bet- 
ter say. in our text-l)ooks, tliat, instead of 
20 lbs. of honey to make one pound of wax, 
from 6 to 8 ll)s. is enough. We are the more 
ready to accept this, as it seems to confirm 
the result of friend Ilasty's experiments, 
given on page (3-42, 1886, and also friend Vi- 
allou's, given at the National Convention at 
New Orleans. 



MAKING BEESWAX. 



RENDERING OUT WAX FROM OLD COMBS— FRIEND 
FRANCE'S METHOD. 



T SUPPOSE that every bee-keeper makes more or 
jMp less wax. If he doesn't, he surely is wasting 
]IL material which could be made into wax, and so 
■*■ saved. I don't like to see any scraps of wax or 
bits of comb, or any thing that has beeswax in 
it, going to waste. Wax is worth money. There is 
always a cash market for all we can get. We keep 
at home a box into which we put every thing we have 
which will make wax— that is, scraps of comb, old 
discarded combs, or any thing we are going to melt 
up into wax. We always take with us, when we go 
to our yards away from home, a box holding nearly 
a bushel. Into this we put such things as scrapings 
of honey-boards, broken combs, drone combs, which 
we cut out, or any bits of comb. These we carry 
home, to be melted up. It is not then lying around, 
breeding moths. When it is made into wax there is 
a cash value in it, and it can be turned into cash at 
any time, or kept, if we choose to hold it for a higher 
price. 

Now, after having saved up the material out of 
which to get the wax, how are we going to separate 
the wa.x from the refuse matter with which it is 
mixed, so as not to waste the wax, and at the same 
time not waste too much time';" I suppose the sup- 
ply-dealers would say, " Buy one of our wax-ex- 
tractors." Now, it may be that they are the best 
thing in use forthe purpose. I don'tknow. I never 
used one. But after I had seen them, and watched 



other folks use them, I thought it was too puttering 
a job. I have bought wax which had been worked 
out with them, and had wax sent me to work up in- 
to foundation, which was made with them. But 
generally there was more or less honey about the 
wax, and I was obliged to melt the wax in water to 
get rid of the honey. 

Let me tell you how I have rendered out my wax. 
I have used the same plan, with slight changes, for 
about forty years; but I will say, that I never was 
satisfied with the plan. Alterl had become theown- 
er of from 50 to 100 colonies of bees I took possession 
of the old rusty clothes-boiler, and purchased the 
wife a new one in its stead. I placed the old boiler 
over the fire in the kitchen, put in a large pailful of 
water, and then filled the boiler with such material 
as I had on hand, to be melted into wax. I have a 
good stout stick to stir it up when the water gets 
hot. The wax will melt and settle down. Put in 
more comb, and press it down into the water. Con- 
tinue putting in and stirring, until the boiler is 
within two inches of being full; then stop putting 
in, but keep stirring until all is melted. Don't leave 
the boiler a moment now, for it is likely to boil over 
on the stove. Keep a dish of cold water within 
reach; for if it boils it will foam up and run over. 
If it can not be kept down by stirring, pour in a 
pint of cold water. As soon as it is all melted, take 
it off the fire and strain out the wax. For a strain- 
er we have used cheese-cloth; but thin open cotton 
cloth was the best of any thing we ever tried. It is 
a yard wide. Take a piece a yard long for a strain- 
er. Now we want a squeezer. Take two pieces of 
dressed inch lumber, about two feet long by five or 
six inches wide. Trim off the edges of the boards 
at one end, so as to make a good handle. Now lay 
them together, the wide ends one way. Fasten on 
a good stout leather hinge, to hold the wide ends to- 
gether; let the leather run up well on the sides of 
the boards, and tack fast and our squeezer is ready. 
We next need a pan to strain into, and something 
into which to throw our rubbish. 

We are now ready to strain. We want a dipper 
capable of holding about a quart or more, and one 
chair or bo.x, for the one who does the squeezing, to 
sit on. It takes two persons to do this job— one to 
squeeze and one to twist the strainer. Now set the 
chair at one end of the boiler, just a little to one 
side; set the pan to catch the wax, close by the side 
of the boiler. Let the one who does the squeezing 
sit down in the chair. The other person takes the 
strainer, and stands at the other side of the pan, 
with two corners of the strainer in one hand and the 
3d corner of the strainer in his other hand. The one 
sitting takes the fourth corner of the strainer in his 
left hand, and together they hold the strainer open 
o^'er the pan. The one in the chair takes the dipper 
in his right hand, and dips out of the boiler into the 
strainer one or two quarts, then hands his corner of 
the strainer to the other person and picks up his 
squeezers, taking them by the two handles. He 
then opens them out, holding them over the pan. 
The other person then puts the strainer between 
the squeezers, and twists up the strainer while the 
other man, the one in the chair, squeezes. The 
strainer is turned two or three times, shaken down, 
squeezed, and twisted until the wax is out, and the 
rubbish is thrown out. The whole operation is again 
repeated until all that floats on the water is strain- 
ed. Both pan and boiler are allowed to stand and 
cool, when there will be a thin cake of wax on the 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



il3 



water in the boiler, and a good cake of wax in the 
pan with some water under it. What comes out of 
the boiler will require melting over, as it is not 
strained. 

Such a batch usually will make from 10 to 20 lbs. 
of wax; anti lor tliose who have but few bees, this 
plan is a very good one. The objections are, 1. It 
doesn't get all the wax out clean; 3. It bursts too 
many strainers, and they cost 5 cts. apiece; 3. It 
takes two persons too much time to dt) the straining. 

I have studied over this wax business a great deal; 
for as our bees increased it was taking so much 
time. Finally, in the spring of 1W6 ] accidentally 
made a dise(i\er\ which, for a large job at least, is 
very much more satisfactorj-. We had several sets 
of combs from which the bees deserted in the spring. 
After the hard freezing was over, the weather came 
on hot early, and those combs became wormy before 
we eould use them. There was a large number of 
them, and the worms had got under such headway 
that it was not safe to put them in with the bees— 
not even the Italians. They therefore had to be 
melted up, and I could not get them through my 
boiler fast enough. We had a big iron kettle stand- 
ing out there in the yard, that would hold about 
four bushels of potatoes to boil for the hogs. I got 
my eye on that kettle. A thought struck me (so 
hard that 1 nearlyjumpedoutof my boots). "There 
is the wax-extractor that I have been looking for so 
long, standing there waiting to be used." I had 
three or four pails of water in it and a flre_ under it 
right speedily, and soon had it hot. Those worms 
quit eating beeswax. It is astonishing how much I 
could nioU down in that kettle. 1 let the Are go 
down. So much wax i-oseon top (as the mass cooled 
off) that I dipped off, of clean wax, 35 lbs., nii'i strain- 
ed it at one squeeze. I then dipped out a large milk- 
pan full which I did not strain. As the wax, in the 
pan cooled it sank in the center. I dipj)ed otit of 
the kettle all the wax I could, and then let it stand 
two days. At the expiration of that time I took a 
crust otf the top of thekettle, abouttwoinches thick, 
that took enough wax with it to hold it in chunks. 
Tnder the crust the rubbish did not contain a par- 
ticle of wax. I threw the top crust into a box. clean- 
ed out the kettle, then put back the cakes dipped 
otf before, not strained. Besides these I put in a lot 
of trimmings from foundation, a nice lot of clean 
cappings, and some unfinished cakes from my boiler 
process. I melted them all up together, with three 
or four pails of water in the kettle. I then strained 
out two large dish-pans full of clean wax, one 
squeeze for each pan. I dipped the wax out pretty 
clean, then put in the rest of the wormy combs. 
The crust was first taken olf the top of the kettle, of 
the other batch. When I got the second batch hot I 
dipped off all the wax I could, which was put in the 
first of the next batch. 

With the big kettle we have worked out all our 
wax the past season. It is a big improvement. Its 
advantages are, 1. It takes much less time; 3. There 
is absolutely no waste. I get every particle of wax, 
and one strainer lasted all summer. Of course, 
when the bees would work on honey it would not do 
to work wax out of doors unless we wanted to cook 
the bees, for hot beeswax has a great attraction for 
bees, and they would fly into the wax in search of 
honey. E. France. 

Platteville, Grant Co., Wis., Feb. 1, 1887. 

Friend F.. a good deal of time was occu- 
pied at the Albany Convention in discussing 



this matter of rendering wax, and I believe 
quite a few decided just as you have done, 
that a large iron kettle, hung up outdoors, 
is the very cheapest thing that can be used 
where the quantity of old combs is large. 
One of the brothers, whose name I can not 
now recall, spoke of putting all the combs in 
a coarse bag, and confining this bag under 
the water contained in tlie kettle, by means 
of a wire cloth. As soon as the whole appa- 
ratus gets hot, the principal part of the wax 
rises through the bag and meshes of wire 
cloth, to the surface, and may be dipped off. 
This makes the work automatic, as it were. 
It is perfectly strained, and is therefore fit 
for market as fast as it is taken from the 
surface of the water. When no more wax 
will arise, get out the bag while it is still 
hot, and press it with your squeezers, or 
some arrangement similar to a cheese or ci- 
der p]-ess. The size of the apparatus would 
depend on the amount of combs to be work- 
ed. You do not speak of the solar wax- 
extractor, and I presume you have not tried 
it ; but why not, instead of pitching your 
waste fragments into a box, pitch them di- 
rectly into the solar wax-extractor, and let 
old Sol get the wax out at his leisure V 



EMPTY FRAMES VS. EMPTY COMBS. 



SHALL WE trSE OUR SURPLUS EMPTV COMBS, WHEN 
HIVING NEW SWARMS, FOR COMB HONEY 'f 

FEEL quite certain that neither friend West nor 
friend Doane would wish to give a wrong im- 
pression; yet, from a lack of sufficient data, 
that is what has unintentionally been done up- 
on page 93. In the first place I did not work ")') 
colonies for comb honey. It is true that I set aside 
that number in the spring with the intention of 
running them for comb honey, but, before any sec- 
tions were filled, five of the colonies were broken up 
into queen-rearing nuclei; so friend Doane and I 
began the season with exactly the same number of 
colonies; /jut, his colonies were stronyer than mine. 
His hives were ten-frame hives, while mine held 
only eight; hence he had in use 100 more combs- 
enough to have ipade 13^2 more colonies like mine. 
If ray opponents think this view unfair, let me ask 
if they would have considered it so had I changed 
my colonies over into ten-frame hives, thus making 
only 40 colonies of my 50? Right here, however, 
comes in another point, and that is, that some 
queens will put no more brood in a ten-frame than 
in an eight-frame hive (and that is why I use the 
latter), while many of them will; hence it would 
probably be unfair to assume that 50 ten-frame col- 
onies are equal to 631/2 eight-frame colonies; but I do 
insist that, in a comparison like this, it is unfair to 
assume that an eight-frame colony is the equal of a 
ten-frame one. Perhaps 50 ten-frame colonies would 
be equal, as honey-gatherers, to 57 eight-frame ones. 
In regard to the ariiount of surplus, friend West is 
nearly correct. I had 300 lbs. more than he gave me 
credit for; viz., 7000 lbs. As he said nothing in re- 
gard to the shape in which the honey was secured, 
and as I raise comb honey, I presume the readers of 
Gleanings concluded that it was all of that class. 
Such is not the case; for 300 lbs. of mine was ex- 
tracted, at the close of the season, from about 1000 
unfinished sections, and the rest was in the shape of 



174 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUEE. 



Mab. 



finished sections; while, if my memory serves me 
right, about 1500 lbs. of the 6500 lbs. raised by friend 
Doane was extracted. 

Yes, it is true that I had to feed my bees sug'ar 
syrup in the fall, but not so much as I wish I could 
have done. We had a good flow of honey, late in 
the fall, from the second crop of red clover, and the 
bees not only filled the brood-nests so full that but 
little feeding- was needed, but stored considerable 
in the sections. Upon an average, about 5 lbs. of 
sugar per colony was fed. 

I have no desire, however, to lead my readers to 
suppose that the non-use of full sheets of fdn. in 
the brood-nest, when hiving swarms, will lead to 
such brilliant results as the readingof this article to 
this point would indicate, as the question of increase 
is yet to be considered. My .')0 colonies increased to 
96, while friend Doane's went up to 135. 

Let us reduce some of these things to their cash 
value. We will call empty combs worth 10 cts. each; 
sugar, ay^ cts. ; extracted honey, 6 cts. ; comb honey, 
13 cts. My comb-honey crop would sell for $816. 
From this there should be deducted, for section 
boxes and fdn., about $68.00, leaving $748 for comb 
honey. To this add $13.00 for the 300 lbs. of extract- 
ed honey, making the net result $760. From this 
amount, however, there must be deducted $39.69 for 
sugar, which leaves only $736.31. 

Friend Doane's 5000 lbs. of comb honey, at this 
same price, and with the same deductions for sec- 
tions and fdn., would be worth $5.50; to this add 
$90.00 lor the 1.500 lbs. of extracted honey, making 
$640; but from this must be deducted $75.00 for 
empty combs used, which leaves, as a net result, 
$.565. 

The question now resolves Itself into this: Which 
is preferable at the end of the season— 30 colonies 
of bees, or $171.31 worth of honey? And let it not 
be forgotten, that, as already explained, eight-frame 
colonies are not ten-frame colonies. 

And now, after having given this long explana- 
tion, I wish to say that I don't think it contains 
much proof either for or against the non-use of full 
sheets of fdn. in the brood-nest when hiving 
swarms. To be of any value, experiments of this 
class should be performed in the same apiary, with 
the same kind of hives, fixtures, and management, 
and the same strain of bees. I also wish to say, 
that the profitable production of honey does not de- 
pend upon large yields per colony, but upon secur- 
ing it with the least expenditure of capital and 
labor. W. Z. Hutchinson. 

Rogersville, Genesee Co., Mich., Feb. 7, 1887. 

It is true, Mend H., that the report of Mr. 
Doane gives notliing very definite; but still 
it indicates, or seems to indicate, the ad- 
vantage can not be so very great in the dis- 
posing of our surplus empty combs. Lang- 
stroth called empty combs the sheet-anchor 
in bee-keeping, and I believe he said they 
are better than money in the bank; and I 
confess I have been quite loth to give up 
this established axiom, as it were, in bee 
culture.— In regard to eight and ten frame 
hives, it seems to me that this matter de- 
pends much on what montl) the estimate is 
made. Very few colonies in our locality 
need more than eight frames before the 
middle of April or first of May ; and if I 
were buying bees without regard to the 
hives that contained them, I would as soon 
have those in eight-frame hives as ten- 



frame hives, say by the first of April. By 
the first of May I should expect a good deal 
of pollen; and some brood, perhaps, would 
be stored in the ninth and tenth combs. A 
ten-frame hive would be likely to contain 
more honey by the first of April than an 
eight-frame hive, and this honey should be 
worth something. So far as the amount of 
bees is concerned, however, I don't see that 
there will be ordinarily much difference. 
We rarely give any of our colonies more 
than seven combs to winter on. The space 
for the extra ones is occupied by the chaff 
division-boards until toward Mav^ 



DOOLITTLE'S QUEEN-CELL PROTECT- 
OB AND INTBODUCING-CAGE. 



A NEW AND CHEAP QUEEN-CAGE. 



§OME time ago friend Doolittle sent us 
one of his queen-cell protectors. It 
was simply a square piece of wire cloth 
folded in tlie form of a cone, the sides 
overhippiug. Into this Mr. D. had 
put a queen-cell from which the queen had 
hatched. The large end of the cone was 
stopped with a circular piece of wood. A 
small piece of tinned wire attached to the 
end served to suspend the wire-cloth cone 
containing the queen-cell between the combs. 
After considering the matter we decided 
that, with our facilities, there was a much 
nicer and better way to make the cone- 
shaped cages : that is, to stamp them out, 
so here they are. 




Fig. 1 



Fig. 



C^UEKN-CELL PROTECTOR. 

Our readers would doubtless like to know 
liow to make them. A wooden punch of 
hard wckkI is turned down to an inch and a 
fourth in size. One end of the punch is 
made conical, the cone being the same size 
and shape of Fig. 2. A two-inch hole is 
bored in a block of wood two inches thick. 
Next put the wooden pimch, the cone end 
downward, exactly in the center of the two- 
inch hole in the block. Around this pour 
some melted lead or babbitt metal (prefera- 
bly the latter), until the hole in the block is 
Iqvel full of metal. Allow this to cool, and 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



175 



then draw out the wooden punch. Like a 
'' duck's foot in the mud," the cionical punch 
will tit tlie inverted cone exactly. Your 
tool is now ready for making the wire cones 
as in Fig. 2. 

To make the cone, take a piece of wire 
cloth 31 inches square. Place this so that its 
center is just over the center of the hole in 
the babbitt metal. The punch is now put 
in the center of the wire cloth, and a couple 
of light strokes with a hammer drives the 
wire clotli into the shape seen in Fig. 2, with 
the exception of the small end, which is 
closed. With the point of a pencil, crowd 
the central mesh in the apex until of the size 
of tlie pencil. 

You observe in Fig. 2, that the corners 
are spread out. The queen-cell is placed 
snugly in the cone. The corners are then 
drawn together, and a short piece of wire 
twists the ends together as in Fig. 1. The 
surplus wire should be long enough to hang 
down between the frames. When the queen 
hatches she has only to crawl out at the 
small end of the cone! 

Bees have a mania, sometimes, for tearing 
down queen-cells, and I have sometimes 
found it a very difficult matter indeed to get 
the bees to accept cells at all. If I had had 
one of these queen-cell protectors, I think I 
should have succeeded. 

There is another use to which this cage 
might be put ; that is, introducing fertile 
queens. The idea came to us quite incident- 
ally, and we feel pretty sure it will work, al- 
though never haviiig tried it. The cage as 
in Fig. 1 would be the one we should use. 
Put the queen to be introduced into the end 
of the cage, and then stop it up with a small 
plug of Good candy. The cage is then to be 
suspended between the frames. In the pro- 
cess of time the candy will be eaten out by 
the bees, and the queen liberated. Our 
readers will observe that this principle of 
introducing is the same as in the Klimitz 
cage, which we have tried, and know will 
work. 

We can furnish these cages with printed 
instructions, at the same price as given in 
Gleanings before ; i. e., 3 cts. each ; 15 cts. 
for lU, or $1.00 per 100. If wanted by mail, 
add 3 cts. for 10, or 20 cts. per 100. 

Ernest. 
— ^ — • — ^^— 

MR. THOMAS HORN. 

AT.SO SOMETHING IN REGARD TO THE RESPONSI- 
BILITY OF EDITORS. 



N response to our editorial of Feb. 1st, 

fi2 persons have reported having sent 

^r Mr. Horn money, amounting to S440.00, 

for which little or no return was ever 

mad^. Among the whole number, only 

two parties iiave claimed that I ought to 

pay back the money sent to Mr. Horn. The 

first one is as follows : 

Mr. Ro(it:—l wrote you last season regarding an 
unsatisfactory transaction with Thomas Horn. I 
received no satisfaction from Mr. Horn. 1 have 
postponed writing to you thus long, in accordance 
with your request in Gleanings. I have always 
been dealt with in a straightforward manner by 
yourself, and I desire to continue such dealing, if 



this matter of Mr. Horn is adjusted satisfactorily. 
Now, In this matter T consider that any paper (this, 
too, is o!ily the popular verdict) in which I see an 
advertisement, is the' first party to a transaction, 
the advertisers the second; therefore with me I 
consider Gleanings responsible for ten dollars, 
sent to Thos. Horn last May, which, to date, has 
failed to put in an appearance, or value thereof. 
If you are willing to make the matter right— that 
is, the principal, I will charge no interest, and will 
take it out in goods and subscription to Glean- 
ings, and in future shall compel them (if such 
parties get an order from me) to take the money 
from you, with your permission (myself first send- 
ing it to you). 

I send you the letters received from Mr. Horn. 
I have sent you a great deal of money, first and 
last. You spoke in Gleanings of Mr. Horn's ad- 
vertising the season previously. So be did. I 
looked it up. Please do so yourself. That adver- 
tisement was not the catch-penny affair of 1886. 
In 18.H5, Aug. and Sept., Mr. Horn says, "Look 
here." In May, 188(5, " Horn pays express charges!" 
It blossoms out clear across Gleanings, "Pure 
Italians exclusively," and with "Stop! read and 
order!" This attracts orders to his pocket, and 
that, it seems, is the end of the order. Having lost 
bees quite heavily in the winter of 1885, 1 ordered, 
relying on your superior facilities for knowing 
what your advertisers' responsibility amounted to. 
If I am to lose this money, please take my name off 
your subscription list, and for numbers sent, Jan. 
1st and 1.5th, I will pay for them. Please return Mr. 
Horn's letter, which I send as registei-ed mail- 
matter. Geo. T. Remington. 

Wilmington, Del., Jan. 24, 1887. 

Friend R., if I pay you back the money 
you have lost, of course it is my duty to pay 
the other $430.00 in the same way. Where an 
editor, by carelessness, or even by being de- 
ceived, permits a deliberate swindler to 
gain access to his columns, I can pretty 
nearly if not quite agiee with you ; but if 
we are to be responsible in all cases where 
losses come, bow are we to know before- 
hand which one of the brethren is likely to 
fail in business, and which one is not? 
Our facilities for getting at the responsibili- 
ty of our advertisers are certainly superior 
to those of our readers. You" say Mr. 
Horn's advertisement, to the effect that he 
would pay express charges, etc., bears upon 
the face of it the appearance of ■ a catch- 
penny affair. So it did seem; but now- 
adays, good substantial men often make 
pretty liberal offers to secure custom. We 
made careful inquiries in regard to Mr. 
Horn ; and not only his postmaster, but the 
officers of the bank in the town where he 
resides, pronounced him all right. He had 
also been doing business for several months 
in a satisfactory way. Suppose we had de- 
clined the advertisement, would he not have 
declared at once, publicly and privately, 
that A. I. Root would not accept any ad- 
vertisement that threatened to run against 
his own business, or that offered things at 
a lower rate than he did ? You know what 
has been said about publishers and supply- 
dealers, in this line. Since we are discuss- 
ing this matter, perhaps it would do no 
harm to speak quite plainly. When the Bee- 
k€eper''s Magazine came out with a flaming 



176 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



advertisement, to the effect that they had 
come down to 25 cts. a year, and also that 
they would send both Gleanings and 
the Magazine for $1.10 we felt somewhat 
anxious about the matter. If we refused to 
accept the advertisement, v/e were open to 
the charge of being afraid of our own pock- 
et-books : if we received it, and the journal 
were published for only a few months, then 
we shoidd be censured, just as you are cen- 
suring me now. Is it not true, that the on- 
ly thing we can do is to act according to the 
best of our judgment and wisdom V In re- 
gard to the Bee-keeper's Magazine, I am hap- 
py to say that the editors are very nice 
young men ; and, so far as we can tell, they 
are quite able to send out their journal sev- 
eral years, without getting more for it than 
the value of the paper u])ou which it is 
printed, if they choose to do so. I believe 
them to be honest and straightforward ; but 
I wish to be distinctly understood that I can 
not be in any way responsible for the success or 
failure of their new undertaking. Under the 
circumstances I am sorry to bid adieu to an 
old customer, but I do not see how I can do 
otherwise, conscientiously, friend R. Here 
is the other letter: 

Mr. Root :—l see by Gleaninos that Mr. Horn 
has authorized you to collect all claims against 
him. He is in debt to me some, but I'd rather have 
the letter he wrote me than his note for two years. 
As he says we can add 10 per cent for the use of 
the money, which would be unlawful in New York. 
6 per cent being the interest here, he could cheat 
us on the note, and with a good deal more honor, 
than be can as it is. Mr. Root, I want to show you 
how 1 got caught by him through you. I wrote you 
last spring, asking you if I could buy bees and 
queens by the pound, and turn them into the 
hives on my old combs (my bees having died the 
winter before), and make a success of it. Instead 
of answering my letter you sent me a postal card 
referring me to your A B G book, which vexed me 
at the time, I having heard you are a square man 
to deal with. I intended to buy the bees of you. 
I wanted ten pounds, bees and queens, so you see 
if you had answered direct, saying yes or no, I 
should not have been caught by Horn. 

Perry. N. Y., Feb. 3, 1887. James R. Wright. 

I confess that I was obliged to smile a 
little in reading the above, even though I 
am very, very sorry for our friend's losses. 
It looks to me sometliing this way : He 
came to our store to trade, and found us so 
full of business that we had not time to 
treat him as courteously as we should have 
done, therefore he goes and tiades at anoth- 
er store, and then blames me because he got 
into trouble. I am very sorry indeed that 
we are obliged to refer so many questioners 
to our price list and the ABC book ; but so 
many times the clerks have given answers 
to inquiries that were not at all what I 
wished, that I have repeatedly directed 
them to refer such inquirers to the ABC 
book, where I have answered such questions 
carefully and deliberately. There have 
been so many inquiries every spring in re- 
gard to buying bees to put iii hives left by 
the bees that have died, that I gave a page 
or two to the consideration of the matter, 
in the ABC book. The questions to be 



answered are something like this: How 
many bees shall I purchase with tlie queen V 
Shall I buy them in April, May. or June V 
Is it necessary that they have a brood -coml)? 
Will they make a full colony the lirst year V 
Shall I be likely to get any honey from 
them V Now, suppose I were to dictate to 
our shorthand writer this wliole story to 
many different inquirers, each spring. VVhy, 
I would almost rather give tliem a book 
apiece than undertake to do it. T miaht 
have some leaflets printed, so ;is to cover the 
ground, to give away, and I b-'lieve I will 
have it done this very spring' I am very 
sorry indeed to appear disobliring. and I be- 
lieve that those who have read (TLE.\NrNGs 
during these past years know that I do not 
mean to be; but, my friends, ilieie is a limit 
to the mental and physical strengtii of even 
a big strong man, and I am neither the one 
nor the other. 



HIVE-MAKING IN " THE HIBST STILE." 

FRIEND stover's SIT(ir,KSTI()N. 

fRIEND ROOT:— Being a mechanic. 1 have been 
considerably interested in the engraving on 
p. 378, ABC book. I also noticed your reply 
in GijEANings, to a query concerning the 
hexagonal beehive, saying Ihe inventor tiied 
to see what he could make. I herewith send .\ou a 
drawing of a proposed chaff hive, or hives, to be of 
the standard size. 



(V) CHAFf . 



n 




stover's tenement hive, adapted to THE LAWN 
OR FLOWER-GARDEN. 

The spire is to be 6 ft. high, covered with tapered 
shingles 2Vi inches wide. The staff on the spire is to 
have a flag, not shown in the cut. It will have all 
the brackets that are shown in your catalogue. I ex- 
pect to set it in my lawn along the street, in order 
to attract attention and make people "talk bees," 
which is the onlj' advantage 1 claim for it. I have 
been employed by neighbors to make chaff' hives; 
and the higher the bee-fever gets, the more hives 1 
can sell. I purchased two colonies last summer, 
more for the purpose of studying the nature of 
bees, than for gain. I am getting to be very much 
interested since studying the subject There is no 
telling where T shall stop. What do you think of 
the hive? Levi Stover. 

Brookville, Mont. Co., O.. Feb., 1HS7. 

I think, friend S., that it tills the bill 
pretty well, for all the advantages you claim 
for it, but you are very modest. Most of 
the patent-right bee-men would claim that 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



177 



the bees would make more honey in it, is 
easier to operate, and ever so many other 
things besides its attractive appearance. 



A PICTURE OF THE HOME OF ONE OF 
OUB ABC SCHOLARS. 

THE PLACE WHERE FRIEND HEACOCK " OETS 
HAPPY." 

E have had so many pictures of apia- 
ries that cost huge amounts of mon- 
ey, and tliat v^^ere the result of years 
of labor, 1 had thought it might be a 
little refresliing, by way of variety, 
to have at least one glimpse of an apiary be- 
longing to one of our boy bee-keepers— at 
least we call him a boy, for he is only 20 
years old. Here is the picture, dear friends. 



clear as it could be, and the thermometer stood at 
66 degrees at noon in the shade. 1 write to you 
this way, because every thing 1 know about bees I 
got from you. I caine here tliree years ago, and 
didn't know a bec^ froiii a yellow-jacket. So much 
tor reading your ABC and Gleanings. I am an 
ABC schohir only 20 years old, and not very stout. 
I never took a chew of tobacco nor tasted whisky. 
Volusia, Fla., Dec. 29, 1886. O. E. Heacock. 

Now, my young friend, 1 wonder if you 
know how mucli 1 like tlie ring of that last 
sentence of yours—'' I never took a chew 
of tobacco nor tasted whisky." May God 
grant that you can say that to the end of 
your life! How 1 should like to tiike a lialf- 
holiday down in that Peach-tree apiary I I 
wonder if tliere is^not a nice garden t'other 
side of that picket fence; and aren't there 




PEACH-TRKE APIARY, BELONGING TO ONE OF OVR BOY BEE-KEEPERS. 



Friend H. does not write a very long letter, 
so all I can tell you about this bright little 
spot away down South is what we gather 
from the brief letter below. 

what an a b c scholar says about gleani.ngs 

AND the ABC BOOK. 

I thought you would like to see bow an apiary 
looks in the far-oflf South, so I will sendjyou a )>ic- 
ture of mine. It was taken the 18th of Dec. While 
your bees in the North are housed up, ours are 
bringing in pollen. They have been carrying pol- 
len and honoy pretty fast for the last ten days. 
The peach-trees don't show very plain, for they 
were set out only last Febriiary; but they have 
grown very fast, as they are about ten feet high, 
and will bear peaches this next year. Christmas 
was the most beautiful day I ever saw. It was just as 



some orange-trees somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood that bear rusty Florida orangesV 
Our friend Nellie Adams has just sent us 
two boxes of tliose rich, sweet, juicy Florida 
oranges. Why, it almost makes me well 
and strong jiist to think how I have enjoy- 
ed them. They got bruised considerably on 
the trip, and some of them were likely to 
spoil unless they were used up pretty soon, 
and I concluded t was just the chap to help 
keep them from spoiling; and when T took 
my tramps across the fields I used to have a 
big orange in each pocket and one in each 
hand. But, about tlic Peach-tree apiary : 
If friend H. were not jiresent I would call 
attention to the fact of what a nice clean 
upright boy he is. He is rather tali, but he 
is honestiahd true. I do not know whether 



178 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



the comb fell out of the frame he is looking 
at so intently, on account of the hot weather 
away down in Florida, or whether the en- 
graver forgot to put it in. The small boy 
over there is probably his brother, and he, 
too, is having fun in the apiary. By the 
way, friends, did you know it is a grand 
thing to get small boys interested in bee- 
keeping? Perhaps it is a chunk of honey 
he is putting in his mouth, so as to prevent 
the honey from being v^asted (the way I did 
with the Florida oranges, you know). Nev- 
er mind the chunks of honey — they are bet- 
ter and cheaper than chunks of tobacco. 
The place is so pleasant that a couple of 
ladies have come out there to look it over. 
By the way, the best way to make any place 
in the world pleasant is to have the women- 
folks there. Friend H., why do you put 
your hives on stilts? Doesn't it bother the 
juvenile bees to climb up? I presume they 
never get chilled, however, in your sun- 
shiny clime. Well, God bless you all, boys 
and girls ; and if Uncle Amos goes down to 
Florida (which he hopes to do some time) he 
expects to visit the Peach-tree apiary. 



MRS. COTTON'S SYSTEM OF FEEDING 
BEES. 



EXPLAINED AND DEFENDED BY HERSELF. 



T AM requested to define clearly my position as to 
jaP feeding bees, through the columns of Glean- 
^l INGS, as there are many who mistake my posi- 
^ tion, and many who, either from a misunder- 
standing- or from a desire to misrepresent, are 
constantly publishing statements calculated to 
mislead the public. My plan of feeding is intend- 
ed to encourage the bees to breed rapidly in early 
spring, and to fui-nish the bees nearly all they re- 
quire for their own consumption, that we may ob- 
tain, in glass boxes, in the best possible marketable 
form, nearly all they collect from natural sources. 

If there were no honey obtainable from natural 
sources, it would not pay to feed bees; but it is 
plain to every intelligent person, that, in order to 
receive the greatest possible profit from bees, they 
must be fed. The only question is, how, when, and 
what to feed. It will pay as well to feed bees as to 
feed our domestic animals— cows, sheep, etc., or 
manure plants, or any crop the farmer cultivates, 
to stimulate growth and increase the product and 
consequent profit of the same. There are other 
points in my management of bees which are often 
misrepresented, but I have not the time or space 
to go over them in detail. Sufiice it to say, I am 
ready to stand by my statements at all times; and 
in all my business transactions I intend to be 
guided by the golden rule; viz., Do by others as I 
wish others to do by me. Mrs. L. E. Cotton. 

West Gorham, Me., Feb. 14. 1887. 

But, my good friend, you do not directly 
reply to that part of your chapter on feed- 
ing, where you state that, if sugar syrup is 
stored in the surplus-receptacles, no one can 
tell it from white-clover honey. Do you 
not think it would be well to change or 
modify this clause ? The point you make, 
that a much larger yield of clover honey 
will be obtained by feeding the bees clear 
up to the comb-biiilding point, is, without 



question, a big item ; but let us remember 
the charges that have been brought against 
us, of feeding sugar and glucose, and selling 
it as real honey. 



HOW TO FEED BEES IN A CELLAR. 



A FEW SERVICEABLE AND TIMELY HINTS FOR THE 
NOVICE. 



fU those who have weak colonies in the cellar 
' that need more bees or hotiey or both, I will 
say that they can be built up now just as well 
as when on their summer stands; and there 
will be no trouble about quarreling, or bees 
returning to the hive from which they are taken. 
Spread the combs of the weak colony, leaving a 
space in the center of the cluster of bees for one 
comb. Then go to any colony that has plenty of 
bees and honey, and get the outside comb that has 
bees iipnyi it. You may look it over to see that the 
queen is not upon it, if you wish; but there is not 
one chance in fifty of the queen being on these out- 
side combs, in the winter season. Place this comb 
of bees and honey in the center of the weak colony 
and they will cluster together, and all will be well. 
You may give them another comb in a day or two, 
if thought best, or two can be given at one time In 
the same manner. Many th^nk that bees should 
not be disturbed in any manner when in the cellar; 
but there will no harm come to them by perform- 
ing any needful operation with them in the cellar, 
as they will soon resume their former quiet after 
being disturbed. Bees will only occasionally take 
wing while being handled in the cellar, especially 
if the light is kept back and not allowed to shine 
directly upon them. But they have a disagreeable 
way of crawling about over the combs and upon 
the hands of the person working with them. It is 
better, of course, to build up or unite weak colo- 
nies in the fall, though many of us will neglect It 
then, and severe weather finds us with weak colo- 
nies, perhaps with valuable queens which we wish 
to winter over, while there are other colonies that 
were not "tinkered" with to introduce these 
queens, that have bees and honey to spare. And 
it is better to equalize them, as nearly as possible, 
in the cellar, than to leave these weak colonies to 
be strengthened after being placed on their sum- 
mer stands. These little weak colonies, when 
fussed with In cool weather in April, are inclined 
to swarm out, and we see our little colony in the 
air with a valuable queen which perhaps we do not 
care to lose. They also have a provoking way of 
attempting to join some strong colony in a box 
hive, with crooked combs and "old black" queen, 
which we intended to transfer and Italianize in 
May, and, of course, are all slaughtered, leaving 
the novice with the empty combs and hives, to buy 
queens and try his band at Italianizing again anoth- 
er year. L. C. Clark. 
Granada, Kan., Feb. 1, 1887. 
Friend C, I know that bees can be fed in 
the way you mention, at times ; and at other 
times (at least so it has seemed to me) the 
same directions do not seem to answer at 
all. The bees get on a stampede and fly all 
over the cellar, and do every thing they 
ought not to do. M:iy be with some experi- 
ence, however, 1 might manage better, for 
it was among my earlier experiences that 
I tried to feed bees iu the cellar. I think, 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUBE. 



179 



also, there is more danger of getting the 
queen on your comb than you seem to rec- 
ognize. Where the cellar is moderately 
warm, the queen will sometimes be found 
clear on the outside combs. 



FUNCTION OF SALIVA. 



PROF. COOK TALKS SCIENCE TO US SOMEWHAT. 



TT will be remembered, that in my criticism of 
1^ Mr. Cheshire's admirable book I .said it was 
^t strange that he spoke of saliva as the digestive 
-*■ liquid of starch. Mr. C. also speaks of the 
lacteal system as the exclusive absorbent sys- 
tem, whereas it is well known that the portal sys- 
tem of blood-vessels absorbs nearly all of the di- 
gested food except the eraubsifled fats. I do not 
refer to this to condemn the book, for I think it a 
most valuable addition to our bee-literature— in- 
deed, the most complete work ever written. No 
one person can know every thinp:; and to make a 
few errors, only shows the author to be human. 

In Gleanings, p. 644, 1886, Mr. Cornell says I 
probably follow Dalton in denying that the "princi- 
pal oflBce " of saliva is to digest the starch. Now, 
Mr. Editor, 1 do not hold this opinion because Dal- 
ton does. I really believe nearly every physiolo- 
gist now thinks the pancreatic juice the chief 
agent in changing starch into sugar, and that the 
principal function of saliva is mechanical. Huxley, 
in last Ed. Physiology, says: "The conversion of 
starch into sugar, which seems to be whollj' or par- 
tially suspended in the stomach " (surely there 
was little time for change in the mouth) " is re- 
sumed the pancreatic and intestinal juices 

operating powerfully in this direction." That sali- 
va will change hydrated or cooked starch to sugar, 
no one doubts: that it does do it to any e.vtent, 1 
have not the least idea. Foster, our latest and best 
English authority, says, p. 242, that by the pancreat- 
ic Juice the starch is changed into sugar; though 
most English authors, and Foster with the rest, 
argue that saliva may do a part of this work. Now 
for my reasons: 

1. Saliva digests only cooked starch. Most ani- 
mals do not have their starch cooked, and yet their 
salivary glands are as large as are ours, and they 
secrete as much saliva. All physiologists agree, 
that in dogs this is no part of the function of sali- 
va, yet dogs secrete much saliva. Again, all physi- 
ologists know that the change which commences in 
the mouth stops in the stomach, and commences 
again only as the food comes in contact with the 
pancreatic juice. We all know how active the 
absorbent vessels of the stomach are. It is proba- 
ble that the saliva is all absorbed in the stomach, 
and that little if any goes into the intestines where 
the starch is digested. Again, we all know how 
necessary saliva is in mastication. The great 
Barnard proved this by his grand experiments. 
Try to eat crackers when very thirsty. We can 
hardly do it. The blood lacks water, and the sali- 
vary glands can not secrete enough saliva to 
moisten the crackers. The old " rice ordeal " of 
India was a scientific test. The supposed criminal 
was asked to eat dry rice; if he could eat it quickly 
he was adjudged innocent; if not, guilty. It is 
well known, that anxiety stops secretion. The 
guilty man feared, knowing his guilt. His spittle 
was shut off, and he could not eat the rice. The 



Innocent man had a clear conscience; his glandular 
machinery worked well, and ho could easily masti- 
cate and swallow the dry food. 

But the most conclusive tests may be easily 
tried by Mr. Cornell or any other person. By 
macerating the salivary glands, stomach, and pan- 
creas, separatelv, we can secure, by use of glycer- 
ine, the several ferments— ptyaline, of the saliva; 
pepsine, of the gastric juice, and the ferments of 
the pancreatic juice. Now, if we put the first in a 
test tube with cooked starch at 100° F., it com- 
mences quickly, but not very energetically, to 
change the starch to sugar. But as soon as we 
add the pepsine, the stomach ferment, acidulated 
by either hydro-chloric or lactic acid, this stops. 
Here we imitate nature exactly. But when we 
add the pancreatic juice to the starch it acts quick- 
ly and powerfully to transform it to sugar. 

Agricultural College, Mich. A. J. CooK. 



VINEGAR FROM HONEY. 



SOME VALUABLE FACTS FROM FRIEND MUTH. 



fRIEND ROOT:— Having seen, in Gleanings, 
an article on honey vinegar, I shall e.xpress 
you a sample of ours; and if you ever saw a 
better article, let us know it, please. We have 
been making honey vinegar for the last four 
years, and find a ready sale for it. It eclipses the 
best vine vinegar for all purposes for which vine- 
gar is used. Below I will give my modus operandi: 
When making vinegar, one must know that water 
will turn into vinegar providing it contains the nec- 
essary quantity of sugar stuff, and is exposed to 
fresh air and a warm temperature. The warmer 
the temperature and the better the circulation of 
air, the sooner vinegar forms. A barrel is laid 
down, and an inch hole is bored in the upper end of 
each head, near the upper stave. This adm.its of a 
good air-passage over the body of the honey water. 
Tins with fine perforations nailed over these holes, 
with the rough side outward, exclude flies and 
skippers. Take about 1-lb. of honey to 1 gallon of 
water, thoroughly mixed up, and nail a perforated 
tin on the bung-hole. We take 3;) to 40 lbs. of honey 
for a barrel containing 40 to 4.5 gallons of water. 
The warmest place in the yard is the best place for 
the barrel. If the sun shines on the barrel all day, 
it requires from the beginning of April to the end 
of October to make vinegar satisfactory for all pur- 
poses. If not sour enough by fall, it will be all 
right by Christmas or spring, if placed in the cellar 
or a warm room. 

No vinegar should be exposed to frost before the 
sour fermentation is complete, as such would turn 
the sour into a foul fermentation, and the vinegar 
be lost. We made last summer, on our bee-roof, 
10 bbls. of honey vinegar like the sample I send you. 
The retail price is SS^ic per gallon, which gives us a 
better profit than the production of honey, as you 
will see. Chas. F. Muth. 

Cincinnati. Ohio, Feb. .5, 1887. 

The samples of vinegar received are, to my 
notion, the finest I ever tasted. The honey 
flavor is quite perceptible, and is st) pleasant 
to the taste 1 poured a lablespoonful in a 
glass of water and had a real refreshing tart 
summer drink. I do Tiot know wiiy it would 
not make a good .substitute for lemonade. 
With such a price as you mention, friend 



180 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



M., there is no trouble in making it pay; 
but in our market, 20 or 2o cts. seems to Ije 
about all anybody wants to pay for vinegar, 
even a I re I ail. 



BTIE LEGISLATION. 

•I'Hi'; co.ncia:din(J chapter on the subject, aft- 
er WHICH FRIEND MILLER STEPS DOWN 
AND OUT. 



TKrOW. Mrs. Harrison! T didn't tliink that of 
Iwl you. I tliought that, instead of joining- 
'"liM in with the crowd, your kindly nature 
■*-'^'r would incline you to take up the side of the 
weak. Your article on page .53 speaks, like 
otiiers, of priority of location, a thing which I have 
repeatedly said has no part in the question given 
to the committee of the N. A. B. K. society. You 
speak in your opening sentence of "such a covet- 
ous, selfish s))irit manifested among bee-keepers as 
to favor legislation that would depi-ive any one, 
so disposed, of the pleasure of keeping bees. They 
must be looking," etc. Don't worry, my dear 
sister; there's no " they " in the case. There isn't 
a living' soul among them, except myself, who has 
said he wanted any such legislation, and I am sure 
I shall never petition tor legislation alone. Neith- 
er do I, the only covetous and selfish one in the 
whole lot, want any legislation that will deprive 
any one of tiie pleasure of keeping bees, anj' more 
than T would deprive them of the pleasui"e of 
farming. I would have the two callings on the 
same footing. I quite believe, my good friend, 
what you say, that you have no desire to hinder 
those about you from deriving pleasure from bee- 
keeping. But now let me put the matter in a little 
different shape. 

Suppose this old man of whom you speak, " too 
feeble to do heavy farmwork," has 100 colonies of 
bees, iiis sole means of support, and these 100 col- 
onies fully stock the pasturage within reach, 
would he desire, or would you desire for him, that a 
new man should come and plant another 100 colo- 
nies within 40 rods of his apiary? Would he want 
him to come with !>W would he with 10? And yet, 
as matters now stand, he could do nothing to pre- 
vent it. 

CLASS LEGISLATION. 

Several, like W. W. Maltby, on page 66, object to 
class legislation. What is class legislation? As 
I have always understood it, it is legislating in 
favor of a cei-tain class as against one or more 
other classes. For instance, I knew a law in an 
Eastern State making it a criminal offense for a 
party other than a railroad official to sell part or 
the whole of an unused railroad ticket. Here was 
class legislation in favor of the class of railroads 
and against the class of travelers. I think you can 
hardly have class legislation without having at 
least two classes— for and against whom discrimi- 
nation is made. But in the case of the desired bee- 
legislation, ayainst whom is the discrimination? 
No one except bee-keepers cares a fig who occupies 
a bee-range, only so that the nectar be gathered at 
the least e.vpense and sold at the lowest price. 
The man who owns an acre of ground or a thou- 
sand acres, but is not a bee-keeper, cares nothing 
about whose bees forage upon his land; only if he 
is intelligent he will be anxious that gomehody's 
bees shall be there in sufficient number to benefit 
his growing crops. So as no class is legislated 



against, I can not see how it can be called claws leg- 
islation. 

So, Brother Maltby, 
If you can earn your salt by 
Keeping bees in skeps. 
Don't take any steps 
To hinder legislation 
In this here nation. 

And now, good friends, a word inclosing. I sup- 
pose you are tired of this controversy, and I am 
sure I am. Controversy is not at all to my taste, 
and in the present case I have the uncomfortable 
feeling that, by advancing my views, I have lower- 
ed myself in the esteem of those whose good opin- 
ion I highly value. lUit those views seemed to me 
in accordance with right and truth, and the great- 
est good to the greatest number. They still seem 
so. Here is the broad field covered with nectar in 
which none but bee-keepers are directly iiiierested, 
and it seems to me better that each one should 
purchase and own his own field, moving together 
harmoniously, than to have struggles and dissen- 
sions, at a loss to all concerned, thereby keeping 
some out of the field by the uncertainty of the 
business. Time alone will tell whether I am a 
wild schemer or simply a little ahead of the times. 
I confess to entire error of judgment in one re- 
spect, for I thought the mass of bee-keepers would 
be with me as to the desirability of legislation, 
whatever might be thought of its feasiljility. To 
my great surprise, all seem to have the opposite 
views: and as matters now stand, it seems that val- 
uable space has been wasted in the discussion; and 
yet, in some way, good is always apt to come from 
an honest ettort to get at the truth. 1 am very 
grateful to Mr. Root for the space allowed mo, and 
for his evident desire to let me have fair play, and 
will now get back to other subjects where I shall 
not feel so lonesome. C. C. MiLiiER. 

Marengo, 111. 



FOUL BKOOD. 



.•VKE WE TO BLAME IP IT APPEARS IN OUR -VFI.V.- 
RIES ? 



fRIEND ROOT:— In your comments on my ar- 
ticle on page 4it, you say that a bee-keeper 
has no business having foul brood in his api- 
ary, and so need not calculate on it. Perhaps 
not. Perhaps, too, he has no business having 
sickness in his family, and so need not calculate on 
ever needing a doctor, or having to use remedial 
measures. Some things, sometimes, may be pre- 
vented; other things, at other times, must be en- 
dured—or cured. Nobody should sit down with fold- 
ed hands, and allow misfortune to overwhelm him, 
without an effort to prevent it; but nobody can pre- 
vent misfoi'tune from overtaking him. To a large 
extent we have our fate in our own hands; but to a 
still greater extent we are at the mercy of circum- 
stances, and subject to an overruling power. 

If you meant to say that a bee-keeper has no busi- 
ness to allow foul brood to remain in his apiary, 
perhaps 1 can agree with you. You may mean to 
say, that foul brood originates only through some 
fault or negligence on the part of the bee-keeper. 
It may be so; I can not believe it. Pond<'r the mat- 
ter as I may, I have never been able lo see how any 
act or neglect of mine was instrumentnl iti bringing 
the disease into my apiary, and I confess I have not 
the least idea what caused it. At the time it started. 
It seemed to me that it must have been caused by 



1887 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE. 



181 



the brood becoming' chilled; but I do not believe it 
possible tor the disease to oritrinsite that way. So 
far as loan see, there is not a hee-keeper in the 
land, especially if his ai)iary is within bee- tii.ifht, 
or, perhaps, within half bee-liisht. of where there is 
or has been foul brood, that is not liable to have his 
bees attacked. 

As to the Heddon hive, I readily admit that, under 
other circumstances —say in a <iifferent locality, 
with a different race or strain of bees, a different 
season, or a different system of manajicnient, I 
might have found my brood-chambers full of brood 
and empty of honey at the close of the honey-tiow. 
1 should have said of the screws, too, that I boiled 
a number in paraftine, and that these worked better 
than the others, though it is not a week since I twist- 
ed the head of one of these into splinters in trying- 
to unscrew it, using- flat pliers to twist with. Your 
sug-g-estion of galvanized screws is a good one. 

1, too, can say amen most heartily to the growing 
interest in outdoor sports, not only for children, 
,but among people of all ages. Tobogganing is one 
of the most healthful of the popular-amusement 
crazes; and if 1 had ever had any objections to it 1 
think they would have vanished with my first slide, 
which was before 1 had written the article in ques- 
tion. You see, I write from experience. 

Dayton, 111., Jan. 3.5, 18sT. .1. A. Green. 

Thanks for the correction, friend G. 
When I said a bee-lteeper has no business 
having foul brood, 1 meant, of course, hav- 
ing it remain ; and I do think, tliat, if he 
has his eyes about him. as lie ouglit to have, 
he should get notice of it at the very outset. 
My apiarisi; admitted that lie knew of its 
existence a week or two before lie called our 
attention to the matter at all. Now. had we 
commenced at the very first glimpse of it. I 
feel quite sure it might have been stopped 
before it got into more than one colony, for 
we would have promptly burned up every 
comb in the hive at tlie outset ; and [ would 
do this, even if I found something that look- 
ed even suspicions. 



BUMBLE-BEES. 

PROF. COOK TELLS US A OOOD DEAL .\BOUT THESE 
FRIENDS OF OUHS. 

fOUR request, dear Mr. Editor, in Jan. 1st 
Gleanings, that 1 give the biology, or life- 
history, of our good friends the bumble (or 
humble) bees was not overlooked, but until 
now not a moment could 1 spare to speak a 
good word for these little philanthropists, whose 
kind offices are hardly appreciated. 

It has been no uncommon thing for our students 
to keep hives of these bees. Frank IJenton had sev- 
eral colonies on our college lawn when he was here 
as a student. My little Bertie has often had hives 
of bumble-bees on our back-chamber porch, and has 
enjoj'ed watching them nud studying their habits, 
very greatly. Mr. Editor, would it not be a wise re- 
form to encourage our childrL-ii to look on insects, 
frogs, etc., with interest and adiiiirati(>n, and not 
with abhorrence? I believe T am doing my children 
a substantial benefit in encouraging them to study 
insects, birds, and even bumblebees. I speiu all of 
lastweek in lecturing beiorethe Wisconsin Farmers' 
Institutes, and I urged everywhere that parents en- 
courage their children to rear insects and watch 



their wonderful transformations. How easy this is ! 
The child has but to put a cabbage caterpillar, the 
so-called "cabbage worm," under a common glass 
tumbler, with a little of its lood-plant, and all the 
life-changes can be easily watched. What an easy 
way to awaken the interest and inquiry of our chil- 
dren, and to keep them from the street-corner, the 
saloon, and the jail ! 

The only bumble-bee that lives over the winter, in 
our northern latitudes, at least, is the queen. Bee- 
keepers are not surprised at this. The apiarist (jften 
finds his bees all dead but a handful in spring, and 
among the survivors he Is almost sure to find the 
queen. Oeciisionally she is the only bee that sur- 
vives a long juL:riie.\ . 8o. too, with bumble-bees, 
the queen possesses the ma.ximum of vital force and 
endurance. I do not know whether the old bumble- 
bee queens that have done duty the previous season 
live over winter or not. Very likely some of them 
may. However this may be, the young ones cer- 
tainly do. 

In spring these large queens commence opera- 
tions. As the workers have all succumbed to the 
rigors of winter, we can easily understand why we 
see so few bumble-bees in early spring, and whj- 
those that work so merrily upon the lilacs, dressed 
in their shining robes of yellow and black, are all so 
large. The (jueen finds an old mouse-nest, or some 
other conv^enient miniature cave under stone, 
board, or clod, and there stores a mass of pollen on 
which she lays her eggs. The larv.e develop much 
as do the immature hive-bees. Whenready to trans- 
form to pup-.e, they coat their cells as do the hive- 
bees, with aglne-like fluid which serves as a close 
cocoon. These cells serve afterward as honey-cells; 
and though big and clumsj', even more so than are 
the queen-cells of the honey-bee, yet in truth they 
are really much like thera ; that is, they are strength- 
ened with wax exteriorly, and lined with a glue-like 
cocoon interiorly. This style of a cocoon is well 
shown in melting wax by use of the solar wax-ex- 
tractor, as with the honey-bee's coct>on it contains 
very little silk, but is largely composed of a harden- 
ed glue-like substance such as lines the cocoons of 
most moths. 

Soon the queen has several companions, the work- 
ers, which now do the outside labor, so that the 
queen remains mostly at the nest. In July the 
queens and drones begin to appear. Some of the 
older writers tell of two kinds of workers in the 
bumble-bees' nests— the large and small. It is like- 
ly that their large workers were these young 
queens. The drones are longer than the workers, 
and smaller than the queens. SVe often see these 
drones in late summer. As a boy, I called them 
stingless bees. No wonder. In August the bees 
pair. I once saw a drone and queen bumble-bee 
in coijuhi. They fell in the path before me, and the 
queen pulled away from the carcass of the drone, 
which surely had sacrificed its life in the perform- 
ance of its duty. These young queens are the 
survivors of winter, and are the perpetuators of 
tlie s|)ecies. The bumble-bees do not swarm, so 
that byjul.\-and August the nests are large and 
populous, and so the red clover, wliifh depends for 
the most part upon bumble-bees to insure its fer- 
tilizMtidU and seeding, is fairly swarming with 
these valuable assistants of the farmer, upon 
which he de|>en<is for the seeding of one of his 
most valuable field crops. 

Darwin was the first to show by elaborate ex- 



182 



GLEANINGS IK BEE CULTURE. 



Mar. 



periments that clover is dependent upon bumble- 
bees for full fertilization and fruitag-e. Dr. Beal, 
my colleague here at college, has experimented 
for years in the same line. He finds that clover 
covered with gauze vvill seed onl3' partially, unless 
bumble-bees are caught and put inside the gauze. 
In this last case, the bumble-bees work upon the 
flowers, and a full yield of seed is secured. Dr. 
Beal has suggested to me that I experiment to 
learn how the queen bumble-bees may all be pre- 
served through even our most severe winters, that 
our farmers may secure each year the fullest ben- 
efit from their valuable labors Could we have 
bumble-bees early in the season, the first crop of 
our red clover would seed as abundantly as does 
that of white and alsike clover. These latter do 
not depend upon the bumble-bees, but attract and 
are fructified by the more numerous hive-bees, 
which swarm out in force, even in the early spring. 
Agricultural College, Mich. A. J. Cook. 

But, friend C, don't the Italian bees, at 
least in a great measure, take the place of 
bumble-bees in fertilizing red clover? It 
seems to me that I find a great many more 
Italians on red clover than I do of bumble- 
bees ; but peihaps they do not do the work 
as effectually. Is that why you speak of en- 
couraging their propagation? Although you 
do not say so directly, I infer there is a kind 
of bumble-bee abroad in the fall of the year, 
that does not sting. If one could learn to 
tell which are drones and which are workers, 
by sight, we could tell when to run and 
when not to run. I presume, however, the 
drones would never show fight. 



SEPARATORS. 



FKIKNU HEDDON ON VARIOUS MATTERS. 



fRTEND KOOT:— As I have many topics to 
write about, and you like short communica- 
tions, I see no other way than to leave out 
the whys and wherefores and ask your read- 
ers to take my word for it when I give you 
the results of my experiments. 

I have used both wood and tin separators, of va- 
rious widths, for over ten years, and with sections 
whose tops and bottoms are ]s thick, and whose 
bottoms are % narrower than the sides (and I great- 
ly prefer this % dift'erence). I have found separa- 
tors 3 !4 inches wide just a